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A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing in characters similar to those produced by printer's by means of keyboard-operated types striking a ribbon to transfer ink or carbon impressions onto the paper. Typically one character is printed per keypress. The machine prints characters by making ink impressions of type elements similar to the used in .

After their invention in the 1860s, typewriters quickly became indispensable tools for practically all writing other than personal correspondence. They were widely used by professional writers, in offices, and for business correspondence in private homes. By the end of the 1980s, and had largely displaced typewriters in most of these uses in the , but as of the 2010s the typewriter is still prominent in many parts of the world, including .

Notable typewriter manufacturer companies have included , , , , , , , , and .


History
Although many modern typewriters have one of several similar designs, their invention was incremental, provided by numerous inventors working independently or in competition with each other over a series of decades. As with the , , and , a number of people contributed insights and inventions that eventually resulted in ever more commercially successful instruments. In fact, historians have estimated that some form of typewriter was invented 52 times as thinkers tried to come up with a workable design.


Early innovations
In 1575 an printmaker, Francesco Rampazzetto, invented the 'scrittura tattile', a machine to impress letters in papers.

In 1714, obtained a patent in Britain for a machine that, from the patent, appears to have been similar to a typewriter. The patent shows that this machine was actually created: "he hath by his great study and paines & expence invented and brought to perfection an artificial machine or method for impressing or transcribing of letters, one after another, as in writing, whereby all writing whatsoever may be engrossed in paper or parchment so neat and exact as not to be distinguished from print; that the said machine or method may be of great use in settlements and public records, the impression being deeper and more lasting than any other writing, and not to be erased or counterfeited without manifest discovery."

In 1802 Italian Agostino Fantoni developed a particular typewriter to enable his blind sister to write.

In 1808 Italian invented a typewriter. He also invented to provide the ink for his machine.

In 1823 Italian Pietro Conti di Cilavegna invented a new model of typewriter, the 'tachigrafo', also known as 'tachitipo'.

In 1829, patented a machine called the "" which, in common with many other early machines, is listed as the "first typewriter". The describes it merely as "the first writing mechanism whose invention was documented," but even that claim may be excessive, since Turri's invention pre-dates it. Even in the hands of its inventor, this machine was slower than handwriting. Burt and his promoter John D. Sheldon never found a buyer for the patent, so the invention was never commercially produced. Because the typographer used a dial, rather than keys, to select each character, it was called an "index typewriter" rather than a "keyboard typewriter." Index typewriters of that era resemble the squeeze-style from the 1970s more than they resemble the modern keyboard typewriter.

By the mid-19th century, the increasing pace of business communication had created a need for mechanization of the writing process. and could take down information at rates up to 130 words per minute, whereas a writer with a pen was limited to a maximum of 30 words per minute (the 1853 speed record). ξ1

From 1829 to 1870, many printing or typing machines were patented by inventors in Europe and America, but none went into commercial production.

developed multiple patents, of which his first in 1843 was developed as an aid to the blind, such as the 1845 . In 1855, the created a prototype typewriter called o macchina da scrivere a tasti ("Scribe , or machine for writing with keys"). It was an advanced machine that let the user see the writing as it was typed. In 1861, Father , a Brazilian priest, made his own typewriter with basic materials and tools, such as wood and knives. In that same year the Brazilian emperor , presented a gold medal to Father Azevedo for this invention. Many Brazilian people as well as the Brazilian federal government recognize Fr. Azevedo as the real inventor of the typewriter, a claim that has been the subject of some controversy. In 1865, , of , built a machine called the Pterotype which appeared in an 1867 article and inspired other inventors. Between 1864 and 1867 , a carpenter from (former part of ) developed several models and a fully functioning prototype typewriter in 1867.


Hansen Writing Ball
In 1865, Rev. of invented the , which went into commercial production in 1870 and was the first commercially sold typewriter. It was a success in Europe and was reported as being used in offices in London as late as 1909. Malling-Hansen used a escapement to return the carriage on some of his models which makes him a candidate for the title of inventor of the first "electric" typewriter. According to the book Hvem er skrivekuglens opfinder? (English: Who is the inventor of the Writing Ball?), written by Malling-Hansen's daughter, Johanne Agerskov, in 1865, Malling-Hansen made a porcelain model of the keyboard of his writing ball and experimented with different placements of the letters to achieve the fastest writing speed. Malling-Hansen placed the letters on short pistons that went directly through the ball and down to the paper. This, together with the placement of the letters so that the fastest writing fingers struck the most frequently used letters, made the Hansen Writing Ball the first typewriter to produce text substantially faster than a person could write by hand. The Hansen Writing Ball was produced with only upper case characters.

