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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna, ) is a classical language belonging to the of the Indo-European languages. The is derived from the Etruscan and , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

Latin was originally spoken in the area surrounding , known as . Through the power of the , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the western . developed into the Romance languages, such as , Portuguese, , , and Romanian. Latin, Greek, and French have contributed many words to the . In particular, Latin and roots are used in , biology, science, medicine, and law.

By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), had been standardised into . was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in and the works of comic playwrights like and . is the written language from the 3rd century, and the language used from the 9th century to the which used Renaissance Latin. Later, Early Modern Latin and evolved. Latin was used as the language of international communication, scholarship, and science until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by . Ecclesiastical Latin remains the official language of the and the of the .

Latin is taught in primary, secondary, and postsecondary educational institutions around the world.

Latin is a highly inflected language, with three distinct genders, seven , five declensions, four verb conjugations, four verb principal parts, six tenses, three persons, three , two voices, two aspects and two numbers.


History
A number of historical phases of the language have been recognized, each distinguished by subtle differences in vocabulary, usage, spelling, morphology, and syntax. There are no hard and fast rules of classification; different scholars emphasize different features. As a result, the list has variants, as well as alternative names.

In addition to the historical phases, Ecclesiastical Latin refers to the styles used by the writers of the Roman Catholic Church as well as by Protestant scholars from onward.

After the Western Roman Empire fell in 476, and Germanic kingdoms took its place, the adopted Latin as a language more suitable for legal and other, more formal uses.


Old Latin
The earliest known form of Latin is Old Latin, which was spoken from the to the later part of the period. It is attested both in inscriptions and in some of the earliest extant Latin literary works, such as the comedies of and . The was devised from the Etruscan alphabet. The writing later changed from what was initially either a right-to-left or a script to what ultimately became a strictly left-to-right script.
(2018). 9780767911726, Broadway Books.


Classical Latin
During the late republic and into the first years of the empire, a new Classical Latin arose, a conscious creation of the orators, poets, historians and other men, who wrote the great works of classical literature, which were taught in and schools. Today's instructional grammars trace their roots to such , which served as a sort of informal language academy dedicated to maintaining and perpetuating educated speech.


Vulgar Latin
Philological analysis of Archaic Latin works, such as those of , which contain snippets of everyday speech, indicates that a spoken language, Vulgar Latin (termed sermo vulgi, "the speech of the masses", by ), existed concurrently with literate Classical Latin. The informal language was rarely written, so philologists have been left with only individual words and phrases cited by classical authors and those found as graffiti.

As it was free to develop on its own, there is no reason to suppose that the speech was uniform either diachronically or geographically. On the contrary, romanised European populations developed their own dialects of the language, which eventually led to the differentiation of Romance languages. The decline of the Roman Empire meant a deterioration in educational standards that brought about Late Latin, a postclassical stage of the language seen in Christian writings of the time. It was more in line with everyday speech, not only because of a decline in education but also because of a desire to spread the word to the masses.

Despite dialectal variation, which is found in any widespread language, the languages of Spain, France, Portugal, and Italy retained a remarkable unity in phonological forms and developments, bolstered by the stabilising influence of their common Christian (Roman Catholic) culture. It was not until the Moorish conquest of Spain in 711 cut off communications between the major Romance regions that the languages began to diverge seriously.

(1976). 9780060133122, Harper & Row.
The Vulgar Latin dialect that would later become Romanian diverged somewhat more from the other varieties, as it was largely cut off from the unifying influences in the western part of the Empire.

One key marker of whether a given Romance feature was found in Vulgar Latin is to compare it with its parallel in Classical Latin. If it was not preferred in Classical Latin, then it most likely came from the undocumented contemporaneous Vulgar Latin. For example, the Romance for "horse" (Italian cavallo, French cheval, Spanish caballo, Portuguese cavalo and Romanian cal) came from Latin caballus. However, Classical Latin used equus. Therefore caballus was most likely the spoken form.

Vulgar Latin began to diverge into distinct languages by the 9th century at the latest, when the earliest extant Romance writings begin to appear. They were, throughout the period, confined to everyday speech, as Medieval Latin was used for writing.


Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin is the written Latin in use during that portion of the postclassical period when no corresponding Latin vernacular existed. The spoken language had developed into the various incipient Romance languages; however, in the educated and official world Latin continued without its natural spoken base. Moreover, this Latin spread into lands that had never spoken Latin, such as the Germanic and Slavic nations. It became useful for international communication between the member states of the Holy Roman Empire and its allies.

