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Punctuation (formerly sometimes called pointing) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and the correct reading, both silently and aloud, of handwritten and printed texts. Encyclopædia Britannica: "Punctuation. Another description is: "The practice, action, or system of inserting points or other small marks into texts, in order to aid interpretation; division of text into sentences, clauses, etc., by means of such marks." Oxford English Dictionary, definition 2a.

In written English, punctuation is vital to disambiguate the meaning of sentences. For example: "woman, without her man, is nothing" (emphasizing the importance of men), and "woman: without her, man is nothing" (emphasizing the importance of women) have very different meanings; as do "eats shoots and leaves" (which means the subject consumes plant growths) and "eats, shoots, and leaves" (which means the subject eats first, then fires a weapon, and then leaves the scene). (2003). . Profile Books. . The sharp differences in meaning are produced by the simple differences in punctuation within the example pairs, especially the latter.

The rules of punctuation vary with language, location, register and and are constantly evolving. Certain aspects of punctuation are stylistic and are thus the (or ) choice, or language forms, such as those used in and .


History
The first writing systems were either or example, and do not necessarily require punctuation, especially spacing. This is because the entire or word is typically clustered within a single glyph, so spacing does not help as much to distinguish where one word ends and the other starts. Disambiguation and emphasis can easily be communicated without punctuation by employing a separate written form distinct from the spoken form of the language that uses slightly different phraseology. Even today, written English differs subtly from spoken English because not all emphasis and disambiguation is possible to convey in print, even with punctuation.

Ancient Chinese classical texts were transmitted without punctuation. However, many Warring States period bamboo texts contain the symbols and indicating the end of a chapter and full stop, respectively.林清源,《簡牘帛書標題格式研究》台北: 藝文印書館,2006。(Lin Qingyuan, Study of Title Formatting in Bamboo and Silk Texts Taipei: Yiwen Publishing, 2006.) . By the , addition of punctuation to texts by scholars to aid comprehension became common.The History of the Song Dynasty (1346) states 「凡所讀書,無不加標點。」 (Among those who read texts, there are none who do not add punctuation).

The earliest writing had no , no spaces, no vowels and few punctuation marks. This worked as long as the subject matter was restricted to a limited range of topics (e.g., writing used for recording business transactions). Punctuation is historically an aid to reading aloud.

The oldest known document using punctuation is the (9th century BC). This employs points between the words and horizontal strokes between the sense section as punctuation.


Western Antiquity
Most texts were still written in scriptura continua, that is without any separation between words. However, the were sporadically using punctuation marks consisting of vertically arranged dots—usually two (dicolon) or three (tricolon)—in around the 5th century b.c. as an aid in the oral delivery of texts. Greek playwrights such as and used symbols to distinguish the ends of phrases in written : this essentially helped the play's cast to know when to pause. After 200 b.c., the Greeks used Aristophanes of Byzantium's system (called théseis) of a single dot ( punctus) placed at varying heights to mark up speeches at rhetorical divisions:
  • hypostigmḗ – a low punctus on the baseline to mark off a komma (unit smaller than a );
  • stigmḕ mésē – a punctus at midheight to mark off a clause ( kōlon); and
  • stigmḕ teleía – a high punctus to mark off a sentence ( periodos).E. Otha Wingo, Latin Punctuation in the Classical Age (The Hague, Netherlands: De Gruyter, 1972), 22.
In addition, the Greeks used the (or ) to mark the beginning of sentences, marginal diples to mark quotations, and a koronis to indicate the end of major sections.

The ( ca. 1st century b.c.) also occasionally used symbols to indicate pauses, but the Greek théseis—under the name distinctionesThe Latin names for the marks: subdistinctio, media distinctio, and distinctio.—prevailed by the a.d. 4th century as reported by and Isidore of Seville (7th century). Also, texts were sometimes laid out per capitula, where every sentence had its own separate line. Diples were used, but by the late period these often degenerated into comma-shaped marks.


Medieval
Punctuation developed dramatically when large numbers of copies of the started to be produced. These were designed to be read aloud, so the began to introduce a range of marks to aid the reader, including indentation, various punctuation marks (diple, , simplex ductus), and an early version of initial capitals ( litterae notabiliores). and his colleagues, who made a translation of the Bible into , the ( ca. a.d. 400), employed a layout system based on established practices for teaching the speeches of and . Under his layout per cola et commata every sense-unit was indented and given its own line. This layout was solely used for biblical manuscripts during the 5th-9th centuries but was abandoned in favor of punctuation.