Malling-Hansen developed his typewriter further through the 1870s and 1880s and made many improvements, but the writing head remained the same. On the first model of the writing ball from 1870, the paper was attached to a cylinder inside a wooden box. In 1874, the cylinder was replaced by a carriage, moving beneath the writing head. Then, in 1875, the well-known "tall model" was patented, which was the first of the writing balls that worked without electricity. Malling-Hansen attended the world exhibitions in Vienna in 1873 and Paris in 1878 and he received the first-prize for his invention at both exhibitions.


Sholes and Glidden Type-writer
The first typewriter to be commercially successful was invented in 1868 by Americans , and in , although Sholes soon disowned the machine and refused to use, or even to recommend it. The working prototype was made by the machinist . The History of the Typewriter - Smart Beard Schwalbach Tower Clocks, Vintagecatalogs.com Wisconsin Historical Commission, Waymarking.com The patent (US 79,265) was sold for $12,000 to , who made an agreement with (then famous as a manufacturer of ) to commercialize the machine as the . This was the origin of the term typewriter. Remington began production of its first typewriter on March 1, 1873, in . It had a keyboard layout, which because of the machine's success, was slowly adopted by other typewriter manufacturers. As with most other early typewriters, because the type bars strike upwards, the typist could not see the characters as they were typed.


Standardization
By about 1910, the "manual" or "mechanical" typewriter had reached a somewhat standardized design. There were minor variations from one manufacturer to another, but most typewriters followed the concept that each key was attached to a typebar that had the corresponding letter molded, in reverse, into its striking head. When a key was struck briskly and firmly, the typebar hit a ribbon (usually made of ), making a printed mark on the paper wrapped around a cylindrical . The platen was mounted on a carriage that moved left or right, automatically advancing the typing position horizontally after each character was typed. The paper, rolled around the typewriter's platen, was then advanced vertically by the "carriage return" lever (at the far left, or sometimes on the far right) into position for each new line of text.

Some ribbons were inked in black and red stripes, each being half the width and the entire length of the ribbon. A lever on most machines allowed switching between colors, which was useful for bookkeeping entries where negative amounts had to be in red.


Frontstriking
In most of the early typewriters, the struck upward against the paper, pressed against the bottom of the , so the typist could not see the text as it was typed. What was typed was not visible until a carriage return caused it to scroll into view. The difficulty with any other arrangement was ensuring the type bars fell back into place reliably when the key was released. This was eventually achieved with various ingenious mechanical designs and so-called "visible typewriters" which used frontstriking, in which the type bars struck forward against the front side of the platen, became standard. One of the first was the Daugherty Visible, introduced in 1893, which also introduced the four-bank keyboard that became standard, although the Underwood which came out two years later was the first major typewriter with these features. However, older "nonvisible" models continued in production to as late as 1915.


Shift key
A significant innovation was the , introduced with the No. 2 in 1878. This key physically "shifted" either the basket of typebars, in which case the typewriter is described as "basket shift", or the paper-holding carriage, in which case the typewriter is described as "carriage shift". Either mechanism caused a different portion of the typebar to come in contact with the ribbon/platen. The result is that each typebar could type two different characters, cutting the number of keys and typebars in half (and simplifying the internal mechanisms considerably). The obvious use for this was to allow letter keys to type both upper and lower case, but normally the number keys were also duplexed, allowing access to special symbols such as percent (%) and ampersand (&). With the shift key, manufacturing costs (and therefore purchase price) were greatly reduced, and typist operation was simplified; both factors contributed greatly to mass adoption of the technology. Certain models, such as the Barlet, had a double shift so that each key performed three functions. These little three-row machines were very portable and could be used by journalists, etc.