Without the institutions of the Roman empire that had supported its uniformity, medieval Latin lost its linguistic cohesion: for example, in classical Latin sum and eram are used as auxiliary verbs in the perfect and pluperfect passive, which are compound tenses. Medieval Latin might use fui and fueram instead.

(1998). 9780472085675, University of Michigan Press.
Furthermore, the meanings of many words have been changed and new vocabularies have been introduced from the vernacular. Identifiable individual styles of classically incorrect Latin prevail.


Renaissance Latin
The briefly reinforced the position of Latin as a spoken language by its adoption by the Renaissance Humanists. Often led by members of the clergy, they were shocked by the accelerated dismantling of the vestiges of the classical world and the rapid loss of its literature. They strove to preserve what they could and restore Latin to what it had been and introduced the practice of producing revised editions of the literary works that remained by comparing surviving manuscripts. By no later than the 15th century they had replaced Medieval Latin with versions supported by the scholars of the rising universities, who attempted, by scholarship, to discover what the classical language had been.


New Latin
During the Early Modern Age, Latin still was the most important language of culture in Europe. Therefore, until the end of the 17th century the majority of books and almost all diplomatic documents were written in Latin. Afterwards, most diplomatic documents were written in and later just native or other languages.


Contemporary Latin
The largest organisation that retains Latin in official and quasi-official contexts is the . Latin remains the language of the ; the is celebrated in Latin. Although the Mass of Paul VI is usually celebrated in the local vernacular language, it can be and often is said in Latin, in part or in whole, especially at multilingual gatherings. It is the official language of the , the primary language of its , the Acta Apostolicae Sedis, and the working language of the . is also home to the world's only automatic teller machine that gives instructions in Latin. In the pontifical universities postgraduate courses of are taught in Latin, and papers are written in the same language.

In the , after the publication of the Book of Common Prayer of 1559, a Latin edition was published in 1560 for use at universities such as Oxford and the leading "public schools" ( private academies), where the liturgy was still permitted to be conducted in Latin and there have been several Latin translations since. Most recently, a Latin edition of the 1979 USA Anglican Book of Common Prayer has appeared.

has adopted the country's Latin short name Helvetia on coins and stamps, since there is no room to use all of the nation's four official languages. For a similar reason, it adopted the international vehicle and internet code CH, which stands for Confœderatio Helvetica, the country's full Latin name.

's motto A mari usque ad mare ("from sea to sea") and most provincial mottos are also in Latin. The Canadian Victoria Cross is modelled after the British which has the inscription "For Valour". Because Canada is officially bilingual, the Canadian medal has replaced the English inscription with the Latin Pro Valore.

Several states of the United States have Latin mottos: such as 's motto Qui transtulit sustinet ("He who transplanted sustains"); 's Ad astra per aspera ("To the stars through hardships"); 's Si quaeris peninsulam amoenam, circumspice ("If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look about you"); 's Salus populi suprema lex esto ("The health of the people should be the highest law"); 's Esse quam videri ("To be rather than to seem"); 's Sic semper tyrannis ("Thus always to tyrants"); and 's Montani semper liberi ("Mountaineers are always free").

Many military organizations today have Latin mottos, such as Semper Paratus]] ("always ready"), the motto of the United States Coast Guard; Semper Fidelis]] ("always faithful"), the motto of the United States Marine Corps; and Per ardua ad astra ("Through adversity/struggle to the stars"), the motto of the Royal Air Force (RAF).

Some colleges and universities have adopted Latin mottos, for example Harvard University's motto is ("truth"). Veritas was the goddess of truth, a daughter of Saturn, and the mother of Virtue. Hampden-Sydney College has Huc venite iuvenes ut exeatis viri ("Come here as boys so you may leave as men") as its motto, as the continued instruction of Latin is seen as a highly valuable component of a liberal arts education. Latin is taught at many high schools, especially in Europe and the Americas. It is most common in British public schools and , the Italian and liceo scientifico, the German Humanistisches Gymnasium and the Dutch gymnasium. In the , it is taught at Baltimore City College, Boston Latin Academy, Boston Latin School, Brooklyn Latin School, Pope John Paul II High School, Central High School of Philadelphia, English High School of Boston, Norwell High School (Massachusetts), Oak Hall School, and many other public and private schools.

Some films of ancient settings, such as and The Passion of the Christ, have been made with dialogue in Latin for the sake of realism. Occasionally, Latin dialogue is used because of its association with religion or philosophy, in such film/ series as The Exorcist and Lost ("Jughead"). Subtitles are usually shown for the benefit of those who do not understand Latin. There are also songs written with Latin lyrics. The libretto for the opera-oratorio Oedipus rex by is in Latin.

