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Spain (España ), officially the Kingdom of Spain Https://www.britannica.com/place/Spain< /ref> (links=no), is a country mostly located in . Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two : the off the coast of Africa, and the in the Mediterranean Sea. The African of , , and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (). Several small islands in the are also part of Spanish territory. is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with ; to the north and northeast by , , and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by and the Atlantic Ocean.

With an area of , Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is ; other major urban areas include , , , Málaga and .

first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. cultures along with ancient , , and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named , based on the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania. At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the , and . Eventually, the would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was then documented as .

In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion. Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the ,

(2019). 9788496840140, Áltera.
which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs.

In the early modern period, Spain became the and , leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes +570 million /ref> making the world's second-most spoken native language, after . During the Golden Age there were also many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez. The most famous Spanish literary work, , was also published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of World Heritage Sites.

Spain is a parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the (UN), the (EU), the , the Council of Europe (CoE), the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the , the World Trade Organization (WTO) and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a member of the group.


Etymology
The origins of the Roman name , from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most widely accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one. Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses:

The scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the word , meaning "city of the western world".

Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged".#Linch, John (director), Fernández Castro, María Cruz (del segundo tomo), Historia de España, El País, volumen II, La península Ibérica en época prerromana, p. 40. Dossier. La etimología de España; ¿tierra de conejos?, It may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean; Roman coins struck in the region from the reign of show a female figure with a rabbit at her feet, and called it the "land of the rabbits". The word in question (compare modern Hebrew Shafan) actually means "", possibly due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals.

Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" ( Hesperia, Ἑσπερία in ) and Spain, being still further west, as Hesperia ultima.

There is the claim that "Hispania" derives from the word Ezpanna meaning "edge" or "border", another reference to the fact that the Iberian Peninsula constitutes the southwest corner of the European continent.

Two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. Phiros was a by birth, but who had been given a kingdom in Spain. Phiros became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of España (Spain) took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c. 350 BCE.Abrabanel, Commentary on the First Prophets ( Pirush Al Nevi'im Rishonim), end of II Kings, pp. 680–681, Jerusalem 1955 (Hebrew). See also Shelomo (also spelled Sholomo, Solomon or Salomón) ibn Verga, Shevet Yehudah, pp. 6b–7a, Lemberg 1846 (Hebrew)


History
Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the , and . Early on its coastal areas were settled by who founded Western Europe's most ancient cities and . Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theatre of the against the expanding . After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule. During the early Middle Ages it came under Gothic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Muslim invaders from North Africa. In a process that took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. The last Muslim state fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas. A global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries.

Continued wars and other problems eventually led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire and left the country politically unstable. Prior to the Second World War, Spain suffered a devastating civil war and came under the rule of an authoritarian government, which oversaw a period of stagnation that was followed by a surge in the growth of the economy. Eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth until the beginning of the 21st century, that started a new globalised world with economic and ecological challenges.


Prehistory and pre-Roman peoples
Archaeological research at Atapuerca indicates the Iberian Peninsula was populated by 1.2 million years ago. In Atapuerca fossils have been found of the earliest known in Europe, the . Modern humans first arrived in Iberia, from the north on foot, about 35,000 years ago.Typical items were found in Cantabria (Morín, El Pendo, El Castillo), the Basque Country (Santimamiñe) and Catalonia. The radiocarbon datations give the following dates: 32,425 and 29,515 BP. [ The best known artefacts of these prehistoric human settlements are the famous paintings in the Altamira cave of Cantabria in northern Iberia, which were created from 35,600 to 13,500 BCE by . Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that the Iberian Peninsula acted as one of several major refugia from which northern Europe was repopulated following the end of the last ice age.

The largest groups inhabiting the Iberian Peninsula before the Roman conquest were the and the . The Iberians inhabited the Mediterranean side of the peninsula, from the northeast to the southeast. The Celts inhabited much of the inner and Atlantic sides of the peninsula, from the northwest to the southwest. occupied the western area of the Pyrenees mountain range and adjacent areas, the Phoenician-influenced culture flourished in the southwest and the and occupied areas in the central west. A number of cities were founded along the coast by , and trading outposts and colonies were established by in the East. Eventually, Phoenician- expanded inland towards the meseta, however due to the bellicose inland tribes the Carthaginians got settled in the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula.


Roman Hispania and the Visigothic Kingdom
During the Second Punic War, roughly between 210 and 205 BC the expanding captured Carthaginian trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast. Although it took the Romans nearly two centuries to complete the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, they retained control of it for over six centuries. Roman rule was bound together by law, language, and the .

The cultures of the Celtic and Iberian populations were gradually Romanised (Latinised) at different rates depending on what part of they lived in, with local leaders being admitted into the Roman aristocratic class. Hispania served as a granary for the Roman market, and its harbours exported gold, , , and wine. Agricultural production increased with the introduction of irrigation projects, some of which remain in use. Emperors , , , and the philosopher Seneca were born in Hispania. Christianity was introduced into Hispania in the 1st century AD and it became popular in the cities in the 2nd century AD. Most of Spain's present languages and religion, and the basis of its laws, originate from this period.

The weakening of the Western Roman Empire's jurisdiction in Hispania began in 409, when the and , together with the entered the peninsula at the invitation of a Roman usurper. These tribes had crossed the in early 407 and ravaged . The Suebi established a kingdom in what is today modern Galicia and northern whereas the Vandals established themselves in southern Spain by 420 before crossing over to North Africa in 429 and taking Carthage in 439. As the western empire disintegrated, the social and economic base became greatly simplified: but even in modified form, the successor regimes maintained many of the institutions and laws of the late empire, including Christianity and assimilation to the evolving Roman culture.

The established an occidental province, , in the south, with the intention of reviving Roman rule throughout Iberia. Eventually, however, Hispania was reunited under Visigothic rule. These , or Western Goths, after sacking Rome under the leadership of (410), turned towards the Iberian Peninsula, with for their leader, and occupied the northeastern portion. extended his rule over most of the peninsula, keeping the Suebians shut up in Galicia. took part, with the Romans and Franks, in the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, where was routed. (466), who put an end to the last remnants of Roman power in the peninsula, may be considered the first monarch of Spain, though the Suebians still maintained their independence in Galicia. Euric was also the first king to give written laws to the Visigoths. In the following reigns the Catholic kings of France assumed the role of protectors of the Hispano-Roman Catholics against the Arianism of the Visigoths, and in the wars which ensued and lost their lives.

, having risen against King , called in the Byzantines and, in payment for the succour they gave him, ceded to them the maritime places of the southeast (554). restored the political unity of the peninsula, subduing the Suebians, but the religious divisions of the country, reaching even the royal family, brought on a civil war. St. Hermengild, the king's son, putting himself at the head of the Catholics, was defeated and taken prisoner, and suffered martyrdom for rejecting communion with the Arians. , son of Liuvigild and brother of St. Hermengild, added religious unity to the political unity achieved by his father, accepting the Catholic faith in the Third Council of Toledo (589). The religious unity established by this council was the basis of that fusion of Goths with Hispano-Romans which produced the Spanish nation. and completed the expulsion of the Byzantines from Spain.

Intermarriage between Visigoths and Hispano-Romans was prohibited, though in practice it could not be entirely prevented and was eventually legalised by Liuvigild.

(2019). 9781107717640, Cambridge University Press.
The Spanish-Gothic scholars such as Braulio of Zaragoza and Isidore of Seville played an important role in keeping the classical Greek and Roman culture. Isidore was one of the most influential clerics and philosophers in the in Europe, and his theories were also vital to the conversion of the Visigothic Kingdom from an domain to a Catholic one in the Councils of Toledo. Isidore created the first western which had a huge impact during the Middle Ages.
(2019). 9788430618873, Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial España. .


Muslim era and Reconquista
In the 8th century, nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered (711–718) by largely armies from North Africa. These conquests were part of the expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate. Only a small area in the mountainous north-west of the peninsula managed to resist the initial invasion. Legend has it that Count Julian, the governor of Ceuta, in revenge for the violation of his daughter, Florinda, by King , invited the Muslims and opened to them the gates of the peninsula.

Under , Christians and were given the subordinate status of . This status permitted Christians and Jews to practice their religions as People of the Book but they were required to pay a special tax and had legal and social rights inferior to those of Muslims.

(1984). 9780691008073, Princeton University Press.

Conversion to proceeded at an increasing pace. The (Muslims of ethnic Iberian origin) are believed to have formed the majority of the population of Al-Andalus by the end of the 10th century. Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages. Chapter 5: Ethnic Relations, Thomas F. Glick

The Muslim community in the Iberian Peninsula was itself diverse and beset by social tensions. The of North Africa, who had provided the bulk of the invading armies, from the Middle East. Over time, large Moorish populations became established, especially in the Guadalquivir River valley, the coastal plain of Valencia, the valley and (towards the end of this period) in the mountainous region of .

Córdoba, the capital of the caliphate since Abd-ar-Rahman III, was the largest, richest and most sophisticated city in western Europe. Mediterranean trade and cultural exchange flourished. Muslims imported a rich intellectual tradition from the Middle East and North Africa. Some important philosophers at the time were , and . The Romanised cultures of the Iberian Peninsula interacted with Muslim and Jewish cultures in complex ways, giving the region a distinctive culture. Outside the cities, where the vast majority lived, the land ownership system from Roman times remained largely intact as Muslim leaders rarely dispossessed landowners and the introduction of new crops and techniques led to an expansion of agriculture introducing new produces which originally came from Asia or the former territories of the .

(2019). 9788497349529, Esfera de los Libros.

In the 11th century, the Muslim holdings fractured into rival states (Arab, Berber, and Slav), allowing the small Christian states the opportunity to greatly enlarge their territories. The arrival from North Africa of the Islamic ruling sects of the and the restored unity upon the Muslim holdings, with a stricter, less tolerant application of Islam, and saw a revival in Muslim fortunes. This re-united Islamic state experienced more than a century of successes that partially reversed Christian gains. The (Reconquest) was the centuries-long period in which Christian rule was re-established over the Iberian Peninsula. The Reconquista is viewed as beginning with the Battle of Covadonga won by Don Pelayo in 722 and was concurrent with the period of Muslim rule on the Iberian Peninsula. The Christian army's victory over Muslim forces led to the creation of the Christian Kingdom of Asturias along the northwestern coastal mountains. Shortly after, in 739, Muslim forces were driven from Galicia, which was to eventually host one of medieval Europe's holiest sites, Santiago de Compostela and was incorporated into the new Christian kingdom. The Kingdom of León was the strongest Christian kingdom for centuries. In 1188 the first modern parliamentary session in Europe was held in León (Cortes of León). The Kingdom of Castile, formed from Leonese territory, was its successor as strongest kingdom. The kings and the nobility fought for power and influence in this period. The example of the Roman emperors influenced the political objective of the Crown, while the nobles benefited from .