However, because the shift key required more force to push (its mechanism was moving a much larger mass than other keys), and was operated by the "" finger (normally the weakest finger on the hand), it was difficult to hold the shift down for more than two or three consecutive strokes. The "shift lock" key (the precursor to the modern ) allowed the shift operation to be maintained indefinitely.


Character Sizes
In English-speaking countries, the commonplace typewriters printing fixed-width characters were standardized to print six horizontal lines per vertical inch, and had either of two variants of character width, called "pica" for ten characters per horizontal inch and "elite" for twelve. This differs from the use of these terms in printing, where they refer to the height of the characters on the page ("pica" making for ten horizontal lines per vertical inch).


"Noiseless" designs
In the early part of the 20th century, a typewriter was marketed under the name "Noiseless" and advertised as "silent". It was developed by Wellington Parker Kidder and the first model was marketed by the Noiseless Typewriter Company in 1917. An agreement with Remington in 1924 saw production transferred to Remington, and a further agreement in 1929 allowed Underwood to produce it as well. OOcities.com Reproduction of advertisement for Noiseless typewriters, with list of models and diagram of typebar mechanism It failed to sell well, leading some observers to the conclusion that the "clickety-clack" of the typical typewriter was a consumer preference. Newyorker.com Acocella, Joan, "The Typing Life: How writers used to write", , April 9, 2007, a review of The Iron Whim: A Fragmented History of Typewriting (Cornell) 2007, by Darren Wershler-Henry A more likely reason is that the claims of silent operation were simply untrue.

In a conventional typewriter the type bars are decelerated at the end of their travel simply by impacting upon the ribbon and paper. So-called "noiseless" typewriters have a complex lever mechanism that decelerates the typebar mechanically and then presses it against the ribbon and paper in an attempt to render the process less noisy. It was not particularly successful; it certainly reduced the high-frequency content of the sound, rendering it more of a "clunk" than a "clack" and arguably less intrusive, but the grandiose claims of the advertising — such as "A machine that can be operated a few feet away from your desk — And not be heard" — were entirely without foundation.


Electric designs
Although electric typewriters would not achieve widespread popularity until nearly a century later, the basic groundwork for the electric typewriter was laid by the , invented by in 1870. This device remotely printed letters and numbers on a stream of paper tape from input generated by a specially designed typewriter at the other end of a telegraph line.


Early electric models
The first electric typewriter was produced by the , of , in 1902. Like the manual Blickensderfer typewriters it used a cylindrical typewheel rather than individual typebars. It was not a commercial success, which may have been because at the time electricity had not been standardized and voltage differed from city to city. The next step in the development of the electric typewriter came in 1910, when Charles and Howard Krum filed a patent for the first practical . The Krums' machine, named the Morkrum Printing Telegraph, used a typewheel rather than individual typebars. This machine was used for the first commercial teletypewriter system on Postal Telegraph Company lines between and in 1910. ξ2

of Kansas City invented what is considered the first practical power-operated typewriter in 1914. In 1920, after returning from Army service, he produced a successful model and in 1923 turned it over to the Northeast Electric Company of Rochester for development. Northeast was interested in finding new markets for their electric motors and developed Smathers's design so that it could be marketed to typewriter manufacturers, and from 1925 Remington Electric typewriters were produced powered by Northeast's motors.

After some 2,500 electric typewriters had been produced, Northeast asked Remington for a firm contract for the next batch. However, Remington was engaged in merger talks which would eventually result in the creation of and no executives were willing to commit to a firm order. Northeast instead decided to enter the typewriter business for itself, and in 1929 produced the first Electromatic Typewriter.

In 1928, , a division of , purchased Northeast Electric, and the typewriter business was spun off as the Electromatic Typewriters, Inc. In 1933, Electromatic was acquired by , which then spent $1 million on a redesign of the Electromatic Typewriter, launching the IBM Electric Typewriter Model 01 in 1935. By 1958 IBM was deriving 8% of its revenue from the sale of electric typewriters.

In 1931, an electric typewriter was introduced by Varityper Corporation. It was called the Varityper, because a narrow cylinder like wheel could be replaced to change the .