Occasionally, some media outlets, targeting enthusiasts, broadcast in Latin. Notable examples include in , radio in , and Vatican Radio & Television, all of which broadcast news segments and other material in Latin.

There are many websites and forums maintained in Latin by enthusiasts. The has more than 100,000 articles written in Latin.


Legacy
The language has been passed down through various forms.


Inscriptions
Some inscriptions have been published in an internationally agreed, monumental, multivolume series, the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL). Authors and publishers vary, but the format is about the same: volumes detailing inscriptions with a critical apparatus stating the and relevant information. The reading and interpretation of these inscriptions is the subject matter of the field of . About 270,000 inscriptions are known.


Literature
The works of several hundred ancient authors who wrote in Latin have survived in whole or in part, in substantial works or in fragments to be analyzed in . They are in part the subject matter of the field of . Their works were published in form before the invention of printing and are now published in carefully annotated printed editions, such as the Loeb Classical Library, published by Harvard University Press, or the Oxford Classical Texts, published by Oxford University Press.

Latin translations of modern literature such as , , , , Winnie the Pooh, The Adventures of Tintin, , , Walter the Farting Dog, Le Petit Prince, Max and Moritz, How the Grinch Stole Christmas!, The Cat in the Hat, and a book of fairy tales, "fabulae mirabiles", are intended to garner popular interest in the language. Additional resources include phrasebooks and resources for rendering everyday phrases and concepts into Latin, such as Meissner's Latin Phrasebook.


Influence on present-day languages
The Latin influence in English has been significant at all stages of its insular development. In the , borrowing from Latin occurred from ecclesiastical usage established by Saint Augustine of Canterbury in the 6th century or indirectly after the , through the Anglo-Norman language. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, English writers cobbled together huge numbers of new words from Latin and Greek words, dubbed "", as if they had spilled from a pot of ink. Many of these words were used once by the author and then forgotten, but some useful ones survived, such as 'imbibe' and 'extrapolate'. Many of the most common English words are of Latin origin through the medium of . Romance words make respectively 59%, 20% and 14% of , and vocabularies.
(1973). 9783533022534, C. Winter.
Uwe Pörksen, German Academy for Language and Literature’s Jahrbuch Yearbook 2007 (Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 2008, pp. 121-130) Those figures can rise dramatically when only non-compound and non-derived words are included.

The influence of Roman governance and on the less-developed nations under Roman dominion led to the adoption of Latin phraseology in some specialized areas, such as science, technology, medicine, and law. For example, the Linnaean system of plant and animal classification was heavily influenced by Historia Naturalis, an encyclopedia of people, places, plants, animals, and things published by Pliny the Elder. Roman medicine, recorded in the works of such physicians as , established that today's medical terminology would be primarily derived from Latin and Greek words, the Greek being filtered through the Latin. Roman engineering had the same effect on scientific terminology as a whole. Latin law principles have survived partly in a long list of Latin legal terms.

A few international auxiliary languages have been heavily influenced by Latin. is sometimes considered a simplified, modern version of the language. Latino sine Flexione, popular in the early 20th century, is Latin with its inflections stripped away, among other grammatical changes.

One study analyzing the degree of differentiation of Romance languages in comparison to Latin (comparing , , , , , and intonation) indicated the following percentages (the higher the percentage, the greater the distance from Latin): Sardinian 8%, 12%, 20%, Romanian 23.5%, 25%, Portuguese 31%, and 44%.

(2018). 9780397004003


Education
Throughout European history, an education in the classics was considered crucial for those who wished to join literate circles. Instruction in Latin is an essential aspect. In today's world, a large number of Latin students in the US learn from Wheelock's Latin: The Classic Introductory Latin Course, Based on Ancient Authors. This book, first published in 1956, was written by Frederic M. Wheelock, who received a PhD from Harvard University. Wheelock's Latin has become the standard text for many American introductory Latin courses.

The movement attempts to teach Latin in the same way that living languages are taught, as a means of both spoken and written communication. It is available at the Vatican and at some institutions in the US, such as the University of Kentucky and Iowa State University. The British Cambridge University Press is a major supplier of Latin textbooks for all levels, such as the Cambridge Latin Course series. It has also published a subseries of children's texts in Latin by Bell & Forte, which recounts the adventures of a mouse called .

In the , the Classical Association encourages the study of antiquity through various means, such as publications and grants. The University of Cambridge, the , a number of prestigious independent schools, for example , , Haberdashers' Aske's Boys' School, Merchant Taylor’s School, Via Facilis and , a London-based charity, run Latin courses. In the and in , the American Classical League supports every effort to further the study of classics. Its subsidiaries include the National Junior Classical League (with more than 50,000 members), which encourages high school students to pursue the study of Latin, and the National Senior Classical League, which encourages students to continue their study of the classics into college. The league also sponsors the National Latin Exam. Classicist Mary Beard wrote in The Times Literary Supplement in 2006 that the reason for learning Latin is because of what was written in it.