Muslim armies had also moved north of the Pyrenees but they were defeated by Frankish forces at the Battle of Poitiers, and pushed out of the very southernmost region of France along the seacoast by the 760s. Later, forces established on the southern side of the Pyrenees. These areas were to grow into the kingdoms of Navarre and Aragon. For several centuries, the fluctuating frontier between the Muslim and Christian controlled areas of Iberia was along the and valleys.

The County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon entered in a dynastic union and gained territory and power in the Mediterranean. In 1229 was conquered, so was in 1238. The break-up of into the competing taifa kingdoms helped the long embattled Iberian Christian kingdoms gain the initiative. The capture of the strategically central city of Toledo in 1085 marked a significant shift in the balance of power in favour of the Christian kingdoms. Following a great Muslim resurgence in the 12th century, the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Christian Spain in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and in 1248. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the dynasty of Morocco invaded and established some enclaves on the southern coast but failed in their attempt to re-establish North African rule in Iberia and were soon driven out. After 800 years of Muslim presence in Spain, the last sultanate of , a tributary state would finally surrender in 1492 to the Catholic monarchs Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. From the mid 13th century, literature and philosophy started to flourish again in the Christian peninsular kingdoms, based on Roman and Gothic traditions. An important philosopher from this time is . was a prominent Jewish cartographer. and its institutions were the model for the legislators. The king Alfonso X of Castile focused on strengthening this Roman and Gothic past, and also on linking the Iberian Christian kingdoms with the rest of medieval European Christendom. Alfonso worked for being elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and published the code. The Toledo School of Translators is the name that commonly describes the group of scholars who worked together in the city of Toledo during the 12th and 13th centuries, to translate many of the philosophical and scientific works from , , and .

The Islamic transmission of the classics is the main Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe. The language—more commonly known (especially later in history and at present) as "Spanish" after becoming the national language and of Spain—evolved from , as did other Romance languages of Spain like the , and Galician languages, as well as other Romance languages in Latin Europe. , the only non-Romance language in Spain, continued evolving from Early Basque to Medieval. The Glosas Emilianenses founded in the monasteries of San Millán de la Cogolla contain the first written words in both Basque and Spanish, having the first become an influence in the formation of the second as an evolution of Latin.

The 13th century also witnessed the Crown of Aragon, centred in Spain's north east, expand its reach across islands in the Mediterranean, to and Naples. Around this time the universities of Palencia (1212/1263) and Salamanca (1218/1254) were established. The of 1348 and 1349 devastated Spain.

The Catalans and Aragonese offered themselves to the Byzantine Emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus to fight the Turks. Having conquered these, they turned their arms against the Byzantines, who treacherously slew their leaders; but for this treachery the Spaniards, under Bernard of Rocafort and Berenguer of Entenca, exacted the terrible penalty celebrated in history as "The Catalan Vengeance" and moreover seized the Duchy of Athens (1311). The royal line of Aragon became extinct with Martin the Humane, and the Compromise of Caspe gave the Crown to the dynasty of Castile, thus preparing the final union.

Anti-Semitic animus accompanied the Reconquista. There were mass killings in Aragon in the mid-14th century, and 12,000 Jews were killed in Toledo. In 1391, Christian mobs went from town to town throughout Castile and Aragon, killing an estimated 50,000 Jews. Women and children were sold as slaves to Muslims, and many synagogues were converted into churches. According to , about 70 Jewish communities were destroyed.

(2019). 9781107164512, Cambridge University Press.
St. Vincent Ferrer converted innumerable Jews, among them the Rabbi Josuah Halorqui, who took the name of Jerónimo de Santa Fe and in his town converted many of his former coreligionists in the famous Disputation of Tortosa (1413–14).


Spanish Empire
In 1469, the crowns of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were united by the marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. 1478 commenced the completion of the conquest of the and in 1492, the combined forces of Castile and Aragon captured the Emirate of Granada from its last ruler Muhammad XII, ending the last remnant of a 781-year presence of Islamic rule in Iberia. That same year, Spain's Jews were to or face from Spanish territories during the Spanish Inquisition. As many as 200,000 Jews were expelled from Spain.
9780753457849
This was followed by expulsions in 1493 in Aragonese Sicily and Portugal in 1497. The Treaty of Granada guaranteed religious tolerance towards Muslims, for a few years before Islam was outlawed in 1502 in the Kingdom of Castile and 1527 in the Kingdom of Aragon, leading to Spain's Muslim population becoming nominally Christian Moriscos. A few decades after the Morisco rebellion of Granada known as the War of the Alpujarras, a significant proportion of Spain's formerly-Muslim population was expelled, settling primarily in North Africa. From 1609–14, over 300,000 Moriscos were sent on ships to North Africa and other locations, and, of this figure, around 50,000 died resisting the expulsion, and 60,000 died on the journey.
(2019). 9781527512290, Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

The year 1492 also marked the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the , during a voyage funded by Isabella. Columbus's first voyage crossed the Atlantic and reached the Caribbean Islands, beginning the European exploration and conquest of the Americas, although Columbus remained convinced that he had reached the . Large numbers of indigenous Americans died in battle against the Spaniards during the conquest,

(2019). 9781610694223, ABC-CLIO.
while others died from various other causes. Some scholars consider the initial period of the Spanish conquest— from Columbus's first landing in the Bahamas until the middle of the sixteenth century—as marking the most egregious case of in the history of mankind. The death toll may have reached some 70 million indigenous people (out of 80 million) in this period.

The colonisation of the Americas started with like Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro. was the rule between the native and the Spanish cultures and people. Juan Sebastian Elcano completed the first voyage around the world in human history, the Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation. Florida was colonised by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés when he founded St. Augustine, Florida and then defeated an attempt led by the French Captain to establish a French foothold in territory. St. Augustine became a strategic defensive base for Spanish ships full of gold and silver sailing to Spain. Andrés de Urdaneta discovered the or return route from the Philippines to Mexico, making possible the trading route. The Spanish once again encountered Islam, but this time in and in order to incorporate the , Spanish expeditions organised from newly Christianised had the Philippine territories of the Sultanate of Brunei. The Spanish considered the war with the Muslims of Brunei and the Philippines, a repeat of the .Reviving the Reconquista in Southeast Asia: Moros and the Making of the Philippines, 1565–1662 By: Ethan P. Hawkley The Spanish explorer intervened in 's succession and installed Crown Prince Barom Reachea II as puppet.

(1981). 9780333241639, Macmillan Press. .

As , Isabella and Ferdinand centralised royal power at the expense of local nobility, and the word España, whose root is the ancient name Hispania, began to be commonly used to designate the whole of the two kingdoms. With their wide-ranging political, legal, religious and military reforms, Spain emerged as the first world power. The death of their son Prince John caused the Crown to pass to Charles I (the Emperor Charles V), son of Juana la Loca.

The unification of the crowns of Aragon and Castile by the marriage of their sovereigns laid the basis for modern Spain and the Spanish Empire, although each kingdom of Spain remained a separate country socially, politically, legally, and in currency and language.

(1994). 9789004097605, Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial España. .

There were two big revolts against the new Habsburg monarch and the more authoritarian and imperial-style crown: Revolt of the Comuneros in Castile and Revolt of the Brotherhoods in and . After years of combat, Comuneros Juan López de Padilla, and Francisco Maldonado were executed and María Pacheco went into exile. Germana de Foix also finished with the revolt in the Mediterranean.

was Europe's leading power throughout the 16th century and most of the 17th century, a position reinforced by trade and wealth from colonial possessions and became the world's leading . It reached its apogee during the reigns of the first two Spanish Habsburgs—Charles I (1516–1556) and Philip II (1556–1598). This period saw the , the , the , the War of the Portuguese Succession, clashes with the , intervention in the French Wars of Religion and the Anglo-Spanish War.

Through exploration and conquest or royal marriage alliances and inheritance, the expanded to include vast areas in the Americas, islands in the Asia-Pacific area, areas of Italy, cities in Northern Africa, as well as parts of what are now France, Germany, , , and the . The first circumnavigation of the world was carried out in 1519–1521. It was the first empire on which it was said that the sun never set. This was an Age of Discovery, with daring explorations by sea and by land, the opening-up of new across oceans, conquests and the beginnings of European . Spanish explorers brought back , spices, luxuries, and previously unknown plants, and played a leading part in transforming the European understanding of the globe.

(2019). 9780297645634, George Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
The cultural efflorescence witnessed during this period is now referred to as the Spanish Golden Age. The expansion of the empire caused immense upheaval in the Americas as the collapse of societies and empires and new diseases from Europe devastated American indigenous populations. The rise of , the Counter-Reformation and new geographical discoveries and conquests raised issues that were addressed by the intellectual movement now known as the School of Salamanca, which developed the first modern theories of what are now known as international law and human rights. Juan Luis Vives was another prominent humanist during this period.

Spain's 16th century maritime supremacy was demonstrated by the victory over the Ottomans at Lepanto in 1571, and then after the setback of the in 1588, in a series of victories against in the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604. However, during the middle decades of the 17th century Spain's maritime power went into a long decline with mounting defeats against the and then England; that by the 1660s it was struggling grimly to defend its overseas possessions from pirates and privateers.

The Protestant Reformation dragged the kingdom ever more deeply into the mire of religiously charged wars. The result was a country forced into ever expanding military efforts across Europe and in the Mediterranean. By the middle decades of a war- and plague-ridden 17th-century Europe, the Spanish Habsburgs had enmeshed the country in continent-wide religious-political conflicts. These conflicts drained it of resources and undermined the economy generally. Spain managed to hold on to most of the scattered , and help the imperial forces of the Holy Roman Empire reverse a large part of the advances made by Protestant forces, but it was finally forced to recognise the separation of Portugal and the United Provinces, and eventually suffered some serious military reverses to France in the latter stages of the immensely destructive, Europe-wide Thirty Years' War. In the latter half of the 17th century, Spain went into a gradual decline, during which it surrendered several small territories to France and England; however, it maintained and enlarged its vast overseas empire, which remained intact until the beginning of the 19th century.

The decline culminated in a controversy over succession to the throne which consumed the first years of the 18th century. The War of the Spanish Succession was a wide-ranging international conflict combined with a civil war, and was to cost the kingdom its European possessions and its position as one of the leading powers on the Continent. During this war, a new dynasty originating in France, the Bourbons, was installed. Long united only by the Crown, a true Spanish state was established when the first Bourbon king, Philip V, united the crowns of Castile and Aragon into a single state, abolishing many of the old regional privileges and laws.

The 18th century saw a gradual recovery and an increase in prosperity through much of the empire. The new Bourbon monarchy drew on the French system of modernising the administration and the economy. Enlightenment ideas began to gain ground among some of the kingdom's elite and monarchy. created formal disciplined militias across the Atlantic. Spain needed every hand it could take during the seemingly endless wars of the eighteenth century—the Spanish War of Succession or Queen Anne's War (1702–13), the War of Jenkins' Ear (1739–42) which became the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48), the Seven Years' War (1756–63) and the Anglo-Spanish War (1779–83)—and its new disciplined militias served around the Atlantic as needed.


