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An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written or ) that is used to write one or more based upon the general principle that the letters represent (basic significant sounds) of the . This is in contrast to other types of , such as (in which each character represents a ) and (in which each character represents a word, , or semantic unit).

The script, later known as the Phoenician alphabet, is the first fully phonemic script. Thus the Phoenician alphabet is considered to be the first alphabet. The Phoenician alphabet is the ancestor of most modern alphabets, including , , , Cyrillic, , and possibly . Under a terminological distinction promoted by Peter T. Daniels, an "alphabet" is a script that represents both and as letters equally. In this narrow sense of the word the first "true" alphabet was the ,

(1996). 063121481X, Blackwell Publishing. 063121481X
which was developed on the basis of the earlier Phoenician alphabet. In other alphabetic scripts such as the original Phoenician, or , letters predominantly or exclusively represent consonants; such a script is also called an . A third type, called or alphasyllabary, is one where vowels are shown by or modifications of consonantal base letters, as in and other South Asian scripts. The (for Cambodian) is the longest, with 74 letters.

There are dozens of alphabets in use today, the most popular being the (which was derived from the ). Many languages use modified forms of the Latin alphabet, with additional letters formed using diacritical marks. While most alphabets have letters composed of lines (), there are also exceptions such as the alphabets used in .

Alphabets are usually associated with a standard ordering of letters. This makes them useful for purposes of , specifically by allowing words to be sorted in alphabetical order. It also means that their letters can be used as an alternative method of "numbering" ordered items, in such contexts as and number placements.

The English word alphabet came into from the word alphabetum, which in turn originated in the ἀλφάβητος ( alphabētos). The Greek word was made from the first two letters, alpha and beta. The names for the Greek letters came from the first two letters of the Phoenician alphabet; , which also meant ox, and bet, which also meant house.

In the in English, the term "ABCs" is used instead of the word "alphabet" ( Now I know my ABCs...). "Knowing one's ABCs", in general, can be used as a metaphor for knowing the basics about anything.


Ancient Northeast African and Middle Eastern scripts
The history of the alphabet started in . By the 27th century BC, Egyptian writing had a set of some 24 hieroglyphs that are called uniliterals, to represent syllables that begin with a single of their language, plus a vowel (or no vowel) to be supplied by the native speaker. These glyphs were used as pronunciation guides for , to write grammatical inflections, and, later, to transcribe loan words and foreign names.

In the Middle Bronze Age, an apparently "alphabetic" system known as the Proto-Sinaitic script appears in Egyptian turquoise mines in the dated to circa the 15th century BC, apparently left by Canaanite workers. In 1999, John and Deborah Darnell discovered an even earlier version of this first alphabet at Wadi el-Hol dated to circa 1800 BC and showing evidence of having been adapted from specific forms of Egyptian hieroglyphs that could be dated to circa 2000 BC, strongly suggesting that the first alphabet had been developed about that time. Based on letter appearances and names, it is believed to be based on Egyptian hieroglyphs. This script had no characters representing vowels, although originally it probably was a syllabary, but unneeded symbols were discarded. An alphabetic script with 30 signs including three that indicate the following vowel was invented in before the 15th century BC. This script was not used after the destruction of Ugarit. Ugaritic Writing online

The Proto-Sinaitic script eventually developed into the Phoenician alphabet, which is conventionally called "Proto-Canaanite" before ca. 1050 BC. The oldest text in Phoenician script is an inscription on the sarcophagus of King . This script is the parent script of all western alphabets. By the tenth century, two other forms can be distinguished, namely Canaanite and . The Aramaic gave rise to the script. The South Arabian alphabet, a sister script to the Phoenician alphabet, is the script from which the Ge'ez alphabet (an ) is descended. Vowelless alphabets, which are not true alphabets, are called , currently exemplified in scripts including , , and . The omission of vowels was not always a satisfactory solution and some "weak" consonants are sometimes used to indicate the vowel quality of a syllable (). These letters have a dual function since they are also used as pure consonants.

The Proto-Sinaitic or Proto-Canaanite script and the were the first scripts with a limited number of signs, in contrast to the other widely used writing systems at the time, , Egyptian hieroglyphs, and . The Phoenician script was probably the first phonemic script and it contained only about two dozen distinct letters, making it a script simple enough for common traders to learn. Another advantage of Phoenician was that it could be used to write down many different languages, since it recorded words phonemically.