Electrical typewriter designs removed the direct mechanical connection between the keys and the element that struck the paper. Not to be confused with later electronic typewriters, electric typewriters contained only a single electrical component: the motor. Where the keystroke had previously moved a typebar directly, now it engaged mechanical linkages that directed mechanical power from the motor into the typebar.

In 1941, IBM announced the Electromatic Model 04 electric typewriter, featuring the revolutionary concept of proportional spacing. By assigning varied rather than uniform spacing to different sized characters, the Type 4 recreated the appearance of a printed page, an effect that was further enhanced by a typewriter ribbon innovation that produced clearer, sharper words on the page. The proportional spacing feature became a staple of the .


IBM Selectric
IBM and Remington Rand electric typewriters were the leading models until IBM introduced the in 1961, which replaced the typebars with a spherical element (or typeball) slightly smaller than a golf ball, with reverse-image letters molded into its surface. The Selectric used a system of latches, metal tapes, and pulleys driven by an electric motor to rotate the ball into the correct position and then strike it against the ribbon and platen. The typeball moved laterally in front of the paper, instead of the previous designs using a platen-carrying carriage moving the paper across a stationary print position.

Due to the physical similarity, the typeball was sometimes referred to as a "golfball". The typeball design had many advantages, especially the elimination of "jams" (when more than one key was struck at once and the typebars became entangled) and in the ability to change the typeball, allowing multiple fonts to be used in a single document.

The IBM Selectric became a commercial success, dominating the office typewriter market for at least two decades. IBM also gained an advantage by marketing more heavily to schools than did Remington, with the idea that students who learned to type on a Selectric would later choose IBM typewriters over the competition in the workplace as businesses replaced their old manual models. By the 1970s, IBM had succeeded in establishing the Selectric as the de facto standard typewriter in mid- to high-end office environments, replacing the raucous "clack" of older typebar machines with the quieter sound of gyrating typeballs.

Later models of IBM Executives and Selectrics replaced inked fabric ribbons with "carbon film" ribbons that had a dry black or colored powder on a clear plastic tape. These could be used only once, but later models used a cartridge that was simple to replace. A side effect of this technology was that the text typed on the machine could be easily read from the used ribbon, raising issues where the machines were used for preparing classified documents (ribbons had to be accounted for to ensure that typists did not carry them from the facility). ξ3

A variation known as "Correcting Selectrics" introduced a correction feature, where a sticky tape in front of the carbon film ribbon could remove the black-powdered image of a typed character, eliminating the need for little bottles of white dab-on correction fluid and for hard erasers that could tear the paper. These machines also introduced selectable "pitch" so that the typewriter could be switched between type (10 characters per inch) and elite type (12 per inch), even within one document. Even so, all Selectrics were —each character and letterspace was allotted the same width on the page, from a capital "W" to a period. Although IBM had produced a successful typebar-based machine with five levels of proportional spacing, called the , ξ4 proportional spacing was not provided with the Selectric typewriter or its successors the Selectric II and Selectric III.

The only fully electromechanical Selectric Typewriter with fully proportional spacing and which used a Selectric type element was the expensive , which was capable of right-margin justification and was considered a rather than a typewriter.

In addition to its electronic successors, the Magnetic Tape Selectric Composer (MT/SC), the Mag Card Selectric Composer, and the Electronic Selectric Composer, IBM also made electronic typewriters with proportional spacing using the Selectric element that were considered typewriters or word processors instead of typesetting machines.

The first of these was the relatively obscure Mag Card Executive, which used 88-character elements. Later, some of the same typestyles used for it were used on the 96-character elements used on the IBM Electronic Typewriter 50 and the later models 65 and 85.

By 1970, as began to replace , the Composer would be adapted as the output unit for a typesetting system. The system included a computer-driven input station to capture the key strokes on magnetic tape and insert the operator's format commands, and a Composer unit to read the tape and produce the formatted text for photo reproduction.

Selectric mechanisms were widely incorporated into computer terminals in the 1960s and 1970s, as they possessed obvious advantages:

  • reasonably fast, jam-free, and reliable
  • relatively quiet, and more importantly, free of major vibrations
  • could produce high quality lower- and upper-case output, compared to competitors such as machines
  • could be activated by a short, low-force mechanical action, allowing easier interfacing to electronic controls
  • did not require the movement of a heavy "type basket" to shift between lower- and upper-case, allowing higher speed without heavy impacts
  • did not require the platen roller assembly to move from side to side (a problem with continuous-feed paper used for automated printing)

The terminal was a popular example of a Selectric-based computer terminal, and similar mechanisms were employed as the console devices for many computers. These mechanisms used "ruggedized" designs compared to those in standard office typewriters.