Liberalism, labour movement and nation state
In 1793, Spain went to war against the revolutionary new French Republic as a member of the first Coalition. The subsequent War of the Pyrenees polarised the country in a reaction against the elites and following defeat in the field, peace was made with France in 1795 at the Peace of Basel in which Spain lost control over two-thirds of the island of . The Prime Minister, Manuel Godoy, then ensured that Spain allied herself with France in the brief War of the Third Coalition which ended with the British naval victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. In 1807, a secret treaty between Napoleon and the unpopular prime minister led to a new declaration of war against Britain and Portugal. Napoleon's troops entered the country to invade Portugal but instead occupied Spain's major fortresses. The Spanish king abdicated in favour of Napoleon's brother, .

Joseph Bonaparte was seen as a and was regarded with scorn by the Spanish. The 2 May 1808 revolt was one of many nationalist uprisings across the country against the Bonapartist regime.David A. Bell. " Napoleon's Total War". TheHistoryNet.com These revolts marked the beginning of a devastating against the Napoleonic regime.(Gates 2001, p.20) The most celebrated battles of this war were those of Bruch, in the highlands of Montserrat, in which the Catalan peasantry routed a French army; Bailén, where Castaños, at the head of the army of Andalusia, defeated Dupont; and the sieges of Zaragoza and Girona, which were worthy of the ancient Spaniards of Saguntum and Numantia.

Napoleon was forced to intervene personally, defeating several Spanish armies and forcing a British army to retreat. However, further military action by Spanish armies, and Wellington's British-Portuguese forces, combined with Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia, led to the ousting of the French imperial armies from Spain in 1814, and the return of King Ferdinand VII.(Gates 2001, p.467)

During the war, in 1810, a revolutionary body, the Cortes of Cádiz, was assembled to co-ordinate the effort against the Bonapartist regime and to prepare a constitution.

(2019). 9788470903663, . .
Cortes of Cádiz (1812) was the first parliament of Spain with sovereign power It met as one body, and its members represented the entire Spanish empire. [3] citation: "It met as one body, and its members represented the entire Spanish world" In 1812, a constitution for universal representation under a constitutional monarchy was declared, but after the fall of the Bonapartist regime, dismissed the and was determined to rule as an absolute monarch. These events foreshadowed the conflict between conservatives and liberals in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

Spain's conquest by France benefited Latin American anti-colonialists who resented the Imperial Spanish government's policies that favoured Spanish-born citizens () over those born overseas () and demanded retroversion of the sovereignty to the people. Starting in 1809 Spain's American colonies began a series of revolutions and declared independence, leading to the Spanish American wars of independence that ended Spanish control over its mainland colonies in the Americas. King Ferdinand VII's attempt to re-assert control proved futile as he faced opposition not only in the colonies but also in Spain and army revolts followed, led by liberal officers. By the end of 1826, the only American colonies Spain held were and .

The Napoleonic War left Spain economically ruined, deeply divided and politically unstable. In the 1830s and 1840s Anti-liberal forces known as fought against liberals in the . Liberal forces won, but the conflict between progressive and conservative liberals ended in a weak early constitutional period. After the Glorious Revolution of 1868 and the short-lived First Spanish Republic, a more stable monarchic period began characterised by the practice of turnismo (the rotation of government control between progressive and conservative liberals within the Spanish government).

In the late 19th century nationalist movements arose in the Philippines and Cuba. In 1895 and 1896 the Cuban War of Independence and the Philippine Revolution broke out and eventually the United States became involved. The Spanish–American War was fought in the spring of 1898 and resulted in Spain losing the last of its once vast colonial empire outside of North Africa. El Desastre (the Disaster), as the war became known in Spain, gave added impetus to the Generation of '98 who were conducting an analysis of the country.

Although the period around the turn of the century was one of increasing prosperity, the 20th century brought little peace; Spain played a minor part in the scramble for Africa, with the colonisation of , and Equatorial Guinea. It remained neutral during World War I (see Spain in World War I). The heavy losses suffered during the Rif War in Morocco brought discredit to the government and undermined the monarchy.


Second Spanish Republic
After a period of authoritarian rule under General Miguel Primo de Rivera (1923–1931), the king determined to seek a solution to the political situation and establish the Constitution, the king led the municipal elections on 12 April 1931. These gave a resounding victory to the Republican-Socialist candidacies in large cities and provincial capitals, while the total number of councillors was mostly monarchical. The organised demonstrations demanding the establishment of a democratic republic led the king to leave the country and the proclamation of the same on 14 April of that same year. During the Second Republic there was a great political and social upheaval, marked by a sharp radicalisation of the left and the right. The moderate leaders were boycotted and each party intended to create a Spain to suit them. During the first two years, governed a coalition of republican and socialist parties. In the elections held in 1933 the right triumphed and in 1936, the left. The violent acts during this period included the burning of churches, the , the Revolution of 1934 and numerous attacks against rival political leaders. On the other hand, it is also during the Second Republic when important reforms are initiated to modernise the country – democratic constitution, agrarian reform, restructuring of the army, first Statutes of Autonomy ... – and the rights of citizens as the recognition of women's right to vote, establishing universal suffrage.

On 17 July and 18, 1936, revolted against the government of the Republic, the military garrisons of the Spanish North Africa, coup d'état that triumphs only in part country. Spain was divided into two zones: one under the authority of the Republican government — in which the social revolution of 1936 – and other controlled by the insurgents took place. The situation led to a Civil War, in which the general was sworn in as the supreme leader of the insurgents.


Spanish Civil War and Francoist Spain
The Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936. For three years the Nationalist forces led by General and supported by and Fascist Italy fought the Republican side, which was supported by the Soviet Union, Mexico and International Brigades but it was not supported by the Western powers due to the British-led policy of . The civil war was viciously fought and there were many atrocities committed by all sides. The war claimed the lives of over 500,000 people and caused the flight of up to a half-million citizens from the country. Spanish Civil War fighters look back, BBC News, 23 February 2003 In 1939, General Franco emerged victorious and became a dictator.

The was nominally neutral in the Second World War, although sympathetic to . The only legal party under Franco's post civil war regime was the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS, formed in 1937; the party emphasised , a form of fascism that emphasised , nationalism and Roman Catholicism. Given Franco's opposition to competing political parties, the party was renamed the National Movement ( Movimiento Nacional) in 1949.

After World War II Spain was politically and economically isolated, and was kept out of the United Nations. This changed in 1955, during the period, when it became strategically important for the US to establish a military presence on the Iberian Peninsula as a counter to any possible move by the Soviet Union into the Mediterranean basin. In the 1960s, Spain registered an which was propelled by industrialisation, a mass internal migration from rural areas to , and the Basque Country and the creation of a mass tourism industry. Franco's rule was also characterised by totalitarianism, promotion of a unitary national identity, the favouring of a very conservative form of Roman Catholicism known as National Catholicism, and discriminatory language policies.


Restoration of democracy
In 1962, a group of politicians involved in the opposition to Franco's regime inside the country and in exile met in the congress of the European Movement in Munich, where they made a resolution in favour of democracy.

With Franco's death in November 1975, Juan Carlos succeeded to the position of King of Spain and head of state in accordance with the franquist law. With the approval of the new Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the restoration of democracy, the State much authority to the regions and created an internal organisation based on autonomous communities. The Spanish 1977 Amnesty Law let people of Franco's regime continue inside institutions without consequences, even perpetrators of some crimes during transition to democracy like the Massacre of 3 March 1976 in Vitoria or 1977 Massacre of Atocha. The 'founding chairman' of the current leading political party in Spain, the People's Party, was Manuel Fraga who had been a minister in Franco's government and yet continued with his political career until shortly before his death in 2012. In the Basque Country, moderate Basque nationalism has coexisted with a led by the armed terrorist organisation ETA. The group was formed in 1959 during Franco's rule but has continued to wage its violent campaign even after the restoration of democracy and the return of a large measure of regional autonomy.

On 23 February 1981, rebel elements among the security forces seized the Cortes in an attempt to impose a military-backed government. King Juan Carlos took personal command of the military and successfully ordered the coup plotters, via national television, to surrender.

During the 1980s the democratic restoration made possible a growing open society. New cultural movements based on freedom appeared, like La Movida Madrileña and a culture of human rights arose with Gregorio Peces-Barba. On 30 May 1982 Spain joined , followed by a referendum after a strong social opposition. That year the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) came to power, the first left-wing government in 43 years. In 1986 Spain joined the European Economic Community, which later became the . The PSOE was replaced in government by the Partido Popular (PP) in 1996 after scandals around participation of the government of Felipe González in the Dirty war against ETA; at that point the PSOE had served almost 14 consecutive years in office.

On 1 January 2002, Spain fully adopted the , and Spain experienced strong economic growth, well above the EU average during the early 2000s. However, well-publicised concerns issued by many economic commentators at the height of the boom warned that extraordinary property prices and a high foreign trade deficit were likely to lead to a painful economic collapse. See also:

In 2002 the Prestige oil spill occurred with big ecological consequences along Spain's Atlantic coastline. In 2003 José María Aznar supported US president George W. Bush in the , and a strong movement against war rose in Spanish society. On 11 March 2004 a local terrorist group inspired by carried out the largest terrorist attack in Spanish history when they killed 191 people and wounded more than 1,800 others by bombing commuter trains in Madrid. See also: Though initial suspicions focused on the Basque terrorist group ETA, evidence soon emerged indicating Islamist involvement. Because of the proximity of the 2004 election, the issue of responsibility quickly became a political controversy, with the main competing parties PP and PSOE exchanging accusations over the handling of the incident. The elections on 14 March were won by the PSOE, led by José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero.

The proportion of Spain's foreign born population increased rapidly during its economic boom in the early 2000s, but then declined due to the financial crisis. In 2005 the Spanish government legalised same sex marriage. Decentralisation was supported with much resistance of Constitutional Court and conservative opposition, so did gender politics like quotas or the law against gender violence. Government talks with ETA happened, and the group announced its permanent cease of violence in 2010.

The bursting of the Spanish property bubble in 2008 led to the 2008–16 Spanish financial crisis and high levels of unemployment, cuts in government spending and corruption in and People's Party served as a backdrop to the 2011–12 Spanish protests. Catalan independentism was also on rise. In 2011, 's conservative People's Party won the election with 44.6% of votes, and Rajoy became the Spanish Prime Minister, after having been the leader of the opposition from 2004 to 2011, and continued to implement austerity measures required by the EU Stability and Growth Pact. On 19 June 2014, the monarch, Juan Carlos, abdicated in favour of his son, who became .

A Catalan independence referendum was held on 1 October 2017 and then, on 27 October, the Catalan parliament voted to unilaterally declare independence from Spain to form a Catalan Republic on the day the Spanish Senate was discussing approving direct rule over Catalonia as called for by the Spanish Prime Minister. Later that day the Senate granted the power to impose direct rule and Mr Rajoy dissolved the Catalan parliament and called a new election. No country recognised Catalonia as a separate state.