The script was spread by the Phoenicians across the Mediterranean. In Greece, the script was modified to add the vowels, giving rise to the ancestor of all alphabets in the West. The vowels have independent letter forms separate from the consonants, therefore it was the first true alphabet. The Greeks chose letters representing sounds that did not exist in Greek to represent the vowels. The vowels are significant in the Greek language, and the syllabical script that was used by the Greeks from the 16th century BC had 87 symbols including 5 vowels. In its early years, there were many variants of the Greek alphabet, a situation that caused many different alphabets to evolve from it.

European alphabets
The , in its , was carried over by Greek colonists to the Italian peninsula, where it gave rise to a variety of alphabets used to write the . One of these became the , which was spread across Europe as the Romans expanded their empire. Even after the fall of the Roman state, the alphabet survived in intellectual and religious works. It eventually became used for the descendant languages of Latin (the Romance languages) and then for most of the other languages of Europe.

Some adaptations of the Latin alphabet are augmented with ligatures, such as æ in and Icelandic and Ȣ in Algonquian; by borrowings from other alphabets, such as the thorn þ in Old English and Icelandic, which came from the runes; and by modifying existing letters, such as the eth ð of Old English and Icelandic, which is a modified d. Other alphabets only use a subset of the Latin alphabet, such as Hawaiian, and , which uses the letters j, k, x, y and w only in foreign words.

Another notable script is , which is believed to have evolved out of one of the Old Italic alphabets. Elder Futhark gave rise to a variety of alphabets known collectively as the . The Runic alphabets were used for Germanic languages from AD 100 to the late Middle Ages. Its usage is mostly restricted to engravings on stone and jewelry, although inscriptions have also been found on bone and wood. These alphabets have since been replaced with the Latin alphabet, except for decorative usage for which the runes remained in use until the 20th century.

The Old Hungarian script is a contemporary writing system of the Hungarians. It was in use during the entire history of Hungary, albeit not as an official writing system. From the 19th century it once again became more and more popular.

The Glagolitic alphabet was the initial script of the liturgical language Old Church Slavonic and became, together with the Greek uncial script, the basis of the . Cyrillic is one of the most widely used modern alphabetic scripts, and is notable for its use in Slavic languages and also for other languages within the former . Cyrillic alphabets include the Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian, , Belarusian and Ukrainian. The Glagolitic alphabet is believed to have been created by Saints Cyril and Methodius, while the Cyrillic alphabet was invented by Clement of Ohrid, who was their disciple. They feature many letters that appear to have been borrowed from or influenced by the and the .

The longest European alphabet is which has 46 letters.

Asian alphabets
Beyond the logographic , many phonetic scripts are in existence in Asia. The , , , and other of the Middle East are developments of the , but because these writing systems are largely -based they are often not considered true alphabets.

Most alphabetic scripts of India and Eastern Asia are descended from the , which is often believed to be a descendant of Aramaic.

In , the alphabet was created by Sejong the Great."上親制諺文二十八字…是謂訓民正音(His majesty created 28 characters himself... It is (original name for ))", 《세종실록 (The Annals of the Choson Dynasty : Sejong)》 25년 12월. Hangul is a unique alphabet: it is a featural alphabet, where many of the letters are designed from a sound's place of articulation (P to look like the widened mouth, L to look like the tongue pulled in, etc.); its design was planned by the government of the day; and it places individual letters in syllable clusters with equal dimensions, in the same way as Chinese characters, to allow for mixed-script writing (one syllable always takes up one type-space no matter how many letters get stacked into building that one sound-block).

(sometimes called Bopomofo) is a used to phonetically transcribe in the . After the later establishment of the and its adoption of , the use of Zhuyin today is limited, but it is still widely used in where the Republic of China still governs. Zhuyin developed out of a form of Chinese shorthand based on Chinese characters in the early 1900s and has elements of both an alphabet and a syllabary. Like an alphabet the phonemes of are represented by individual symbols, but like a syllabary the phonemes of the are not; rather, each possible final (excluding the ) is represented by its own symbol. For example, luan is represented as ㄌㄨㄢ ( l-u-an), where the last symbol ㄢ represents the entire final -an. While Zhuyin is not used as a mainstream writing system, it is still often used in ways similar to a system—that is, for aiding in pronunciation and as an input method for Chinese characters on computers and cellphones.