In the 7th-8th centuries and scribes, whose were not derived from , added more visual cues to render texts more intelligible. Irish scribes introduced the practice of word separation.M.B. Parkes, “The Contribution of Insular Scribes of the Seventh and Eighth Centuries to the ‘Grammar of Legibility’,” in Scribes, Scripts and Readers: Studies in the Communication, Presentation and Dissemination of Medieval Texts (London, 1991), 1–18. Likewise, insular scribes adopted the distinctiones system while adapting it for minuscule script (so as to be more prominent) by using not differing height but rather a differing number of marks—aligned horizontally (or sometimes triangularly)—to signify a pause's value: one mark for a minor pause, two for a medium one, and three for a major. Most common were the punctus, a comma-shaped mark, and a 7-shaped mark ( comma positura), often used in combination. The same marks could be used in the margin to mark off quotations.

In the late 8th century a different system emerged in under the Carolingian dynasty. Originally indicating how the voice should be when chanting the , the positurae migrated into any text meant to be read aloud, and then to all manuscripts. Positurae first reached in the late 10th century probably during the Benedictine reform movement, but was not adopted until after the Norman conquest. The original positurae were the punctus, punctus elevatus, punctus versus, and punctus interrogativus, but a fifth symbol, the punctus flexus, was added in the 10th century to indicate a pause of a value between the punctus and punctus elevatus. In the late 11th/early 12th century the punctus versus disappeared and was taken over by the simple punctus (now with two distinct values).Raymond Clemens & Timothy Graham, Introduction to Manuscript Studies (Ithaca–London: Cornell UP, 2007), 84–6.

The late Middle Ages saw the addition of the virgula suspensiva (slash or slash with a midpoint dot) which was often used in conjunction with the punctus for different types of pauses. Direct quotations were marked with marginal diples, as in Antiquity, but from at least the 12th century scribes also began entering diples (sometimes double) within the column of text.


Later developments
The amount of printed material and its readership began to increase after the invention of moveable type in Europe in the 1450s. As explained by writer and editor , "The rise of printing in the 14th and 15th centuries meant that a standard system of punctuation was urgently required."
(2017). 9781592400874, Gotham Books.
The introduction of a standard system of punctuation has also been attributed to the Venetian printers and his grandson. They have been credited with popularizing the practice of ending sentences with the colon or , inventing the , making occasional use of parentheses and creating the modern comma by lowering the virgule. By 1566, Aldus Manutius the Younger was able to state that the main object of punctuation was the clarification of .
(2017). 9781592400874, Gotham Books.

By the 19th century, punctuation in the western world had evolved "to classify the marks hierarchically, in terms of weight".

(2017). 9781592400874, Gotham Books.
Cecil Hartley's poem identifies their relative values:

The stop point out, with truth, the time of pause
A sentence doth require at ev'ry clause.
At ev'ry comma, stop while one you count;
At semicolon, two is the amount;
A colon doth require the time of three;
The period four, as learned men agree.
(2017). 9781592400874, Gotham Books.

The use of punctuation was not standardised until after the invention of printing. According to the 1885 edition of The American Printer, the importance of punctuation was noted in various sayings by children such as:

Charles the First walked and talked
Half an hour after his head was cut off.

With a semi-colon and a comma added it reads:

Charles the First walked and talked;
Half an hour after, his head was cut off.Iona and Peter Opie (1943) I Saw Esau.

In a 19th-century manual of typography, Thomas MacKellar writes:


Punctuation of English
There are two major styles of punctuation in English: British or American. These two styles differ mainly in the way in which they handle quotation marks, particularly in conjunction with other punctuation marks. In British English, punctuation such as periods and commas are placed outside the closing quotation mark; in American English, however, punctuation is placed inside the closing quotation mark. This rule varies for other punctuation marks; for example, American English follows the British English rule when it comes to semicolons, colons, question marks, and exclamation points.