Official status
Latin was or is the official language of European states:
  • – used in the , with being the official language of
  • – Latin was the sole official language of the Kingdom of Hungary from the 11th century to the mid 19th century, when it was replaced by Hungarian in 1844. The best known Latin language poet originating from Hungary was .
  • – Latin was the official language of Croatian Parliament (Sabor) from the 13th to the 19th century (1847). The oldest preserved records of the parliamentary sessions (Congregatio Regni totius Sclavonie generalis) – held in Zagreb (Zagabria), Croatia – date from 19 April 1273. An extensive Croatian Latin literature exists. Latin is still used on Croatian coins on even years.
  • , Kingdom of Poland – officially recognised and widely usedWho only knows Latin can go across the whole Poland from one side to the other one just like he was at his own home, just like he was born there. So great happiness! I wish a traveler in England could travel without knowing any other language than Latin!, Daniel Defoe, 1728Anatol Lieven, The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence, Yale University Press, 1994, , Google Print, p.48Kevin O'Connor, Culture And Customs of the Baltic States, Greenwood Press, 2006, , Google Print, p.115Karin Friedrich et al., The Other Prussia: Royal Prussia, Poland and Liberty, 1569–1772, Cambridge University Press, 2000, , Google Print, p.88 between the 10th and 18th centuries, commonly used in foreign relations and popular as a second language among some of the


Phonology
The ancient pronunciation of Latin has been reconstructed; among the data used for reconstruction are explicit statements about pronunciation by ancient authors, misspellings, puns, ancient etymologies, the spelling of Latin loanwords in other languages, and the historical development of Romance languages.


Consonants
The consonant of Classical Latin are as follows:
(1995). 9780195083453, Oxford University Press. .

In Old and Classical Latin, the Latin alphabet had no distinction between , and the letters did not exist. In place of , were used, respectively; represented both vowels and consonants. Most of the letterforms were similar to modern uppercase, as can be seen in the inscription from the Colosseum shown at the top of the article.

The spelling systems used in Latin dictionaries and modern editions of Latin texts, however, normally use in place of Classical-era . Some systems use for the consonant sounds except in the combinations for which is never used.

Some notes concerning the mapping of Latin phonemes to English graphemes are given below:

+ Notes

In Classical Latin, as in modern Italian, double consonant letters were pronounced as consonant sounds distinct from short versions of the same consonants. Thus the nn in Classical Latin annus, year, (and in Italian anno) is pronounced as a doubled as in English unnamed. (In English, distinctive consonant length or doubling occurs only at the boundary between two words or , as in that example.)


Vowels

Simple vowels

In Classical Latin, did not exist as a letter distinct from V; the written form was used to represent both a vowel and a consonant. was adopted to represent in loanwords from Greek, but it was pronounced like and by some speakers. It was also used in native Latin words by confusion with Greek words of similar meaning, such as sylva and ὕλη.

Classical Latin distinguished between . Then, long vowels, except for , were frequently marked using the apex, which was sometimes similar to an . Long was written using a taller version of , called i longa "long I": . In modern texts, long vowels are often indicated by a macron , and short vowels are usually unmarked except when it is necessary to distinguish between words, when they are marked with a : .

Long vowels in Classical Latin were pronounced with a different quality from short vowels and also were longer. The difference is described in table below:

+ Pronunciation of Latin vowels ! Latin
grapheme ! Latin
phone ! modern examples

A vowel letter followed by at the end of a word, or a vowel letter followed by before or , represented a long , as in monstrum .


Diphthongs
Classical Latin had several . The two most common were . was fairly rare, and were very rare, at least in native Latin words. There has also been debate over whether is truly a diphthong in Classical Latin, due to its rarity, absence in works of Roman grammarians, and the roots of Classical Latin words (i.e. hui ce to huic, quoi to cui, etc.) not matching or being similar to the pronunciation of classical words if were to be considered a diphthong.

The sequences sometimes did not represent diphthongs. and also represented a sequence of two vowels in different syllables in aēnus "of bronze" and coēpit "began", and represented sequences of two vowels or of a vowel and one of the semivowels , in cavē "beware!", cuius "whose", monuī "I warned", solvī "I released", dēlēvī "I destroyed", eius "his", and novus "new".

Old Latin had more diphthongs, but most of them changed into long vowels in Classical Latin. The Old Latin diphthong and the sequence became Classical . Old Latin and changed to Classical , except in a few words whose became Classical . These two developments sometimes occurred in different words from the same root: for instance, Classical poena "punishment" and pūnīre "to punish". Early Old Latin usually changed to Classical .