European alphabets, especially Latin and Cyrillic, have been adapted for many languages of Asia. Arabic is also widely used, sometimes as an abjad (as with and ) and sometimes as a complete alphabet (as with and ).

[[File:Writing systems worldwide.png|460px|thumb| ]]

The term "alphabet" is used by and in both a wide and a narrow sense. In the wider sense, an alphabet is a script that is segmental at the level—that is, it has separate glyphs for individual sounds and not for larger units such as syllables or words. In the narrower sense, some scholars distinguish "true" alphabets from two other types of segmental script, and . These three differ from each other in the way they treat vowels: abjads have letters for consonants and leave most vowels unexpressed; abugidas are also consonant-based, but indicate vowels with to or a systematic graphic modification of the consonants. In alphabets in the narrow sense, on the other hand, consonants and vowels are written as independent letters.For critics of the abjad-abugida-alphabet distinction, see Reinhard G. Lehmann: "27-30-22-26. How Many Letters Needs an Alphabet? The Case of Semitic", in: The idea of writing: Writing across borders / edited by Alex de Voogt and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Leiden: Brill 2012, p. 11-52, esp p. 22-27 The earliest known alphabet in the wider sense is the Wadi el-Hol script, believed to be an abjad, which through its successor Phoenician is the ancestor of modern alphabets, including , , (via the Old Italic alphabet), (via the Greek alphabet) and (via ).

Examples of present-day abjads are the and ; true alphabets include , Cyrillic, and Korean ; and abugidas are used to write Tigrinya, , , and . The Canadian Aboriginal syllabics are also an abugida rather than a syllabary as their name would imply, since each glyph stands for a consonant that is modified by rotation to represent the following vowel. (In a true syllabary, each consonant-vowel combination would be represented by a separate glyph.)

All three types may be augmented with syllabic glyphs. , for example, is basically an abjad, but has syllabic letters for . (These are the only time vowels are indicated.) Cyrillic is basically a true alphabet, but has syllabic letters for (я, е, ю); has a letter for . is typically an abugida augmented with dedicated letters for initial vowels, though some traditions use अ as a as the graphic base for such vowels.

The boundaries between the three types of segmental scripts are not always clear-cut. For example, is written in the , which is normally an abjad. However, in Kurdish, writing the vowels is mandatory, and full letters are used, so the script is a true alphabet. Other languages may use a Semitic abjad with mandatory vowel diacritics, effectively making them abugidas. On the other hand, the of the was based closely on the , but all vowel marks were written after the preceding consonant rather than as diacritic marks. Although short a was not written, as in the Indic abugidas, one could argue that the linear arrangement made this a true alphabet. Conversely, the vowel marks of the Tigrinya abugida and the Amharic abugida (ironically, the original source of the term "abugida") have been so completely assimilated into their consonants that the modifications are no longer systematic and have to be learned as a syllabary rather than as a segmental script. Even more extreme, the Pahlavi abjad eventually became . (See below.)

Thus the primary of alphabets reflects how they treat vowels. For tonal languages, further classification can be based on their treatment of tone, though names do not yet exist to distinguish the various types. Some alphabets disregard tone entirely, especially when it does not carry a heavy functional load, as in and many other languages of Africa and the Americas. Such scripts are to tone what abjads are to vowels. Most commonly, tones are indicated with diacritics, the way vowels are treated in abugidas. This is the case for Vietnamese (a true alphabet) and (an abugida). In Thai, tone is determined primarily by the choice of consonant, with diacritics for disambiguation. In the , an abugida, vowels are indicated by diacritics, but the placement of the diacritic relative to the consonant is modified to indicate the tone. More rarely, a script may have separate letters for tones, as is the case for and . For most of these scripts, regardless of whether letters or diacritics are used, the most common tone is not marked, just as the most common vowel is not marked in Indic abugidas; in not only is one of the tones unmarked, but there is a diacritic to indicate lack of tone, like the of Indic.