Other languages
Other languages of Europe use much the same punctuation as English. The similarity is so strong that the few variations may confuse a native English reader. are particularly variable across European languages. For example, in and , quotes would appear as: « Je suis fatigué. » (in French, each "double punctuation", as the , requires a non-breaking space; in Russian it does not).

In , the question mark is written as the English semicolon, while the functions of the colon and semicolon are performed by a raised point (·), known as the ano teleia (άνω τελεία).

In Georgian, three dots, , were formerly used as a sentence or paragraph divider. It is still sometimes used in calligraphy.

uses an inverted question mark (¿) at the beginning of a question and the normal question mark at the end, as well as an inverted exclamation mark (¡) at the beginning of an exclamation and the normal exclamation mark at the end.

Armenian uses several punctuation marks of its own. The full stop is represented by a colon, and vice versa; the exclamation mark is represented by a diagonal similar to a tilde (~), while the question mark (՞) resembles an unclosed circle placed after the last vowel of the word.

, , and —written from right to left—use a reversed question mark: ؟, and a reversed comma: ، . This is a modern innovation; pre-modern Arabic did not use punctuation. , which is also written from right to left, uses the same characters as in English, "," and "?" .

Originally, had no punctuation. In the 17th century, Sanskrit and , both written using , started using the vertical bar ( ) to end a line of prose and double vertical bars ( ) in verse.

Punctuation was not used in , Japanese, and writing until the adoption of punctuation from the West in the late 19th and early 20th century. In unpunctuated texts, the grammatical structure of sentences in classical writing is inferred from context. Most punctuation marks in modern Chinese, Japanese, and Korean have similar functions to their English counterparts; however, they often look different and have different customary rules.

In the Indian subcontinent, :- is sometimes used in place of colon or after a subheading. Its origin is unclear, but could be a remnant of the . Another punctuation common in the Indian Subcontinent for writing money amounts is the use of /- or /= after the number. For example, Rs. 20/- or Rs. 20/= implies 20 rupees whole.

Further information: Armenian punctuation, Chinese punctuation, Hebrew punctuation, Japanese punctuation and Korean punctuation.


Novel punctuation marks

"Love point" and similar marks
In 1966, the French author Hervé Bazin proposed a series of six innovative punctuation marks in his book Plumons l'Oiseau ("Let's pluck the bird", 1966). These were: Revised preliminary proposal to encode six punctuation characters introduced by Hervé Bazin in the UCS by Mykyta Yevstifeyev and Karl Pentzlin, Feb. 28, 2012
  • the "irony point“ or "irony mark" (point d'ironie: ψ)
  • the "love point" (point d'amour: )
  • the "certitude point" (point de conviction: )
  • the "authority point" (point d'autorité: )
  • the "acclamation point" (point d'acclamation: )
  • the "doubt point" (point de doute: )


"Question comma", "exclamation comma"
An international patent application was filed, and published in 1992 under number WO9219458, European Patent Office publication for two new punctuation marks: the "question comma" and the "exclamation comma". The question comma has a comma instead of the dot at the bottom of a question mark, while the exclamation comma has a comma in place of the point at the bottom of an exclamation mark. These were intended for use as question and exclamation marks within a sentence, a function for which normal question and exclamation marks can also be used, but which may be considered obsolescent. The patent application entered into the national phase only in Canada. It was advertised as lapsing in Australia on 27 January 1994Australian Official Journal of Patents, 27 January 1994 and in Canada on 6 November 1995. CIPO – Patent – 2102803 – Financial Transactions


In computing
Various sets of characters are referred to as "punctuation" in certain computing situations, many of which are also used to punctuate natural languages. Sometimes non-punctuation in the natural language sense (such as "&" which is not punctuation but is an abbreviation for "and") are included.

General Punctuation and Supplemental Punctuation are block of .

In regular expressions, the character class [:punct:] is defined to consist of the following characters (when operating in mode): [][!"#$%&'()*+,./:;<=>?@\^_`{|}~-]


See also
  • James while John had had had had had had had had had had had a better effect on the teacher, a word puzzle in which proper punctuation must be added to give the sentence meaning
  • , the practice of annotating manuscripts with marks set in the margins
  • , the category of written conventions that includes punctuation as well as spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, and emphasis
  • Scribal abbreviations, abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin
  • Terminal punctuation
  • , a system of shorthand that consisted of about 4,000 signs

Notes

Further reading


External links

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