In Vulgar Latin and the Romance languages, merged with . A similar pronunciation also existed during the Classical Latin period for less-educated speakers.

+ Diphthongs classified by beginning sound ! !! Front !! Back


Orthography
Latin was written in the Latin alphabet, derived from the Old Italic script, which was in turn drawn from the and ultimately the Phoenician alphabet. This alphabet has continued to be used over the centuries as the script for the Romance, Celtic, Germanic, Baltic, Finnic, and many Slavic languages (, , , Croatian and ); and it has been adopted by many languages around the world, including Vietnamese, the Austronesian languages, many , and most languages in sub-Saharan Africa, the , and , making it by far the world's single most widely used writing system.

The number of letters in the Latin alphabet has varied. When it was first derived from the Etruscan alphabet, it contained only 21 letters. Later, G was added to represent , which had previously been spelled C, and Z ceased to be included in the alphabet, as the language then had no voiced alveolar fricative. The letters Y and Z were later added to represent Greek letters, and respectively, in Greek loanwords.

W was created in the 11th century from VV. It represented in Germanic languages, not Latin, which still uses V for the purpose. J was distinguished from the original I only during the late Middle Ages, as was the letter U from V. Although some Latin dictionaries use J, it is rarely used for Latin text, as it was not used in classical times, but many other languages use it.

Classical Latin did not contain sentence , letter case, or interword spacing, but apices were sometimes used to distinguish length in vowels and the was used at times to separate words. The first line of Catullus 3, originally written as

LV́GÉTEÓVENERÉSCVPÍDINÉSQVE ("Mourn, O Venuses and ")

or with interpunct as

LV́GÉTE·Ó·VENERÉS·CVPÍDINÉSQVE

would be rendered in a modern edition as

Lugete, o Veneres Cupidinesque

or with macrons

Lūgēte, ō Venerēs Cupīdinēsque

or with apices

Lúgéte, ó Venerés Cupídinésque.

The script is commonly found on the many excavated at sites such as forts, an especially extensive set having been discovered at Vindolanda on Hadrian's Wall in . Most notable is the fact that while most of the Vindolanda tablets show spaces between words, spaces were avoided in monumental inscriptions from that era.


Alternative scripts
Occasionally, Latin has been written in other scripts:
  • The is a 7th-century BC pin with an Old Latin inscription written using the Etruscan script.
  • The rear panel of the early 8th-century has an inscription that switches from in Anglo-Saxon runes to Latin in Latin script and to Latin in runes.


Grammar
Latin is a synthetic, fusional language in the terminology of linguistic typology. In more traditional terminology, it is an inflected language, but typologists are apt to say "inflecting". Words include an objective semantic element and markers specifying the grammatical use of the word. The fusion of root meaning and markers produces very compact sentence elements: amō, "I love," is produced from a semantic element, ama-, "love," to which , a first person singular marker, is suffixed.

The grammatical function can be changed by changing the markers: the word is "inflected" to express different grammatical functions, but the semantic element usually does not change. (Inflection uses affixing and infixing. Affixing is prefixing and suffixing. Latin inflections are never prefixed.)

For example, amābit, "he (or she or it) will love", is formed from the same stem, amā-, to which a future tense marker, -bi-, is suffixed, and a third person singular marker, -t, is suffixed. There is an inherent ambiguity: -t may denote more than one grammatical category: masculine, feminine, or neuter gender. A major task in understanding Latin phrases and clauses is to clarify such ambiguities by an analysis of context. All natural languages contain ambiguities of one sort or another.

The inflections express gender, number, and in , , and , a process called . Markers are also attached to fixed stems of verbs, to denote person, number, tense, voice, , and aspect, a process called conjugation. Some words are uninflected and undergo neither process, such as adverbs, prepositions, and interjections.


Nouns
A regular Latin noun belongs to one of five main declensions, a group of nouns with similar inflected forms. The declensions are identified by the genitive singular form of the noun. The first declension, with a predominant ending letter of a, is signified by the genitive singular ending of -ae. The second declension, with a predominant ending letter of o, is signified by the genitive singular ending of -i. The third declension, with a predominant ending letter of i, is signified by the genitive singular ending of -is. The fourth declension, with a predominant ending letter of u, is signified by the genitive singular ending of -ūs. The fifth declension, with a predominant ending letter of e, is signified by the genitive singular ending of -ei.