The number of letters in an alphabet can be quite small. The Book script, an abjad, had only twelve letters at one point, and may have had even fewer later on. Today the has only twelve letters. (The Hawaiian alphabet is sometimes claimed to be as small, but it actually consists of 18 letters, including the ʻokina and five long vowels. However, has only 13 letters.) While Rotokas has a small alphabet because it has few phonemes to represent (just eleven), Book Pahlavi was small because many letters had been conflated—that is, the graphic distinctions had been lost over time, and diacritics were not developed to compensate for this as they were in , another script that lost many of its distinct letter shapes. For example, a comma-shaped letter represented g, d, y, k, or j. However, such apparent simplifications can perversely make a script more complicated. In later Pahlavi , up to half of the remaining graphic distinctions of these twelve letters were lost, and the script could no longer be read as a sequence of letters at all, but instead each word had to be learned as a whole—that is, they had become as in Egyptian .

The largest segmental script is probably an abugida, . When written in Devanagari, Vedic has an alphabet of 53 letters, including the visarga mark for final aspiration and special letters for and jñ, though one of the letters is theoretical and not actually used. The Hindi alphabet must represent both Sanskrit and modern vocabulary, and so has been expanded to 58 with the khutma letters (letters with a dot added) to represent sounds from Persian and English. Thai has a total of 59 symbols, consisting of 44 consonants, 13 vowels and 2 syllabics, not including 4 diacritics for tone marks and one for vowel length.

The largest known abjad is , with 51 letters. The largest alphabets in the narrow sense include Kabardian and (for ), with 58 and 56 letters, respectively, and (for the ), with 46. However, these scripts either count di- and tri-graphs as separate letters, as Spanish did with ch and ll until recently, or uses like Slovak č.

The Georgian alphabet (ანბანი ) is alphabetical writing system. It is the largest true alphabet where each letter is graphically independent with 33 letters. Original Georgian alphabet had 38 letters but 5 letters were removed in 19th century by Ilia Chavchavadze. The Georgian Alphabet is much closer to Greek than the other Caucasian alphabets. The numeric value runs parallel to the Greek one, the consonants without a Greek equivalent are organized at the end of the alphabet. Origins of the Alphabet are still unknown, some Armenian and Western scholars believe it was created by Mastots,

(2017). 9780700711635, Routledge. .
Glen Warren Bowersock, Peter Robert Lamont Brown, . Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World. Harvard University Press, 1999. . P. 289. James R. Russell. Alphabets. "Mastoc' was a charismatic visionary who accomplished his task at a time when Armenia stood in danger of losing both its national identity, through partition, and its newly acquired Christian faith, through Sassanian pressure and reversion to paganism. By preaching in Armenian, he was able to undermine and co-opt the discourse founded in native tradition, and to create a counterweight against both Byzantine and Syriac cultural hegemony in the church. Mastoc' also created the Georgian and Caucasian-Albanian alphabets, based on the Armenian model." other GeorgianGeorgian: ივ. ჯავახიშვილი, ქართული პალეოგრაფია, გვ. 205–208, 240–245 and Western, scholars are against this theory.

Syllabaries typically contain 50 to 400 glyphs, and the glyphs of logographic systems typically number from the many hundreds into the thousands. Thus a simple count of the number of distinct symbols is an important clue to the nature of an unknown script.

The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր or Հայոց այբուբեն ) is a graphically unique alphabetical writing system that has been used to write the Armenian language. It was introduced by Mesrob Mashdots around 405 AD, an Armenian linguist and ecclesiastical leader, and originally contained 36 letters. Two more letters, օ (o) and ֆ (f), were added in the Middle Ages. During the 1920s orthography reform, a new letter և (capital ԵՎ) was added, which was a ligature before ե+ւ, while the letter Ւ ւ was discarded and reintroduced as part of a new letter ՈՒ ու (which was a digraph before).

The Armenian word for "alphabet" is այբուբեն (), named after the first two letters of the Armenian alphabet Ա այբ ayb and Բ բեն ben. The Armenian script's directionality is horizontal left-to-right, like the Latin and Greek alphabets.

Alphabetical order
Alphabets often come to be associated with a standard ordering of their letters, which can then be used for purposes of —namely for the listing of words and other items in what is called alphabetical order.