Later electric models
Some of IBM's advances were later adopted in less expensive machines from competitors. For example, electric typewriters of the 1970s used interchangeable ribbon cartridges, including fabric, film, erasing, and two-color versions. At about the same time, the advent of meant that carbon copies and erasers were less and less necessary; only the original need be typed, and photocopies made from it.


Typewriter/printer hybrids
Towards the end of the commercial popularity of typewriters in the 1970s, a number of hybrid designs combining features of were introduced. These often incorporated keyboards from existing models of typewriters and printing mechanisms of . The generation of with impact pin-based printing engines was not adequate for the demanding quality required for typed output, and alternative technologies used in thermal had become technically feasible for typewriters.

produced a series of typewriters called Thermotronic with letter-quality output and correcting tape along with printers tagged . extended the life of their typewriter product line with similar products. The development of these proprietary printing engines provided the vendors with exclusive markets in consumable ribbons and the ability to use standardized printing engines with varying degrees of electronic and software sophistication to develop product lines. Although these changes reduced prices—and greatly increased the convenience—of typewriters, the posed by left these improvements with only a short-term low-end market. To extend the life of these products, many examples were provided with communication ports to connect them to computers as printers.


Electronic typewriters
The final major development of the typewriter was the "electronic" typewriter. Most of these replaced the typeball with a plastic or metal mechanism (a disk with the letters molded on the outside edge of the "petals"). The daisy wheel concept first emerged in printers developed by in the 1970s. In 1981, , who by then had bought Diablo Systems, introduced a line of Electronic Typewriters incorporating this technology (the Memorywriter product line). For a time, these products were quite successful as their plastic daisy-wheel was much simpler and cheaper than the metal typeball and their electronic memory and display allowed the user to easily see errors and correct them before they were actually printed. One problem with the plastic daisy wheel was that they were not always durable. To solve this problem, more durable metal daisy wheels were made available (but at a slightly higher price). These and similar electronic typewriters were in essence dedicated with either single line displays or multi-line displays, built-in in ROM, a and , a few kilobytes of internal and optional cartridge, magnetic card or diskette external memory-storage devices for storing text and even document formats. Text could be entered a line or paragraph at a time and edited using the display and built-in software tools before being committed to paper. Unlike the Selectrics and earlier models, these really were "electronic" and relied on integrated circuits and multiple electromechanical components. These typewriters were sometimes called display typewriters, dedicated word processors or word-processing typewriters, though the latter term was also frequently applied to less sophisticated machines that featured only a tiny, sometimes just single-row display. Sophisticated models were also called word processors, though today that term almost always denotes a type of software program. Manufacturers of such machines included (Brother WP1 and WP500 etc., where WP stood for word processor), (), (PWP, i.e. Personal Word Processor line) and / ().
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" layout of typewriter keys became a de facto standard and continues to be used long after the reasons for its adoption (including reduction of key/lever entanglements) have ceased to apply.]]]]
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ξ6 and the use of straight quotes (or "dumb quotes") as quotation marks and [prime]