There are seven Latin noun cases, which also apply to adjectives and pronouns and mark a noun's syntactic role in the sentence by means of inflections. Thus, is not as important in Latin as it is in English, which is less inflected. The general structure and word order of a Latin sentence can therefore vary. The cases are as follows:

  1. – used when the noun is the subject or a predicate nominative. The thing or person acting: the girl ran: puella cucurrit, or cucurrit puella
  2. – used when the noun is the possessor of or connected with an object: "the horse of the man", or "the man's horse"; in both instances, the word man would be in the when it is translated into Latin. It also indicates the , in which the material is quantified: "a group of people"; "a number of gifts": people and gifts would be in the genitive case. Some nouns are genitive with special verbs and adjectives: The cup is full of wine. Poculum plēnum vīnī est. The master of the slave had beaten him. Dominus servī eum verberāverat.
  3. – used when the noun is the indirect object of the sentence, with special verbs, with certain prepositions, and if it is used as agent, reference, or even possessor: The merchant hands the to the woman. Mercātor fēminae stolam trādit.)
  4. – used when the noun is the direct object of the subject and as the object of a preposition demonstrating place to which.: The man killed the boy. Vir puerum necāvit.
  5. – used when the noun demonstrates separation or movement from a source, cause, agent or instrument or when the noun is used as the object of certain prepositions; adverbial: You walked with the boy. Cum puerō ambulāvistī.
  6. – used when the noun is used in a direct address. The vocative form of a noun is often the same as the nominative, but exceptions include second-declension nouns ending in -us. The -us becomes an -e in the vocative singular. If it ends in -ius (such as fīlius), the ending is just ( filī), as distinct from the nominative plural ( filiī) in the vocative singular: " Master!" shouted the slave. " Domine!" clāmāvit servus.
  7. – used to indicate a location (corresponding to the English "in" or "at"). It is far less common than the other six cases of Latin nouns and usually applies to cities and small towns and islands along with a few common nouns, such as the word domus (house). In the singular of the first and second declensions, its form coincides with the genitive ( Roma becomes Romae, "in Rome"). In the plural of all declensions and the singular of the other declensions, it coincides with the ablative ( Athēnae becomes Athēnīs, "at Athens"). In the fourth-declension word domus, the locative form, domī ("at home") differs from the standard form of all other cases.

Latin lacks both definite and indefinite articles so puer currit can mean either "the boy is running" or "a boy is running". Also, the sentence coquus in culina laborat could mean "the cook works in the kitchen" or "the cook is working in the kitchen."


Adjectives
There are two types of regular Latin adjectives: first- and second- declension and third-declension. They are so-called because their forms are similar or identical to first- and second-declension and third-declension nouns, respectively. Latin adjectives also have comparative (more --, -er) and superlative (most --, est) forms. There are also a number of Latin participles.

Latin numbers are sometimes declined. See Numbers below.


First and second-declension adjectives
First and second-declension adjectives are declined like first-declension nouns for the feminine forms and like second-declension nouns for the masculine and neuter forms. For example, for mortuus, mortua, mortuum (dead), mortua is declined like a regular first-declension noun (such as puella (girl)), mortuus is declined like a regular second-declension masculine noun (such as dominus (lord, master)), and mortuum is declined like a regular second-declension neuter noun (such as auxilium (help)).

First and second declension -er adjectives

Some first and second declension adjectives have an -er as the masculine nominative singular form and are declined like regular first- and second-declension adjectives. Some but not all adjectives keep the e for all of the forms.


Third declension adjectives
Third-declension adjectives are mostly declined like normal third-declension nouns, with a few exceptions. In the plural nominative neuter, for example, the ending is -ia ( omnia (all, everything)), and for third-declension nouns, the plural nominative neuter ending is -a or -ia ( capita (heads), animalia (animals)) They can have one, two or three forms for the masculine, feminine, and neuter nominative singular.


Participles
Latin participles, like English participles, are formed from a verb. There are a few main types of participles: Present Active Participles, Perfect Passive Participles, Future Active Participles, and Future Passive Participles.


Prepositions
Latin sometimes uses prepositions, depending on the type of prepositional phrase being used. Prepositions can take two cases for their object: the accusative ("apud puerum" (with the boy), with "puerum" being the accusative form of "puer", boy) and the ablative ("sine puero" (without the boy), "puero" being the ablative form of "puer", boy).


Verbs
A regular verb in Latin belongs to one of four main conjugations. A conjugation is "a class of verbs with similar inflected forms." The conjugations are identified by the last letter of the verb's present stem. The present stem can be found by omitting the - re (- in deponent verbs) ending from the present infinitive form. The infinitive of the first conjugation ends in -ā-re or -ā-ri (active and passive respectively): amāre, "to love," hortārī, "to exhort"; of the second conjugation by -ē-re or -ē-rī: monēre, "to warn", verērī, "to fear;" of the third conjugation by -ere, : dūcere, "to lead," ūtī, "to use"; of the fourth by -ī-re, -ī-rī: audīre, "to hear," experīrī, "to attempt".