The basic ordering of the (A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z), which is derived from the Northwest Semitic "Abgad" order,Reinhard G. Lehmann: "27-30-22-26. How Many Letters Needs an Alphabet? The Case of Semitic", in: The idea of writing: Writing across borders / edited by Alex de Voogt and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Leiden: Brill 2012, p. 11-52 is well established, although languages using this alphabet have different conventions for their treatment of modified letters (such as the é, à, and ô) and of certain combinations of letters (multigraphs). In French, these are not considered to be additional letters for the purposes of collation. However, in Icelandic, the accented letters such as á, í, and ö are considered distinct letters representing different vowel sounds from the sounds represented by their unaccented counterparts. In Spanish, ñ is considered a separate letter, but accented vowels such as á and é are not. The ll and ch were also considered single letters, but in 1994 the Real Academia Española changed the collating order so that ll is between lk and lm in the dictionary and ch is between cg and ci, and in 2010 the tenth congress of the Association of Spanish Language Academies changed it so they were no longer letters at all.Real Academia Española. "Spanish Pronto!: Spanish Alphabet." Spanish Pronto! 22 April 2007. January 2009 Spanish Pronto: Spanish ↔ English Medical Translators. "La 'i griega' se llamará 'ye'". Cuba Debate. 2010-11-05. Retrieved 12 December 2010.

In German, words starting with sch- (which spells the German phoneme ) are inserted between words with initial sca- and sci- (all incidentally loanwords) instead of appearing after initial sz, as though it were a single letter—in contrast to several languages such as Albanian, in which dh-, ë-, gj-, ll-, rr-, th-, xh- and zh- (all representing phonemes and considered separate single letters) would follow the letters d, e, g, l, n, r, t, x and z respectively, as well as Hungarian and Welsh. Further, German words with umlaut are collated ignoring the umlaut—contrary to that adopted the ö and ü, and where a word like tüfek, would come after tuz, in the dictionary. An exception is the German telephone directory where umlauts are sorted like ä = ae since names as Jäger appear also with the spelling Jaeger, and are not distinguished in the spoken language.

The Danish and Norwegian alphabets end with æøå, whereas the Swedish and Finnish ones conventionally put åäö at the end.

It is unknown whether the earliest alphabets had a defined sequence. Some alphabets today, such as the Hanuno'o script, are learned one letter at a time, in no particular order, and are not used for where a definite order is required. However, a dozen Ugaritic tablets from the fourteenth century BC preserve the alphabet in two sequences. One, the ABCDE order later used in Phoenician, has continued with minor changes in , , Armenian, , , and ; the other, HMĦLQ, was used in southern Arabia and is preserved today in Ethiopic. Both orders have therefore been stable for at least 3000 years.

used an unrelated sequence, which was later . uses its own sequence, although Arabic retains the traditional for numbering.

The of alphabets used in India use a unique order based on : The letters are arranged according to how and where they are produced in the mouth. This organization is used in Southeast Asia, Tibet, Korean , and even Japanese , which is not an alphabet.

Names of letters
The Phoenician letter names, in which each letter was associated with a word that begins with that sound (), continue to be used to varying degrees in Samaritan, , , , and .

The names were abandoned in , which instead referred to the letters by adding a vowel (usually e) before or after the consonant; the two exceptions were Y and Z, which were borrowed from the Greek alphabet rather than Etruscan, and were known as Y Graeca "Greek Y" (pronounced I Graeca "Greek I") and zeta (from Greek)—this discrepancy was inherited by many European languages, as in the term zed for Z in all forms of English other than American English. Over time names sometimes shifted or were added, as in double U for W ("double V" in French), the English name for Y, and American zee for Z. Comparing names in English and French gives a clear reflection of the Great Vowel Shift: A, B, C and D are pronounced /eɪ, biː, siː, diː/ in today's English, but in contemporary French they are /a, be, se, de/. The French names (from which the English names are derived) preserve the qualities of the English vowels from before the Great Vowel Shift. By contrast, the names of F, L, M, N and S (/ɛf, ɛl, ɛm, ɛn, ɛs/) remain the same in both languages, because "short" vowels were largely unaffected by the Shift.

In Cyrillic originally the letters were given names based on Slavic words; this was later abandoned as well in favor of a system similar to that used in Latin.

Orthography and pronunciation
When an alphabet is adopted or developed to represent a given language, an generally comes into being, providing rules for the of words in that language. In accordance with the principle on which alphabets are based, these rules will generally map letters of the alphabet to the (significant sounds) of the spoken language. In a perfectly phonemic orthography there would be a consistent one-to-one correspondence between the letters and the phonemes, so that a writer could predict the spelling of a word given its pronunciation, and a speaker would always know the pronunciation of a word given its spelling, and vice versa. However this ideal is not usually achieved in practice; some languages (such as and ) come close to it, while others (such as English) deviate from it to a much larger degree.