On 1 June 2018 the Congress of Deputies passed a motion of no-confidence against Rajoy and replaced him with the PSOE leader Pedro Sanchez, thus bringing socialists back to power after 7 years.


Geography
At , Spain is the world's fifty-second largest country and Europe's fourth largest country. It is some smaller than France and larger than the US state of California. Mount () is the highest mountain peak in Spain and is the third largest volcano in the world from its base. Spain is a transcontinental country, having territory in both and .

Spain lies between latitudes 26° and 44° N, and longitudes 19° W and 5° E.

On the west, Spain is bordered by ; on the south, it is bordered by (a British overseas territory) and , through its in North Africa ( and , and the peninsula of Vélez de la Gomera). On the northeast, along the mountain range, it is bordered by France and the of . Along the Pyrenees in Girona, a small exclave town called Llívia is surrounded by France.

Extending to , the Portugal–Spain border is the longest uninterrupted border within the .Medina García, Eusebio (2006). «Orígenes históricos y ambigüedad de la frontera (La Raya)» . Revista de Estudios Extremeños. Tomo LXII (II Mayo-Agosto). , pp. 713–723.


Islands
Spain also includes the in the Mediterranean Sea, the in the Atlantic Ocean and a number of uninhabited islands on the Mediterranean side of the Strait of Gibraltar, known as plazas de soberanía ("places of sovereignty", or territories under Spanish sovereignty), such as the Chafarinas Islands and Alhucemas. The peninsula of Vélez de la Gomera is also regarded as a plaza de soberanía. The isle of , located in the Mediterranean between Spain and North Africa, is also administered by Spain, specifically by the municipality of Almería, Andalusia. The little in the River is a Spanish-French condominium.

Largest inhabited islands of Spain:

899,833
862,397
838,397
141,938
125,053
103,107
92,434
85,933


Mountains and rivers
Mainland Spain is a country, dominated by high and mountain chains. After the Pyrenees, the main mountain ranges are the Cordillera Cantábrica (Cantabrian Range), Sistema Ibérico (Iberian System), (Central System), Montes de Toledo, and the Sistema Bético (Baetic System) whose highest peak, the Mulhacén, located in Sierra Nevada, is the highest elevation in the Iberian Peninsula. The highest point in Spain is the , a active in the Canary Islands. The (often translated as "Inner Plateau") is a vast plateau in the heart of peninsular Spain.

There are several major rivers in Spain such as the ( Tajo), , , ( Duero), , Júcar, , and ( Miño). are found along the coast, the largest of which is that of the Guadalquivir in .


Climate
Three main climatic zones can be separated, according to geographical situation and conditions: World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification , city-data.com, April 2006.//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/K%C3%B6ppen_World_Map_%28retouched_version%29.png
  • The Mediterranean climate, characterised by warm/hot and dry summers, is dominant in the peninsula. It has two varieties: Csa and Csb according to the Köppen climate classification.
    • The Csa zone is associated to areas with hot summers. It is predominant in the Mediterranean and Southern Atlantic coast and inland throughout , Extremadura and much, if not most, of the centre of the country. The Csa zone covers climatic zones with both relatively warm and cold winters which are considered extremely different to each other at a local level, reason for which Köppen classification is often eschewed within Spain. Local climatic maps generally divide the Mediterranean zone (which covers most of the country) between warm-winter and cold-winter zones, rather than according to summer temperatures.
    • The Csb zone has warm rather than hot summers, and extends to additional cool-winter areas not typically associated with a Mediterranean climate, such as much of central and northern-central of Spain (e.g. western Castile–León, northeastern Castilla-La Mancha and northern Madrid) and into much rainier areas (notably Galicia). Note areas with relatively high rainfall such as Galicia are not considered Mediterranean under local classifications, but classed as oceanic.
  • The semi-arid climate ( BSk, BSh), is predominant in the southeastern quarter of the country, but is also widespread in other areas of Spain. It covers most of the Region of Murcia, southern Valencia and eastern Andalusia, where true hot desert climates also exist. Further to the north, it is predominant in the upper and mid reaches of the valley, which crosses southern , central Aragon and western Catalonia. It also is found in Madrid, Extremadura, Castilla-La Mancha, and some locations of western Andalusia. The dry season extends beyond the summer and average temperature depends on altitude and latitude.
  • The ( Cfb), located in the northern quarter of the country, especially in the Atlantic region (Basque Country, Cantabria, , and partly Galicia and Castile–León). Additionally it is also found in northern Navarre, in most highlands areas along the Iberian System and in the valleys, where a humid subtropical variant ( Cfa) also occurs. Winter and summer temperatures are influenced by the ocean, and have no seasonal drought.

Apart from these main types, other sub-types can be found, like the in areas with very high altitude, the humid subtropical climate in areas of northeastern Spain and the continental climates ( Dfc, Dfb / Dsc, Dsb) in the as well as parts of the Cantabrian Range, the , Sierra Nevada and the Iberian System, and a typical ( BWk, BWh) in the zone of Almería, Murcia and eastern . Low-lying areas of the Canary Islands average above during their coldest month, thus having a .


Fauna and flora
The presents a wide diversity that is due in large part to the geographical position of the Iberian peninsula between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and between Africa and , and the great diversity of habitats and , the result of a considerable variety of climates and well differentiated regions.

The vegetation of Spain is varied due to several factors including the diversity of the relief, the climate and . Spain includes different regions, each with its own floristic characteristics resulting largely from the interaction of climate, topography, soil type and fire, factors.


Politics
According to the of the EIU, Spain is one of the 19 full democracies in the world.

The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. The constitutional history of Spain dates back to the constitution of 1812. Impatient with the slow pace of democratic political reforms in 1976 and 1977, Spain's new King , known for his formidable personality, dismissed Carlos Arias Navarro and appointed the reformer Adolfo Suárez as Prime Minister.John Hooper, The New Spaniards, 2001, From Dictatorship to Democracy Spain's fast-living king turns 70 BBC News Friday, 4 January 2008 Extracted 18 June 2009 The resulting general election in 1977 convened the Constituent Cortes (the Spanish Parliament, in its capacity as a constitutional assembly) for the purpose of drafting and approving the constitution of 1978. After a national referendum on 6 December 1978, 88% of voters approved of the new constitution.

As a result, Spain is now composed of 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities with varying degrees of autonomy thanks to its Constitution, which nevertheless explicitly states the indivisible unity of the Spanish nation. The constitution also specifies that Spain has no state religion and that all are free to practice and believe as they wish.

The Spanish administration approved the Gender Equality Act in 2007 aimed at furthering in Spanish political and economic life. According to Inter-Parliamentary Union data as of Sept 1, 2018, 137 of the 350 members of the Congress were women (39.1%), while in the Senate, there were 101 women out of 266 (39.9%), placing Spain 16th on their list of countries ranked by proportion of women in the (or ) House. The Gender Empowerment Measure of Spain in the United Nations Human Development Report is 0.794, 12th in the world.


Government
Spain is a constitutional monarchy, with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament, the (General Courts).
(2019). 9781440838132, ABC-CLIO. .
The executive branch consists of a Council of Ministers of Spain presided over by the Prime Minister, nominated and appointed by the monarch and confirmed by the Congress of Deputies following legislative elections. By political custom established by King Juan Carlos since the ratification of the 1978 Constitution, the king's nominees have all been from parties who maintain a plurality of seats in the Congress.

The legislative branch is made up of the Congress of Deputies ( Congreso de los Diputados) with 350 members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and a ( Senado) with 259 seats of which 208 are directly elected by popular vote, using a method, and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to also serve four-year terms.

  • Head of State
    • King Felipe VI, since 19 June 2014
  • Head of Government
    • Prime Minister of Spain ( Presidente del Gobierno, literally President of the Government): Pedro Sánchez Pérez-Castejón, elected 1 June 2018.
      • Deputy Prime Minister and Ministry of the Presidency, Relations with the Cortes and Equality: (in office).
  • Cabinet
    • Council of Ministers ( Consejo de Ministros) designated by the Prime Minister.

Spain is organisationally structured as a so-called Estado de las Autonomías ("State of Autonomies"); it is one of the most countries in Europe, along with Switzerland, Germany and Belgium; See also: and and for example, all autonomous communities have their own elected parliaments, governments, public administrations, budgets, and resources. Health and education systems among others are managed by the Spanish communities, and in addition, the Basque Country and Navarre also manage their own public finances based on provisions. In Catalonia, the Basque Country, Navarre and the Canary Islands, a full-fledged autonomous police corps replaces some of the State police functions (see Mossos d'Esquadra, , Policía Foral/Foruzaingoa and Policía Canaria).


Human rights
The Spanish Constitution of 1978 "protect all Spaniards and all the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions".

According to Amnesty International (AI), government investigations of alleged police abuses are often lengthy and punishments were light. Spain 2015/2016 Amnesty International. Retrieved 22 June 2016. Violence against women was a problem, which the Government took steps to address.

Spain provides one of the highest degrees of liberty in the world for its community. Among the countries studied by Pew Research Center in 2013, Spain is rated first in acceptance of homosexuality, with an 88% of society supporting the gay community compared to 11% who do not.


Administrative divisions
The Spanish State is divided into 17 autonomous communities and 2 autonomous cities, both groups being the highest or first-order administrative division in the country. Autonomous communities are divided into provinces, of which there are 50 in total, and in turn, provinces are divided into municipalities. In Catalonia, two additional divisions exist, the comarques (sing. comarca) and the vegueries (sing. vegueria) both of which have administrative powers; comarques being aggregations of municipalities, and the vegueries being aggregations of comarques. The concept of a comarca exists in all autonomous communities, however, unlike Catalonia, these are merely historical or geographical subdivisions.


Autonomous communities
Spain's autonomous communities are the first level administrative divisions of the country. They were created after the current constitution came into effect (in 1978) in recognition of the right to self-government of the " nationalities and regions of Spain".Article 143 of the 1978 Spanish Constitution in reference to Article 2 The autonomous communities were to comprise adjacent provinces with common historical, cultural, and economical traits. This territorial organisation, based on , is literally known in Spain as the "State of Autonomies".

The basic institutional law of each autonomous community is the Statute of Autonomy. The Statutes of Autonomy establish the name of the community according to its historical and contemporary identity, the limits of its territories, the name and organisation of the institutions of government and the rights they enjoy according to the constitution. Chapter 3. Autonomous Communities. 147th Article. Spanish Constitution of 1978. Retrieved 10 December 2007

The governments of all autonomous communities must be based on a division of powers and comprise

  • a legislative assembly whose members must be elected by universal suffrage according to the system of proportional representation and in which all areas that integrate the territory are fairly represented;
  • a government council, with executive and administrative functions headed by a president, elected by the Legislative Assembly and nominated by the King of Spain;
  • a supreme court, under the supreme court of Spain, which heads the judiciary in the autonomous community.