Irregular verbs may not follow the types or may be marked in a different way. The "endings" presented above are not the suffixed infinitive markers. The first letter in each case is the last of the stem so the conjugations are also called a-conjugation, e-conjugation and i-conjugation. The fused infinitive ending is - re or - . Third-conjugation stems end in a consonant: the consonant conjugation. Further, there is a subset of the third conjugation, the i-stems, which behave somewhat like the fourth conjugation, as they are both i-stems, one short and the other long. The stem categories descend from Indo-European and can therefore be compared to similar conjugations in other Indo-European languages.

There are six general tenses in Latin (present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect and future perfect), three (indicative, imperative and subjunctive, in addition to the , , , and ), three persons (first, second and third), two numbers (singular and plural), two voices (active and passive) and three aspects (perfective, imperfective, and ). Verbs are described by four principal parts:

  1. The first principal part is the first-person singular, present tense, indicative mood, active voice form of the verb. If the verb is impersonal, the first principal part will be in the third-person singular.
  2. The second principal part is the present infinitive active.
  3. The third principal part is the first-person singular, perfect indicative active form. Like the first principal part, if the verb is impersonal, the third principal part will be in the third-person singular.
  4. The fourth principal part is the supine form, or alternatively, the nominative singular, perfect passive participle form of the verb. The fourth principal part can show one gender of the participle or all three genders (- us for masculine, - a for feminine and - m for neuter) in the nominative singular. The fourth principal part will be the future participle if the verb cannot be made passive. Most modern Latin dictionaries, if they show only one gender, tend to show the masculine; but many older dictionaries instead show the neuter, as it coincides with the supine. The fourth principal part is sometimes omitted for intransitive verbs, but strictly in Latin, they can be made passive if they are used impersonally, and the supine exists for such verbs.

There are six tenses in the Latin language. These are divided into two tense systems: the present system, which is made up of the present, imperfect and future tenses, and the perfect system, which is made up of the perfect, pluperfect and future perfect tenses. Each tense has a set of endings corresponding to the person and number referred to. Subject (nominative) pronouns are generally omitted for the first ( I, we) and second ( you) persons unless emphasis on the subject is desired.

The table below displays the common inflected endings for the indicative mood in the active voice in all six tenses. For the future tense, the first listed endings are for the first and second conjugations, and the second listed endings are for the third and fourth conjugations:

-nt
-bitis, -ētis-bunt, -ent
-bant
-ērunt
-erint
-erant
The future perfect endings are identical to the future forms of sum (with the exception of erint) and that the pluperfect endings are identical to the imperfect forms of sum.


Deponent verbs
Some Latin verbs are , causing their forms to be in the passive voice but retain an active meaning: ''hortor, hortārī, hortātus sum (to urge).


Vocabulary
As Latin is an Italic language, most of its vocabulary is likewise Italic, ultimately from the ancestral Proto-Indo-European language. However, because of close cultural interaction, the Romans not only adapted the Etruscan alphabet to form the Latin alphabet but also borrowed some Etruscan words into their language, including persona "mask" and histrio "actor". Latin also included vocabulary borrowed from , another Italic language.

After the Fall of Tarentum (272 BC), the Romans began hellenizing, or adopting features of Greek culture, including the borrowing of Greek words, such as camera (vaulted roof), sumbolum (symbol), and balineum (bath). This hellenization led to the addition of "Y" and "Z" to the alphabet to represent Greek sounds.

(2018). 9780767911726, Broadway Books.
Subsequently the Romans transplanted , , and to Italy, paying almost any price to entice Greek skilled and educated persons to Rome and sending their youth to be educated in Greece. Thus, many Latin scientific and philosophical words were Greek loanwords or had their meanings expanded by association with Greek words, as ars (craft) and τέχνη (art).

Because of the Roman Empire's expansion and subsequent trade with outlying European tribes, the Romans borrowed some northern and central European words, such as beber (beaver), of Germanic origin, and bracae (breeches), of Celtic origin. The specific dialects of Latin across Latin-speaking regions of the former Roman Empire after its fall were influenced by languages specific to the regions. The dialects of Latin evolved into different Romance languages.

During and after the adoption of Christianity into Roman society, Christian vocabulary became a part of the language, either from Greek or Hebrew borrowings or as Latin neologisms. Continuing into the Middle Ages, Latin incorporated many more words from surrounding languages, including and other Germanic languages.