ξ8 . Strizver states that "When available, true primes should be used for measurements, but typewriter quotes (not smart quotes) have become the accepted practice in digital typography." The practice of underlining text in place of italics and the use of all capitals to provide emphasis are additional examples of typographical conventions that derived from the limitations of the typewriter keyboard that still carry on today. This topic is discussed under "Creating Professional-looking Text."; Williams 2003. pps. 31, 33. Another example of the limitation of the typewriter in regard to underlining, was the necessity to underline the titles of books and stand-alone works in Bibliographies—works that would otherwise have been italicized, if that capability existed on the typewriter./" itemprop="url" title="Wiki: ; <small> <a name="cite_ref_8" ><a href="#cite_8" title="Goto to reference #8">&xi;8</a> </small>. Strizver states that "When available, true primes should be used for measurements, but typewriter quotes have become the accepted practice in digital typography."</ref> The practice of underlining text in place of italics and the use of all capitals to provide emphasis are additional examples of typographical conventions that derived from the limitations of the typewriter keyboard that still carry on today.<ref> This topic is discussed under "Creating Professional-looking Text."; Williams 2003. pps. 31, 33. Another example of the limitation of the typewriter in regard to underlining, was the necessity to underline the titles of books and stand-alone works in Bibliographies—works that would otherwise have been italicized, if that capability existed on the typewriter.</ref>">; ξ8 . Strizver states that "When available, true primes should be used for measurements, but typewriter quotes have become the accepted practice in digital typography." The practice of underlining text in place of italics and the use of all capitals to provide emphasis are additional examples of typographical conventions that derived from the limitations of the typewriter keyboard that still carry on today. This topic is discussed under "Creating Professional-looking Text."; Williams 2003. pps. 31, 33. Another example of the limitation of the typewriter in regard to underlining, was the necessity to underline the titles of books and stand-alone works in Bibliographies—works that would otherwise have been italicized, if that capability existed on the typewriter.
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Stranger than Fiction , in which the very act of typing up her handwritten notes gives a fiction writer the power to kill or otherwise manipulate her main character in real life./" itemprop="url" title="Wiki: *Writer Zack Helm and director Mark Forster explored the potential mechanics of the "Soft Typewriter" philosophy in the movie Stranger than Fiction , in which the very act of typing up her handwritten notes gives a fiction writer the power to kill or otherwise manipulate her main character in real life.">*Writer Zack Helm and director Mark Forster explored the potential mechanics of the "Soft Typewriter" philosophy in the movie Stranger than Fiction , in which the very act of typing up her handwritten notes gives a fiction writer the power to kill or otherwise manipulate her main character in real life.
and (Non-Pica version)Haas, Josef and Bernhard Haas. (1985), "ATLAS der Schreibmaschinenschrift, Non-PICA". and the TYPE system developed by Dr. Philip Bouffard,/" itemprop="url" title="Wiki: The determination of a make and/or model of typewriter is a 'classification' problem and several systems have been developed for this purpose.<ref name=Kelly/> These include the original Haas Typewriter Atlases <ref>Haas, Josef. , "ATLAS der Schreibmaschinenschrift, PICA".</ref> and <ref>Haas, Josef and Bernhard Haas. , "ATLAS der Schreibmaschinenschrift, Non-PICA".</ref> and the TYPE system developed by Dr. Philip Bouffard,<ref>">The determination of a make and/or model of typewriter is a 'classification' problem and several systems have been developed for this purpose. These include the original Haas Typewriter Atlases Haas, Josef. , "ATLAS der Schreibmaschinenschrift, PICA". and Haas, Josef and Bernhard Haas. , "ATLAS der Schreibmaschinenschrift, Non-PICA". and the TYPE system developed by Dr. Philip Bouffard,


See also
|- |valign="top"|

Printers and fonts
|valign="top"|
Alphanumeric keyboards
|valign="top"|
Corporations and typewriters

Used as peripherals

Non-Latin typewriters


Patents
  • – Type Writer Machine
  • – typewriter ribbon, by George K. Anderson of Memphis, Tennessee.


Further reading
  • Adler, M.H. (1973). The Writing Machine: A History of the Typewriter. Allen and Unwin.
  • Beeching, Wilfred A. (1974). Century of the Typewriter. St. Martin's Press. pp. 276 Beeching was the Director of the British Typewriter Museum.


External links


Revival


References
    ^ (1996). 9780875847405, Harvard Business Press. .
    ^ (2019). 9781579584641 .
    ^ (2019). 9780849339257, CRC Press.
    ^ (2019). 9780801445866, Cornell University Press.
    ^ (2019). 9780201782639, Peachpit Press.
    ^ (2019). 9780321127303, Peachpit Press.
    ^ (2019). 9781584562313
    ^ (2019). 9780470542514, John Wiley & Sons.
    ^ (2019). 9781592400874, Gotham Books.
    ^ (1973). 9780875852072, Patterson Smith.
    ^ (2019). 9780849320446, CRC Press.

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