Catalonia, Galicia and the Basque Country, which identified themselves as nationalities, were granted self-government through a rapid process. Andalusia also took that denomination in its first Statute of Autonomy, even though it followed the longer process stipulated in the constitution for the rest of the country. Progressively, other communities in revisions to their Statutes of Autonomy have also taken that denomination in accordance to their historical and modern identities, such as the Valencian Community, the Canary Islands, the Balearic Islands, and Aragon.

The autonomous communities have wide legislative and executive autonomy, with their own parliaments and regional governments. The distribution of powers may be different for every community, as laid out in their Statutes of Autonomy, since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical. Only two communities—the Basque Country and Navarre—have full fiscal autonomy. Aside of fiscal autonomy, the nationalities—Andalusia, the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Galicia—were devolved more powers than the rest of the communities, among them the ability of the regional president to dissolve the parliament and call for elections at any time. In addition, the Basque Country, Catalonia and Navarre have police corps of their own: , Mossos d'Esquadra and the Policía Foral respectively. Other communities have more limited forces or none at all, like the Policía Autónoma Andaluza in or the in Madrid.

Nonetheless, recent amendments to existing Statutes of Autonomy or the promulgation of new Statutes altogether, have reduced the asymmetry between the powers originally granted to the nationalities and the rest of the regions.

Finally, along with the 17 autonomous communities, two autonomous cities are also part of the State of Autonomies and are first-order territorial divisions: and . These are two exclaves located in the northern African coast.


Provinces and municipalities
Autonomous communities are divided into provinces, which served as their territorial building blocks. In turn, provinces are divided into municipalities. The existence of both the provinces and the municipalities is guaranteed and protected by the constitution, not necessarily by the Statutes of Autonomy themselves. Municipalities are granted autonomy to manage their internal affairs, and provinces are the territorial divisions designed to carry out the activities of the State. Articles 140 and 141. Spanish Constitution of 1978

The current provincial division structure is based—with minor changes—on the 1833 territorial division by Javier de Burgos, and in all, the Spanish territory is divided into 50 provinces. The communities of Asturias, Cantabria, La Rioja, the Balearic Islands, Madrid, Murcia and Navarre are the only communities that comprise a single province, which is coextensive with the community itself. In these cases, the administrative institutions of the province are replaced by the governmental institutions of the community.


Foreign relations
After the return of democracy following the death of in 1975, Spain's priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations, enter the , and define security relations with the West.

As a member of since 1982, Spain has established itself as a participant in multilateral international security activities. Spain's EU membership represents an important part of its foreign policy. Even on many international issues beyond western Europe, Spain prefers to co-ordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political co-operation mechanisms.

Spain has maintained its special relations with and the . Its policy emphasizes the concept of an community, essentially the renewal of the concept of "" or "", as it is often referred to in English, which has sought to link the Iberian Peninsula with Hispanic America through language, commerce, history and culture. It is fundamentally "based on shared values and the recovery of democracy."Garcia Cantalapiedra, David, and Ramon Pacheco Pardo, Contemporary Spanish Foreign Policy (Routledge, 2014). Pg. 126

Territorial disputes
Spain claims Gibraltar, a Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom in the southernmost part of the Iberian Peninsula. Then a Spanish town, it was conquered by an Anglo-Dutch force in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of Archduke Charles, pretender to the Spanish throne.

The legal situation concerning Gibraltar was settled in 1713 by the Treaty of Utrecht, in which Spain ceded the territory in perpetuity to the British Crown stating that, should the British abandon this post, it would be offered to Spain first. Since the 1940s Spain has called for the return of Gibraltar. The overwhelming majority of strongly oppose this, along with any proposal of shared sovereignty. UN resolutions call on the United Kingdom and Spain, both EU members, to reach an agreement over the status of Gibraltar.

The Spanish claim makes a distinction between the isthmus that connects the Rock to the Spanish mainland on the one hand, and the Rock and city of Gibraltar on the other. While the Rock and city were ceded by the Treaty of Utrecht, Spain asserts that the "occupation of the isthmus is illegal and against the principles of International Law". The United Kingdom relies on de facto arguments of possession by prescription in relation to the isthmus,

(2019). 9780415347952, Routledge. .
as there has been "continuous possession of over a long period".

Another claim by Spain is about the , part of . In clash with the Portuguese position, Spain claims that they are rocks rather than islands, and therefore Spain does not accept any extension of the Portuguese Exclusive Economic Zone (200 nautical miles) generated by the islands, while acknowledging the Selvagens having territorial waters (12 nautical miles). On 5 July 2013, Spain sent a letter to the UN expressing these views. "Spain disputes Portugal islands" The Portugal News. Retrieved 9 September 2013.

Spain claims the sovereignty over the , a small, uninhabited rocky located in the South shore of the Strait of Gibraltar. The island lies just off the coast of Morocco, from and from mainland Spain. Its sovereignty is disputed between Spain and Morocco. It was the subject of an armed incident between the two countries in 2002. The incident ended when both countries agreed to return to the status quo ante which existed prior to the Moroccan occupation of the island. The islet is now deserted and without any sign of sovereignty.

Besides the Perejil Island, the Spanish-held territories claimed by other countries are two: Morocco claims the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla and the plazas de soberanía islets off the northern coast of Africa. Portugal does not recognise Spain's sovereignty over the territory of which was annexed by Spain in 1801 after the War of the Oranges. Portugal stance has been the territory being de iure Portuguese territory and de facto Spanish.


Military
The armed forces of Spain are known as the Spanish Armed Forces ( Fuerzas Armadas Españolas). Their Commander-in-chief is the King of Spain, Felipe VI.

The Spanish Armed Forces are divided into three branches:


Ecology
Since 1996, CO2 emissions have risen notably, not reaching the reduction emissions promised in the for fighting . In the period 1880–2000 more than half of the years have been qualified as dry or very dry. Spain is the country in Europe more exposed to climate change effects, according to .

Electricity from renewable sources in Spain represented 42.8% of electricity demand coverage during 2014. The country has a very large wind power capability built up over many years and is one of the world leaders in wind power generation. Spain also positioned itself as a European leader in Solar power, by 2007–2010 the country was second only to Germany in installed capacity.

was awarded with the European Green Capital in 2012 after implementining good practices by the Agenda 21 and recovering wetland, protected by Ramsar Convention and Natura 2000 and a part of Green Belt of Vitoria-Gasteiz, funded partially with The LIFE Programme.


Economy
Spain's capitalist is the 14th largest worldwide and the 5th largest in the , as well as the 's 4th largest.

The centre-right government of former prime minister José María Aznar worked successfully to gain admission to the group of countries launching the in 1999. Unemployment stood at 17.1% in June 2017, below Spain's early 1990s unemployment rate of at over 20%. The youth unemployment rate (35% in March 2018) is extremely high compared to EU standards. Perennial weak points of Spain's economy include a large ,Roberto A. Ferdman, Spain's Black Market Economy Is Worth 20% of Its GDP: One million Spanish people have jobs in the underground economy , The Atlantic (16 July 2013)Angel Alañón & M. Gómez-Antonio, Estimating, Applies Economics, Vol 37, Issue 9, pp. 1011–1025 (2005). and an education system which OECD reports place among the poorest for developed countries, together with the United States and UK. By the mid-1990s the economy had recommenced the growth that had been disrupted by the global recession of the early 1990s. The strong economic growth helped the government to reduce the government debt as a percentage of GDP and Spain's high unemployment rate began to steadily decline. With the government budget in balance and inflation under control Spain was admitted into the Eurozone in 1999.

Since the 1990s some Spanish companies have gained multinational status, often expanding their activities in culturally close Latin America. Spain is the second biggest foreign investor there, after the United States. Spanish companies have also expanded into Asia, especially China and India. This early global expansion is a competitive advantage over its competitors and European neighbours. The reason for this early expansion is the booming interest towards Spanish language and culture in Asia and Africa and a corporate culture that learned to take risks in unstable markets. Spanish companies invested in fields like renewable energy commercialisation ( was the world's largest renewable energy operator), technology companies like Telefónica, , Mondragon Corporation (which is the world's largest worker-owned cooperative), , , , train manufacturers like CAF, , global corporations such as the textile company , petroleum companies like or and infrastructure, with six of the ten biggest international construction firms specialising in transport being Spanish, like , , , OHL and FCC.

In 2005 the Economist Intelligence Unit's quality of life survey placed Spain among the top 10 in the world. In 2013 the same survey (now called the "Where-to-be-born index"), ranked Spain 28th in the world.

In 2010, the Basque city of was awarded with the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize, and its mayor at the time, Iñaki Azkuna, was awarded the Prize in 2012. The Basque capital city of received the European Green Capital Award in 2012.


Automotive industry
The automotive industry is one of the largest employers in the country. In 2015 Spain was the 8th largest automobile producer country in the world and the 2nd largest car manufacturer in Europe after Germany. Car Makers Pour Money Into Spain | WSJ

By 2016, the automotive industry was generating 8.7 percent of Spain's gross domestic product, employing about nine percent of the manufacturing industry. By 2008 the automobile industry was the 2nd most exported industry while in 2015 about 80% of the total production was for export.

German companies poured €4.8 billion into Spain in 2015, making the country the second-largest destination for German foreign direct investment behind only the U.S. The lion’s share of that investment —€4 billion— went to the country’s auto industry.


Agriculture
Crop areas were farmed in two highly diverse manners. Areas relying on non-irrigated cultivation ( secano), which made up 85% of the entire crop area, depended solely on rainfall as a source of water. They included the humid regions of the north and the northwest, as well as vast arid zones that had not been irrigated. The much more productive regions devoted to irrigated cultivation ( regadío) accounted for 3 million hectares in 1986, and the government hoped that this area would eventually double, as it already had doubled since 1950. Particularly noteworthy was the development in Almería—one of the most arid and desolate provinces of Spain—of winter crops of various fruits and vegetables for export to Europe.

Though only about 17% of Spain's cultivated land was irrigated, it was estimated to be the source of between 40–45% of the gross value of crop production and of 50% of the value of agricultural exports. More than half of the irrigated area was planted in , , and vegetables. Other agricultural products that benefited from irrigation included grapes, cotton, , potatoes, , , mangos, , tomatoes, and grasses. Depending on the nature of the crop, it was possible to harvest two successive crops in the same year on about 10% of the country's irrigated land.

, vegetables, , , and wine—Spain's traditional agricultural products—continued to be important in the 1980s. In 1983 they represented 12%, 12%, 8%, 6%, and 4%, respectively, of the country's agricultural production. Because of the changed diet of an increasingly affluent population, there was a notable increase in the consumption of livestock, poultry, and . Meat production for domestic consumption became the single most important agricultural activity, accounting for 30% of all farm-related production in 1983. Increased attention to livestock was the reason that Spain became a net importer of grains. Ideal growing conditions, combined with proximity to important north European markets, made citrus fruits Spain's leading export. Fresh vegetables and fruits produced through intensive irrigation farming also became important export commodities, as did sunflower seed oil that was produced to compete with the more expensive olive oils in oversupply throughout the Mediterranean countries of the European Community.