Over the ages, Latin-speaking populations produced new adjectives, nouns, and verbs by or compounding meaningful segments. For example, the compound adjective, omnipotens, "all-powerful," was produced from the adjectives omnis, "all", and potens, "powerful", by dropping the final s of omnis and concatenating. Often, the concatenation changed the part of speech, and nouns were produced from verb segments or verbs from nouns and adjectives.


Phrases
The phrases are mentioned with to show where stress is placed.Ebbe Vilborg – Norstedts svensk-latinska ordbok – Second edition, 2009. In Latin, most words are stressed at the second-last (penultimate) , called in Latin paenultima or syllaba paenultima.Latin – Kulturen, historien, språket – First edition, 2009. A few words are stressed at the third-last syllable, called in Latin antepaenultima or syllaba antepaenultima.

sálve to one person / salvéte to more than one person – hello

áve to one person / avéte to more than one person – greetings

vále to one person / valéte to more than one person – goodbye

cúra ut váleas – take care

exoptátus to male / exoptáta to female, optátus to male / optáta to female, grátus to male / gráta to female, accéptus to male / accépta to female – welcome

quómodo váles?, ut váles? – how are you?

bonus – good

amabo te – please

béne váleo – I'm fine

mále – bad

mále váleo – I'm not good

quáeso ('kwajso/'kwe:so) – please

íta, íta est, íta véro, sic, sic est, étiam – yes

non, minime – no

grátias tíbi, grátias tíbi ágo – thank you, I give thanks to you

mágnas grátias, mágnas grátias ágo – many thanks

máximas grátias, máximas grátias ágo, ingéntes grátias ágo – thank you very much

accípe sis to one person / accípite sítis to more than one person, libénter – you're welcome

qua aetáte es? – how old are you?

25 ánnos nátus to male / 25 ánnos náta to female – 25 years old

loquerísne ... – do you speak ...

  • Latíne? – Latin?
  • Gráece? ('grajke/'gre:ke) – Greek?
  • Ánglice? ('aŋlike) – English?
  • Italiáne? – Italian?
  • Gallice? – French?
  • Hispánice? – Spanish?
  • Lusitánice? – Portuguese?
  • Theodísce? (teo'diske) – German?
  • Sínice? – Chinese?
  • Japónice? (ja'po:nike) – Japanese?
  • Coreane? – Korean?
  • Arábice? – Arabic?
  • Pérsice? – Persian?
  • Indice? – Hindi?
  • Rússice? – Russian?
  • Cambrica? – Welsh?
  • Suecice? – Swedish?

úbi latrína est? – where is the toilet?

ámo te / te ámo – I love you


Numbers
In ancient times, numbers in Latin were written only with letters. Today, the numbers can be written with the as well as with . The numbers 1, 2 and 3 and every whole hundred from 200 to 900 are declined as nouns and adjectives, with some differences.

ūnus, ūna, ūnum (masculine, feminine, neuter) I one
duo, duae, duo (m., f., n.) II two
trēs, tria (m./f., n.) III three
quattuor IIII or IV four
quīnque V five
sex VI six
septem VII seven
octō VIII eight
novem VIIII or IX nine
decem X ten
quīnquāgintā L fifty
centum C one hundred
quīngentī D five hundred
mīlle M one thousand

The numbers from 4 to 100 often do not change their endings.


Example text
Commentarii de Bello Gallico, also called De Bello Gallico ( The Gallic War), written by , begins with the following passage:


See also
  • Accademia Vivarium Novum
  • Classical compound
  • Contemporary Latin
  • Greek and Latin roots in English
  • List of Greek and Latin roots in English
  • List of Latin abbreviations
  • List of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names
  • List of Latin phrases
  • List of Latin translations of modern literature
  • List of Latin words with English derivatives
  • List of Latinised names
  • Romanization (cultural)


Bibliography


External links

Language tools
  • Searches Lewis & Short's A Latin Dictionary and Lewis's An Elementary Latin Dictionary. Online results.
  • Search on line Latin-English and English-Latin dictionary with complete declension or conjugation. Online results.
  • Identifies the grammatical functions of words entered. Online results.
  • Identifies the grammatical functions of all the words in sentences entered, using Perseus.
  • Displays complete conjugations of verbs entered in first-person present singular form.
  • Displays conjugation of verbs entered in their infinitive form.
  • Identifies Latin words entered. Translates English words entered.
  • Combines Whittakers Words, Lewis and Short, Bennett's grammar and inflection tables in a browser addon.
  • " Classical Language Toolkit" (CLTK). A Natural Language Processing toolkit for Python offering a variety of functionality for Latin and other classical languages.


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