The pronunciation of a language often evolves independently of its writing system, and writing systems have been borrowed for languages they were not designed for, so the degree to which letters of an alphabet correspond to phonemes of a language varies greatly from one language to another and even within a single language.

Languages may fail to achieve a one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds in any of several ways:

  • A language may represent a given phoneme by a combination of letters rather than just a single letter. Two-letter combinations are called digraphs and three-letter groups are called trigraphs. uses the (four letters) "tsch" for the phoneme and (in a few borrowed words) "dsch" for . Kabardian also uses a tetragraph for one of its phonemes, namely "кхъу". Two letters representing one sound occur in several instances in Hungarian as well (where, for instance, cs stands for tʃ, sz for s, zs for ʒ, dzs for dʒ).
  • A language may represent the same phoneme with two or more different letters or combinations of letters. An example is which may write the phoneme in six different ways: , , , , , and (though the last is rare).
  • A language may spell some words with unpronounced letters that exist for historical or other reasons. For example, the spelling of the Thai word for "beer" เบียร์ retains a letter for the final consonant "r" present in the English word it was borrowed from, but silences it.
  • Pronunciation of individual words may change according to the presence of surrounding words in a sentence ().
  • Different dialects of a language may use different phonemes for the same word.
  • A language may use different sets of symbols or different rules for distinct sets of vocabulary items, such as the Japanese and syllabaries, or the various rules in English for spelling words from Latin and Greek, or the original Germanic vocabulary.

National languages sometimes elect to address the problem of dialects by simply associating the alphabet with the national standard. However, with an international language with wide variations in its dialects, such as , it would be impossible to represent the language in all its variations with a single phonetic alphabet.

Some national languages like , , , Serbo-Croatian (, Croatian and ) and Bulgarian have a very regular spelling system with a nearly one-to-one correspondence between letters and phonemes. Strictly speaking, these national languages lack a word corresponding to the verb "to spell" (meaning to split a word into its letters), the closest match being a verb meaning to split a word into its syllables. Similarly, the verb corresponding to 'spell (out)', compitare, is unknown to many Italians because spelling is usually trivial, as Italian spelling is highly phonemic. In standard , one can tell the pronunciation of a word from its spelling, but not vice versa, as certain phonemes can be represented in more than one way, but a given letter is consistently pronounced. , with its and its heavy use of and , may seem to lack much correspondence between spelling and pronunciation, but its rules on pronunciation, though complex, are actually consistent and predictable with a fair degree of accuracy.

At the other extreme are languages such as English, where the pronunciations of many words simply have to be memorized as they do not correspond to the spelling in a consistent way. For English, this is partly because the Great Vowel Shift occurred after the orthography was established, and because English has acquired a large number of loanwords at different times, retaining their original spelling at varying levels. Even English has general, albeit complex, rules that predict pronunciation from spelling, and these rules are successful most of the time; rules to predict spelling from the pronunciation have a higher failure rate.

Sometimes, countries have the written language undergo a to realign the writing with the contemporary spoken language. These can range from simple spelling changes and word forms to switching the entire writing system itself, as when switched from the Arabic alphabet to a Latin-based .

The standard system of symbols used by to represent sounds in any language, independently of orthography, is called the International Phonetic Alphabet.

See also

  • (1989). 9780631180289, Blackwell Publishers Ltd.. .
  • (1996). 9780195079937, Oxford University Press.
    Overview of modern and some ancient writing systems.
  • (1976). 9780197259177, Oxford University Press.
  • (2017). 9783406479984, C. H. Beck.
  • (2017). 9780814736548, NYU Press. .
    Chapter 3 traces and summarizes the invention of alphabetic writing.
  • (2017). 9781572735231, Hampton Press.
  • (1999). 9780789205216, Abbeville Press.
  • (1991). 052158907X, Cambridge University Press. 052158907X
  • (2017). 9781405162562, Blackwell.
  • (2017). 9780767911733, Broadway Books. .
  • (1991). 9780300050318, Yale University Press.
    Chapter 4 traces the invention of writing

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