Tourism
In 2017, Spain was the second most visited country in the world, recording 82 million tourists which marked the fifth consecutive year of record-beating numbers. The headquarters of the World Tourism Organization are located in Madrid.

Spain's geographic location, popular coastlines, diverse landscapes, historical legacy, vibrant culture, and excellent infrastructure has made the country's international tourist industry among the largest in the world. In the last five decades, international tourism in Spain has grown to become the second largest in the world in terms of spending, worth approximately 40 billion Euros or about 5% of GDP in 2006.

Castile and Leon is the Spanish leader in linked to its environmental and architectural heritage.


Energy
Spain is one of the world's leading countries in the development and production of renewable energy. In 2010 Spain became the solar power world leader when it overtook the United States with a massive power station plant called , near . Spain is also Europe's main producer of wind energy. In 2010 its wind turbines generated 42,976 GWh, which accounted for 16.4% of all electrical energy produced in Spain. On 9 November 2010, wind energy reached an instantaneous historic peak covering 53% of mainland electricity demand and generating an amount of energy that is equivalent to that of 14 . Other renewable energies used in Spain are hydroelectric, biomass and (2 power plants under construction).

Non-renewable energy sources used in Spain are nuclear (8 operative reactors), gas, coal, and oil. Fossil fuels together generated 58% of Spain's electricity in 2009, just below the OECD mean of 61%. Nuclear power generated another 19%, and wind and hydro about 12% each.Energy in Sweden, Facts and figures, The Swedish Energy Agency, (in Swedish: Energiläget i siffror), Table for figure 49. Source: IEA/OECD [14].


Transport
The Spanish road system is mainly centralised, with six highways connecting to the Basque Country, , Valencia, West , Extremadura and Galicia. Additionally, there are highways along the Atlantic (Ferrol to ), Cantabrian ( to San Sebastián) and Mediterranean ( to Cádiz) coasts. Spain aims to put one million on the road by 2014 as part of the government's plan to save energy and boost energy efficiency. The former Minister of Industry Miguel Sebastián said that "the electric vehicle is the future and the engine of an industrial revolution."

Spain has the most extensive high-speed rail network in Europe, and the second-most extensive in the world after China. As of October 2010, Spain has a total of of high-speed tracks linking Málaga, , , , and , with the trains reaching speeds up to . On average, the Spanish high-speed train is the fastest one in the world, followed by the Japanese and the French . Regarding punctuality, it is second in the world (98.5% on-time arrival) after the Japanese Shinkansen (99%). Should the aims of the ambitious programme (Spanish high speed trains) be met, by 2020 Spain will have of high-speed trains linking almost all provincial cities to Madrid in less than three hours and Barcelona within four hours.

There are 47 public airports in Spain. The busiest one is the (Barajas), with 50 million passengers in 2011, being the world's 15th busiest airport, as well as the European Union's fourth busiest. The airport of Barcelona (El Prat) is also important, with 35 million passengers in 2011, being the world's 31st-busiest airport. Other main airports are located in Majorca (23 million passengers), Málaga (13 million passengers), Las Palmas (Gran Canaria) (11 million passengers), (10 million passengers) and smaller, with the number of passengers between 4 and 10 million, for example Tenerife (two airports), , , , , Lanzarote, Fuerteventura. Also, more than 30 airports with the number of passengers below 4 million.


Science and technology
In the 19th and 20th centuries science in Spain was held back by severe political instability and consequent economic underdevelopment. Despite the conditions, some important scientists and engineers emerged. The most notable were , Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Narcís Monturiol, Celedonio Calatayud, Juan de la Cierva, Leonardo Torres y Quevedo, and .

The Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) is the leading public agency dedicated to scientific research in the country. It ranked as the 5th top governmental scientific institution worldwide (and 32nd overall) in the 2018 SCImago Institutions Rankings.

Since 2006 the Mobile World Congress has taken place in .


Demographics
In 2008 the population of Spain officially reached 46 million people, as recorded by the Padrón municipal (Spain's Municipal Register). Spain's population density, at 91/km² (235/sq mi), is lower than that of most Western European countries and its distribution across the country is very unequal. With the exception of the region surrounding the capital, , the most populated areas lie around the coast. The population of Spain has risen 2 1/2 times since 1900, when it stood at 18.6 million, principally due to the spectacular demographic boom in the 1960s and early 1970s.Joseph Harrison, David Corkill (2004). " Spain: a modern European economy". Ashgate Publishing. p. 23.

Native make up 88% of the total population of Spain. After the birth rate plunged in the 1980s and Spain's population growth rate dropped, the population again trended upward initially upon the return of many Spaniards who had emigrated to other European countries during the 1970s, and more recently, fuelled by large numbers of immigrants who make up 12% of the population. The immigrants originate mainly in Latin America (39%), North Africa (16%), Eastern Europe (15%), and Sub-Saharan Africa (4%). In 2005, Spain instituted a three-month amnesty programme through which certain hitherto undocumented aliens were granted legal residency.

In 2008, Spain granted citizenship to 84,170 persons, mostly to people from Ecuador, Colombia and Morocco." EU27 Member States granted citizenship to 696 000 persons in 2008 " (PDF). . 6 July 2010. A sizeable portion of foreign residents in Spain also comes from other Western and Central European countries. These are mostly British, French, German, Dutch, and Norwegian. They reside primarily on the Mediterranean coast and the Balearic islands, where many choose to live their retirement or .

Substantial populations descended from Spanish colonists and immigrants exist in other parts of the world, most notably in Latin America. Beginning in the late 15th century, large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America and at present most white Latin Americans (who make up about one-third of Latin America's population) are of Spanish or Portuguese origin. Around 240,000 Spaniards emigrated in the 16th century, mostly to and . Another 450,000 left in the 17th century. The estimate between 1492–1832 is 1.86 million.Macias, Rosario Marquez, 1995 La Emigracion espanola a America 1765–1824 Between 1846 and 1932 it is estimated that nearly 5 million Spaniards emigrated to the Americas, especially to and . Approximately two million Spaniards migrated to other Western European countries between 1960 and 1975. During the same period perhaps 300,000 went to Latin America.


Urbanisation
Metropolitan areas

Source: " Áreas urbanas +50", Ministry of Public Works and Transport (2013)

|- style="background: #efefef;" !rowspan="2"| Rank !rowspan="2"| Metro area !rowspan="2"| Autonomous
community !colspan="2"| Population |- style="background: #efefef;" !Government data !Other estimations |- style="text-align:right;" | 1 || || Madrid || 6,052,247 || style="text-align:left;"| 5.4 – 6.5 mUnited Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanization Prospects (2007 revision) , (United Nations, 2008), Table A.12. Data for 2007. |- style="text-align:right;" | 2 || || || 5,030,679 || style="text-align:left;"| |- style="text-align:right;" | 3 || || Valencia || 1,551,585 || style="text-align:left;"| 1.5 – 2.3 m

(2019). 9789264027084, OECD Publishing. .
|- style="text-align:right;" | 4 || || || 1,294,867 || style="text-align:left;"| 1.2 – 1.3 m |- style="text-align:right;" | 5 || Málaga || || 953,251 || style="background:silver;"| |- style="text-align:right;" | 6 || || Basque Country || 910,578 || style="background:silver;"| |- style="text-align:right;" | 7 || –Gijón–Avilés || || 835,053 || style="background:silver;"| |- style="text-align:right;" | 8 || || || 746,152 || style="background:silver;"| |- style="text-align:right;" | 9 || || Valencia || 698,662 || style="background:silver;"| |- style="text-align:right;" | 10 || || Murcia || 643,854 || style="background:silver;"| |}


Peoples
The Spanish Constitution of 1978, in its second article, recognises several contemporary nationalities— and regions, within the context of the Spanish nation.

Spain is de facto a . The identity of Spain rather accrues of an overlap of different territorial and ethnolinguistic identities than of a sole Spanish identity. In some cases some of the territorial identities may conflict with the dominant Spanish culture. Distinct traditional identities within Spain include the , , , and , although to some extent all of the 17 autonomous communities may claim a distinct local identity.

It is this last feature of "shared identity" between the more local level or autonomous community and the Spanish level which makes the identity question in Spain complex and far from univocal.


Minority groups
Spain has a number of descendants of populations from former colonies, especially Latin America and North Africa. Smaller numbers of immigrants from several countries have recently been settling in Spain. There are also sizeable numbers of Asian immigrants, most of whom are of Middle Eastern, and Chinese origin. The single largest group of immigrants are European; represented by large numbers of Romanians, Britons, , French and others.

The arrival of the gitanos, a , began in the 16th century; estimates of the Spanish Roma population range from 750,000 to over one million. Recent Migration of Roma in Europe, A study by Mr. Claude Cahn and Professor Elspeth Guild , pp. 87–88 (09.2010 figures) There are also the (also quinquis), a formerly nomadic minority group. Their origin is unclear.

Historically, and are the main minority groups originated in Spain and with a contribution to Spanish culture. Sephardim – Jewish Virtual Library by Rebecca Weiner The Spanish government is offering Spanish nationality to Sephardi Jews.


Immigration
According to the Spanish government there were 5.7 million foreign residents in Spain in 2011, or 12% of the total population. According to residence permit data for 2011, more than 860,000 were Romanian, about 770,000 were , approximately 390,000 were British, and 360,000 were Ecuadorian. INE , 2011. Other sizeable foreign communities are Colombian, Bolivian, German, Italian, , and Chinese. There are more than 200,000 migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa living in Spain, principally Senegaleses and ." Financial crisis reveals vulnerability of Spain's immigrants – Feature". The Earth Times. 18 November 2009. Since 2000, Spain has experienced high population growth as a result of immigration flows, despite a birth rate that is only half the replacement level. This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving illegally by sea, has caused noticeable social tension. and and and

Within the EU, Spain had the 2nd highest immigration rate in percentage terms after , but by a great margin, the highest in absolute numbers, up to 2008. The number of immigrants in Spain had grown up from 500,000 people in 1996 to 5.2 million in 2008 out of a total population of 46 million. Spain to increase immigration budget , 10 October 2007 Spain's Immigration System Runs Amok , 17 September 2008 In 2005 alone, a regularisation programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people. There are a number of reasons for the high level of immigration, including Spain's cultural ties with Latin America, its geographical position, the porosity of its borders, the large size of its underground economy and the strength of the agricultural and construction sectors, which demand more low cost labour than can be offered by the national workforce.

Another statistically significant factor is the large number of residents of EU origin typically retiring to Spain's Mediterranean coast. In fact, Spain was Europe's largest absorber of migrants from 2002 to 2007, with its immigrant population more than doubling as 2.5 million people arrived. In 2008, prior to the onset of the economic crisis, the Financial Times reported that Spain was the most favoured destination for Western Europeans considering a move from their own country and seeking jobs elsewhere in the EU.

In 2008, the government instituted a "Plan of Voluntary Return" which encouraged unemployed immigrants from outside the EU to return to their home countries and receive several incentives, including the right to keep their unemployment benefits and transfer whatever they contributed to the Spanish Social Security. Plan de Retorno Voluntario Gobierno de España The programme had little effect; during its first two months, just 1,400 immigrants took up the offer. Spain's Jobs Crisis Leaves Immigrants Out of Work , The Wall Street Journal, 24 January 2009 What the programme failed to do, the sharp and prolonged economic crisis has done from 2010 to 2011 in that tens of thousands of immigrants have left the country due to lack of jobs. In 2011 alone, more than half a million people left Spain. For the first time in decades the net migration rate was expected to be negative, and nine out of 10 emigrants were foreigners. 580.000 personas se van de España . El País. Edición Impresa. 8 October 2011


Languages
Spain is legally multilingual, and the constitution establishes that the nation will protect "all Spaniards and the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions.Preamble to the Constitution

( español)— recognised in the constitution as Castilian ( castellano)—is the official language of the entire country, and it is the right and duty of every Spaniard to know the language. The constitution also establishes that "the other Spanish languages"—that is, the other languages of Spain—will also be official in their respective autonomous communities in accordance to their Statutes, their organic regional legislations, and that the "richness of the distinct linguistic modalities of Spain represents a patrimony which will be the object of special respect and protection."Third article.

The other official languages of Spain, co-official with Spanish are:

As a percentage of the general population of all Spain, Spanish is natively spoken by 74%, Catalan by 17%, Galician by 7% and Basque by 2% of all Spaniards. Occitan is spoken by less than 5,000 people, only in the small region of Val d'Aran.

Other minority languages, though not official, have special recognition, such as the Astur-Leonese language ( asturianu, bable or llionés) and Aragonese ( aragonés) in .

In the North African Spanish autonomous city of , is spoken by a significant part of the population. Similarly, in is spoken by a significant percentage of the population. In the tourist areas of the Mediterranean coast and the islands, English and German are widely spoken by tourists, foreign residents, and tourism workers.


Education
State education in Spain is free and compulsory from the age of six to sixteen. The current education system is regulated by the 2006 educational law, LOE ( Ley Orgánica de Educación), or Fundamental Law for the Education. La Ley Orgánica 2/2006 . Retrieved 23 September 2009 In 2014, the LOE was partially modified by the newer and controversial LOMCE law ( Ley Orgánica para la Mejora de la Calidad Educativa), or Fundamental Law for the Improvement of the Education System, commonly called Ley Wert (Wert Law). Ley Orgánica 8/2013 . Retrieved 9 December 2013 Since 1970 to 2014, Spain has had seven different educational laws (LGE, LOECE, LODE, LOGSE, LOPEG, LOE and LOMCE). De la LGE a la LOMCE: Así son las siete leyes educativas españolas de la democracia . teinteresa.es

Institución Libre de Enseñanza was an educational project that developed in Spain for the half a century of about 1876–1936 by Francisco Giner de los Ríos and Gumersindo de Azcárate. The institute was inspired by the philosophy of . Concepción Arenal in and Santiago Ramón y Cajal in neuroscience were in the movement.


Health
The health care system of Spain (Spanish National Health System) is considered one of the best in the world, in 7th position in the ranking elaborated by the World Health Organization.World Health Organisation, World Health Staff, (2000), Haden, Angela; Campanini, Barbara, eds., The world health report 2000 – Health systems: improving performance (PDF), Geneva: World Health Organisation, The health care is public, universal and free for any legal citizen of Spain. The total health spending is 9.4% of the GDP, slightly above the average of 9.3% of the .


Religion
, which has a long history in Spain, remains the dominant religion. Although it no longer has official status by law, in all public schools in Spain students have to choose either a religion or ethics class. Catholicism is the religion most commonly taught, although the teaching of Islam, Ley 26/1992 , Documento BOE-A-1992-24855, Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado Judaism, Ley 25/1992 , Documento BOE-A-1992-24854, Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado and evangelical Christianity Ley 24/1992 , Documento BOE-A-1992-24853, Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado is also recognised in law. According to a June 2016 study by the Spanish Centre for Sociological Research about 70% of Spaniards self-identify as Catholics, 2% other faith, and about 25% identify with . Most Spaniards do not participate regularly in religious services. This same study shows that of the Spaniards who identify themselves as religious, 59% hardly ever or never go to church, 16% go to church some times a year, 9% some time per month and 15% every Sunday or multiple times per week. Recent polls and surveys have revealed that 20% to 27% of the Spanish population is irreligious.

Altogether, about 9% of the entire Spanish population attends religious services at least once per month. Though Spanish society has become considerably more secular in recent decades, the influx of Latin American immigrants, who tend to be strong Catholic practitioners, has helped the Catholic Church to recover. The Spanish constitution enshrines in governance, as well as freedom of religion or belief for all, saying that no religion should have a "state character," while allowing for the state to "cooperate" with religious groups. However, significant anomalies remain, including the presence of a blasphemy law in statute, which theoretically criminalises criticism of religion. A blasphemy prosecution in Spain has happened as recently as 2012.

There have been four Spanish Popes. Damasus I, Calixtus III, Alexander VI and Benedict XIII. Spanish mysticism provided an important intellectual resource against Protestantism with like Teresa of Ávila, a reformist nun and John of the Cross, a priest, taking the lead in their reform movement. Later, they became Doctors of the Church. The Society of Jesus was co-founded by Ignatius of Loyola, whose Spiritual Exercises and movement led to the establishment of hundreds of colleges and universities in the world, including 28 in the United States alone. The Society's co-founder, , was a missionary who reached India and later Japan. In the 1960s, Jesuits and Ignacio Ellacuría supported the movement of Liberation Theology.

churches have about 1,200,000 members. There are about 105,000 Jehovah's Witnesses. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has approximately 46,000 adherents in 133 congregations in all regions of the country and has a temple in the District of Madrid.

A study made by the Union of Islamic Communities of Spain demonstrated that there were about 1,700,000 inhabitants of Muslim background living in Spain , accounting for 3–4% of the total population of Spain. The vast majority was composed of immigrants and descendants originating from and other African countries. More than 514,000 (30%) of them had Spanish nationality.

The recent waves of immigration have also led to an increasing number of , , and . After the Reconquista in 1492, Muslims did not live in Spain for centuries. Late 19th-century colonial expansion in northwestern Africa gave a number of residents in and full citizenship. Their ranks have since been bolstered by recent immigration, especially from Morocco and Algeria.

was practically non-existent in Spain from the 1492 expulsion until the 19th century, when Jews were again permitted to enter the country. Currently there are around 62,000 Jews in Spain, or 0.14% of the total population. Most are arrivals in the past century, while some are descendants of earlier Spanish Jews. Approximately 80,000 are thought to have lived in Spain prior to its expulsion. However the Jewish Encyclopedia states the number over 800,000 to be too large and 235,000 as too small: 165,000 is given as expelled as possibly too small in favour or 200,000, and the numbers of converts after the 1391 pogroms as less. Other sources suggest 200,000 converts mostly after the pogroms of 1391 and upwards of 100,000 expelled.

The descendants of these Sephardic Jews expelled in 1492 are given the Spanish nationality if they request so.


Culture
Spain is a . Almost every aspect of Spanish life is permeated by its Roman heritage, making Spain one of the major Latin countries of Europe. Spanish culture is marked by strong historic ties to Catholicism, which played a pivotal role in the country's formation and subsequent identity. Spanish art, architecture, cuisine, and music have been shaped by successive waves of foreign invaders, as well as by the country's Mediterranean climate and geography. The centuries-long colonial era globalised Spanish language and culture, with Spain also absorbing the cultural and commercial products of its diverse empire.


World Heritage Sites
After Italy (54) and China (52), Spain is the third country in the world with the most World Heritage Sites. At the present time it has 47 recognised sites, including the landscape of in the , which is shared with France, the Prehistoric Rock Art Sites of the Côa Valley and , which is shared with (the Portuguese part being in the Côa Valley, ), the Heritage of Mercury, shared with and the Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests, shared with other countries of Europe. In addition, Spain has also 14 Intangible cultural heritage, or "Human treasures", Spain ranks first in Europe according to UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage List, tied with .


Literature
The earliest recorded examples of vernacular Romance-based literature date from the same time and location, the rich mix of Muslim, Jewish, and Christian cultures in Muslim Spain, in which Maimonides, Averroes, and others worked, the ( Jarchas).

During the , the epic poem Cantar de Mio Cid was written about a real man—his battles, conquests, and daily life. The Valencian chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch written in Valencian is also remarkable.

Other major plays from the medieval times were Mester de Juglaría, Mester de Clerecía, Coplas por la muerte de su padre or El Libro de buen amor (The Book of Good Love).

During the the major plays are and El Lazarillo de Tormes, while many religious literature was created with poets as Luis de León, San Juan de la Cruz, Santa Teresa de Jesús, etc.

The is the most important period for Spanish culture. We are in the times of the . The famous by Miguel de Cervantes was written in this time. Other writers from the period are: Francisco de Quevedo, Lope de Vega, Calderón de la Barca or Tirso de Molina.

During the Enlightenment we find names such as Leandro Fernández de Moratín, Benito Jerónimo Feijóo, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos or Leandro Fernández de Moratín.

During the , José Zorrilla created one of the most emblematic figures in European literature in Don Juan Tenorio. Other writers from this period are Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, José de Espronceda, Rosalía de Castro or Mariano José de Larra.

In Realism we find names such as Benito Pérez Galdós, Emilia Pardo Bazán, (Clarín), Concepción Arenal, Vicente Blasco Ibáñez and Menéndez Pelayo. Realism offered depictions of contemporary life and society 'as they were'. In the spirit of general "Realism", Realist authors opted for depictions of everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of romanticised or stylised presentations.

The group that has become known as the Generation of 1898 was marked by the destruction of Spain's fleet in Cuba by US gunboats in 1898, which provoked a cultural crisis in Spain. The "Disaster" of 1898 led established writers to seek practical political, economic, and social solutions in essays grouped under the literary heading of Regeneracionismo. For a group of younger writers, among them Miguel de Unamuno, Pío Baroja, and José Martínez Ruiz (Azorín), the Disaster and its cultural repercussions inspired a deeper, more radical literary shift that affected both form and content. These writers, along with Ramón del Valle-Inclán, , Ramiro de Maeztu, and Ángel Ganivet, came to be known as the Generation of '98.

The Generation of 1914 or Novecentismo. The next supposed "generation" of Spanish writers following those of '98 already calls into question the value of such terminology. By the year 1914—the year of the outbreak of the First World War and of the publication of the first major work of the generation's leading voice, José Ortega y Gasset—a number of slightly younger writers had established their own place within the Spanish cultural field.

Leading voices include the poet Juan Ramón Jiménez, the academics and essayists Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Gregorio Marañón, Manuel Azaña, , Eugeni d'Ors, and Ortega y Gasset, and the novelists Gabriel Miró, Ramón Pérez de Ayala, and Ramón Gómez de la Serna. While still driven by the national and existential questions that obsessed the writers of '98, they approached these topics with a greater sense of distance and objectivity. Salvador de Madariaga, another prominent intellectual and writer, was one of the founders of the College of Europe and the composer of the constitutive manifest of the Liberal International.

The Generation of 1927, where poets Pedro Salinas, Jorge Guillén, Federico García Lorca, Vicente Aleixandre, Dámaso Alonso. All were scholars of their national literary heritage, again evidence of the impact of the calls of regeneracionistas and the Generation of 1898 for Spanish intelligence to turn at least partially inwards. The two main writers in the second half of the 20th century were the Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Camilo José Cela and from Generation of '36. Spain is one of the countries with the most number of laureates with the Nobel Prize in Literature, and with Latin American laureates they made the Spanish language literature one of the most laureates of all. The Spanish writers are: José Echegaray, Jacinto Benavente, Juan Ramón Jiménez, Vicente Aleixandre and Camilo José Cela. The Portuguese writer José Saramago, also awarded with the prize, lived for many years in Spain and spoke both Portuguese and Spanish. Saramago was also well known by his ideas.

The Generation of '50 are also known as the children of the civil war. , , Jaime Gil de Biedma, , Carmen Martín Gaite, Ana María Matute, Juan Marsé, Blas de Otero, , , Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio or .

Premio Planeta de Novela and Miguel de Cervantes Prize are the two main awards nowadays in Spanish literature.


Philosophy
Seneca was a philosopher during the time of the .

During , Muslim, Jewish and Christian philosopher flourished. That is the case of , or .

In the Middle Ages we find .

Humanist during the . As well as Francisco de Vitoria and Bartolomé de las Casas.

Enlightenment in Spain arrived later and less strong as in other European countries, but during the liberal ideas arrived into Spanish society. At the end of the century, socialist and libertarian ideas also flourished particularly strong at the intellectual level, with thinkers as Francisco Pi i Margall, or Francisco Ferrer Guardia.

In the first half of the 20th century the most prominent philosophers are and José Ortega y Gasset.

Most contemporary philosophers include and , creator of the term .


Art
Artists from Spain have been highly influential in the development of various European and . Due to historical, geographical and generational diversity, Spanish art has known a great number of influences. The Mediterranean heritage with Greco-Roman and some Moorish and influences in Spain, especially in is still evident today. European influences include Italy, Germany and France, especially during the and periods. There are many other autochthonous styles such as the Pre-Romanesque art and architecture, architecture or the Isabelline Gothic.

During the we find painters such as , José de Ribera, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo and Francisco Zurbarán. Also inside Baroque period Diego Velázquez created some of the most famous Spanish portraits, like or Las Hilanderas.

painted during a historical period that includes the , the fights between liberals and absolutists, and the raise of contemporary state-nations.

Joaquín Sorolla is a well-known impressionist painter and there are many important Spanish painters belonging to the modernism art movement, including , Salvador Dalí, and Joan Miró.


Sculpture
The Plateresque style extended from beginnings of the 16th century until the last third of the century and its stylistic influence pervaded the works of all great Spanish artists of the time. Alonso Berruguete ( School) is called the "Prince of Spanish sculpture". His main works were the upper stalls of the choir of the Cathedral of Toledo, the tomb of Cardinal Tavera in the same Cathedral, and the altarpiece of the Visitation in the church of Santa Úrsula in the same locality. Other notable sculptors were Bartolomé Ordóñez, Diego de Siloé, Juan de Juni and Damián Forment.

There were two Schools of special flair and talent: the Seville School, to which Juan Martínez Montañés belonged, whose most celebrated works are the Crucifix in the Cathedral of Seville, another in Vergara, and a Saint John; and the Granada School, to which belonged, to whom an Immaculate Conception and a Virgin of Rosary, are attributed.

Other notable Andalusian Baroque sculptors were Pedro de Mena, Pedro Roldán and his daughter Luisa Roldán, Juan de Mesa and Pedro Duque Cornejo. In the 20th century the most important Spanish sculptors were Julio González, , , and .


Cinema
Spanish cinema has achieved major international success including for recent films such as Pan's Labyrinth and . In the long history of Spanish cinema, the great filmmaker Luis Buñuel was the first to achieve world recognition, followed by Pedro Almodóvar in the 1980s (La Movida Madrileña). and Pilar Miró worked together in Curro Jiménez.

Spanish cinema has also seen international success over the years with films by directors like Segundo de Chomón, Florián Rey, Luis García Berlanga, , , , Alejandro Amenábar, Icíar Bollaín and brothers and .

Actresses and Penélope Cruz or actor are among those who have become Hollywood stars.

International Film Festivals of and San Sebastian are the oldest and more relevant in Spain.


Architecture
Due to its historical and geographical diversity, Spanish architecture has drawn from a host of influences. An important provincial city founded by the Romans and with an extensive infrastructure, Córdoba became the cultural capital, including fine Arabic style architecture, during the time of the Islamic . Later Arab style architecture continued to be developed under successive Islamic dynasties, ending with the , which built its famed palace complex in .

Simultaneously, the Christian kingdoms gradually emerged and developed their own styles; developing a style when for a while isolated from contemporary mainstream European architectural influences during the earlier Middle Ages, they later integrated the Romanesque and Gothic streams. There was then an extraordinary flowering of the Gothic style that resulted in numerous instances being built throughout the entire territory. The Mudéjar style, from the 12th to 17th centuries, was developed by introducing Arab style motifs, patterns and elements into European architecture.

The arrival of in the academic arena produced much of the architecture of the 20th century. An influential style centred in , known as , produced a number of important architects, of which Gaudí is one. The International style was led by groups like . Spain is currently experiencing a revolution in contemporary architecture and like , Santiago Calatrava, as well as many others have gained worldwide renown.


Music and dance
Spanish music is often considered abroad to be synonymous with , a West Andalusian musical genre, which, contrary to popular belief, is not widespread outside that region. Various regional styles of abound in Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Castile, the Basque Country, Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias. Pop, rock, hip hop and heavy metal are also popular.

In the field of classical music, Spain has produced a number of noted composers such as Isaac Albéniz, Manuel de Falla and and singers and performers such as Plácido Domingo, José Carreras, Montserrat Caballé, Alicia de Larrocha, , , Ricardo Viñes, José Iturbi, Pablo de Sarasate, and . In Spain there are over forty professional orchestras, including the Orquestra Simfònica de Barcelona, Orquesta Nacional de España and the Orquesta Sinfónica de Madrid. Major include the , the Gran Teatre del Liceu, and the El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía.

Thousands of music fans also travel to Spain each year for internationally recognised summer music festivals Sónar which often features the top up and coming pop and techno acts, and Benicàssim which tends to feature alternative rock and dance acts. Both festivals mark Spain as an international music presence and reflect the tastes of young people in the country.

Vitoria-Gasteiz jazz festival is one of the main ones on its genre.

The most popular traditional musical instrument, the guitar, originated in Spain. Typical of the north are the traditional bag pipers or gaiteros, mainly in Asturias and Galicia.


Fashion
Cibeles Madrid Fashion Week is one of the most important fashion weeks in Europe.

Zara is one of the biggest prêt-a-porter fashion companies in the world.

Fashion designers as Cristóbal Balenciaga are between the most influential during the XX century.


Cuisine
Spanish cuisine consists of a great variety of dishes which stem from differences in geography, culture and climate. It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country, and reflects the country's deep roots. Spain's extensive history with many cultural influences has led to a unique cuisine. In particular, three main divisions are easily identified:

Mediterranean Spain – all such coastal regions, from Catalonia to Andalusia – heavy use of seafood, such as pescaíto frito (fried fish); several cold soups like ; and many rice-based dishes like from Valencia and arròs negre (black rice) from Catalonia.

Inner Spain – Castile – hot, thick soups such as the bread and garlic-based Castilian soup, along with substantious stews such as cocido madrileño. Food is traditionally conserved by salting, like , or immersed in , like .

Atlantic Spain – the whole Northern coast, including , , Cantabrian and – vegetable and fish-based stews like and . Also, the lightly cured lacón ham. The best known cuisine of the northern countries often rely on ocean seafood, like the Basque-style , or or the Galician octopus-based polbo á feira and shellfish dishes.


Sport
While varieties of football had been played in Spain as far back as Roman times, sport in Spain has been dominated by football since the early 20th century. Real Madrid C.F. and are two of the most successful football clubs in the world. The country's national football team won the UEFA European Football Championship in 1964, 2008 and 2012 and the FIFA World Cup in 2010, and is the first team to ever win three back-to-back major international tournaments.

, , cycling, , futsal, and, lately, are also important due to the presence of Spanish champions in all these disciplines. Today, Spain is a major world sports powerhouse, especially since the 1992 Summer Olympics that were hosted in , which stimulated a great deal of interest in sports in the country. The tourism industry has led to an improvement in sports infrastructure, especially for , and .

The most outstanding athletes figure: is the leading Spanish tennis player and has won seventeen Grand Slam titles (second most of any man) and holds the record with the most number of ATP World Tour Masters 1000 singles titles. Marc Márquez is the leading Spanish Grand Prix motorcycle road racer and is a five-time MotoGP world champion. Carolina Marín is the leading Spanish player being one-time Olympic Champion, three-time World Champion "BREAKING: Marin World Champion" badmintoneurope.com 6 August 2018 and four-time European Champion. Miguel Induráin is the leading Spanish cyclist and has won several titles including five Tour de France titles and one-time Olympic Champion. is the leading Basketball player and has won two championships, he is a six-time NBA All-Star, and a four-time All-NBA selection.

In their respective regions, the games of and are populars.


Public holidays and festivals
Public holidays celebrated in Spain include a mix of religious (), national and regional observances. Each municipality is allowed to declare a maximum of 14 public holidays per year; up to nine of these are chosen by the national government and at least two are chosen locally. Spain's National Day ( Fiesta Nacional de España) is 12 October, the anniversary of the Discovery of America and commemorate Our Lady of the Pillar feast, patroness of and throughout Spain.

There are many festivals and festivities in Spain. Some of them are known worldwide, and every year millions of people from all over the world go to Spain to experience one of these festivals. One of the most famous is San Fermín, in . While its most famous event is the encierro, or the running of the bulls, which happens at 8:00 am from 7 to 14 July, the week-long celebration involves many other traditional and folkloric events. Its events were central to the plot of The Sun Also Rises, by , which brought it to the general attention of English-speaking people. As a result, it has become one of the most internationally renowned fiestas in Spain, with over 1,000,000 people attending every year.

Other festivals include: tomato festival in Buñol, Valencia, the carnivals in the , the in or the in Andalusia and Castile and León.


See also
  • Outline of Spain


Notes

Further reading


External links

Government

Maps

Tourism

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