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France (), officially the French Republic (République française ), is a country located primarily in . It also includes in the and the , and oceans, giving it one of the largest discontiguous exclusive economic zones in the world. Metropolitan France shares borders with and to the north, to the north east, to the east, and to the south east, and to the south, and a maritime border with the to the north west. Its metropolitan area extends from the to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the and the . Its overseas territories include in , Saint Pierre and Miquelon in the North Atlantic, the French West Indies, and many islands in and the . Its eighteen integral regions (five of which are overseas) span a combined area of and have a total population of 68.4 million . France is a semi-presidential with its capital in , the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre; other major urban areas include , , , , , , and .

Metropolitan France was settled during the by Celtic tribes known as before in 51 BC, leading to a distinct Gallo-Roman culture. In the Early Middle Ages, the formed the Kingdom of , which became the heartland of the Carolingian Empire. The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned the empire, with evolving into the Kingdom of France. In the High Middle Ages, France was a powerful but decentralized kingdom, but from the mid-14th to the mid-15th centuries, France was plunged into a dynastic conflict with England known as the Hundred Years' War. In the 16th century, the French Renaissance saw culture flourish and a French colonial empire rise.

(2024). 9780739108215, Lexington Books. .
Internally, France was dominated by the conflict with the House of Habsburg and the French Wars of Religion between and . France was successful in the Thirty Years' War and further increased its influence during the reign of .

The French Revolution of 1789 overthrew the italic=no and produced the Declaration of the Rights of Man, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. France reached its political and military zenith in the early 19th century under , subjugating part of continental Europe and establishing the First French Empire. The French Revolutionary and significantly shaped the course of European history. The collapse of the empire initiated a period of relative decline, in which France endured a tumultuous succession of governments until the founding of the French Third Republic during the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. Subsequent decades saw a period of economic prosperity and cultural and scientific flourishing known as the Belle Époque. France was one of the of World War I, from which it emerged victorious at great human and economic cost. It was among the Allied powers of World War II, but it surrendered and was occupied by the in 1940. Following its liberation in 1944, the short-lived Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the defeat in the . The current Fifth Republic was formed in 1958 by Charles de Gaulle. Algeria and most French colonies became independent in the 1960s, with the majority retaining close economic and military ties with France.

France retains its centuries-long status as a global centre , science, and philosophy. It hosts the third-largest number of World Heritage Sites and is the world's leading tourist destination, receiving over 89 million foreign visitors in 2018. France is a developed country with a high nominal per capita income globally and its advanced economy ranks among the largest in the world. It is a in global affairs,Jack S. Levy, War in the Modern Great Power System, 1495–1975, (2014) p. 29 being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and an official nuclear-weapon state. France is a founding and leading member of the European Union and the , as well as a key member of the Group of Seven, (NATO), (OECD), and Francophonie.


Etymology and pronunciation
Originally applied to the whole , the name France comes from the , or "realm of the ". Modern France is still named today Francia in Italian and Spanish, while Frankreich in German, Frankrijk in Dutch and Frankrike in Swedish and Norwegian all mean "Land/realm of the Franks".

The name of the Franks is related to the English word frank ("free"): the latter stems from the franc ("free, noble, sincere"), ultimately from francus ("free, exempt from service; freeman, Frank"), a generalisation of the tribal name that emerged as a borrowing of the reconstructed Frankish endonym *Frank.Examples: And so on. It has been suggested that the meaning "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of , only Franks were free of taxation,

(1987). 9780674399747, Belknap Press.
or more generally because they had the status of freemen in contrast to servants or slaves.

The etymology of *Frank is uncertain. It is traditionally derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankĹŤn, which translates as "javelin" or "lance" (the throwing axe of the Franks was known as the ),

(1982). 9780671422578, Simon & Schuster. .
although these weapons may have been named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around.

In English, 'France' is pronounced in American English and or in British English. The pronunciation with is mostly confined to accents with the trap-bath split such as Received Pronunciation, though it can be also heard in some other dialects such as , in which is in free variation with .

(2024). 9781405881180, Longman.
;
(1990). 9781853590320, Multilingual Matters Ltd.. .


History

Pre-6th century BC
The oldest traces of in what is now France date from approximately 1.8 million years ago.Jean Carpentier (dir.), François Lebrun (dir.), Alain Tranoy, Élisabeth Carpentier et Jean-Marie Mayeur (prĂ©face de Jacques Le Goff), Histoire de France, Points Seuil, coll. " Histoire ", Paris, 2000 (1re Ă©d. 1987), p. 17 occupied the region into the Upper Paleolithic era but were slowly replaced by around 35,000 BC.
(2024). 9781849018128, Little, Brown Book Group. .
This period witnessed the emergence of in the and the , including at the famous site, dated to BC. At the end of the Last Glacial Period (10,000 BC), the climate became milder; from approximately 7,000 BC, this part of Western Europe entered the era, and its inhabitants became .

After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia BC, at the end of the 3rd millennium BC, initially working gold, and , then later .Carpentier et al. 2000, pp. 20–24. France has numerous sites from the Neolithic, including the exceptionally dense site (approximately 3,300 BC).


Antiquity (6th century BC – 5th century AD)
In 600 BC, Greeks from founded the colony of (present-day ), on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. This makes it France's oldest city.
(2024). 9780521086912, Cambridge University Press. .
;
(1999). 9780631203094, John Wiley & Sons. .
At the same time, some Gallic Celtic tribes penetrated parts of eastern and northern France, gradually spreading through the rest of the country between the 5th and 3rd century BC.Carpentier et al. 2000, p. 29.

Around 390 BC, the Gallic Brennus and his troops made their way to through the , defeated the Romans in the Battle of the Allia, and besieged and Rome. The Gallic invasion left Rome weakened, and the Gauls continued to harass the region until 345 BC when they entered into a formal peace treaty with Rome.Polybius, The Histories, 2.18.19 But the Romans and the Gauls would remain adversaries for the next centuries, and the Gauls would continue to be a threat in Italy.Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome, p. 325

Around 125 BC, the south of Gaul was conquered by the Romans, who called this region Provincia Nostra ("Our Province"), which over time evolved into the name in French. conquered the remainder of Gaul and overcame a revolt carried out by the Gallic chieftain in 52 BC.Carpentier et al. 2000, pp. 44–45. Gaul was divided by into Roman provinces.Carpentier et al. 2000, pp. 53–55. Many cities were founded during the , including (present-day ), which is considered the capital of the Gauls.

From the 250s to the 280s AD, Roman Gaul suffered a serious crisis with its fortified borders being attacked on several occasions by .Carpentier et al. 2000, pp. 76–77 Nevertheless, the situation improved in the first half of the 4th century, which was a period of revival and prosperity for Roman Gaul.Carpentier et al. 2000, pp. 79–82. In 312, Emperor Constantine I converted to Christianity. Subsequently, Christians who had been persecuted increased rapidly across the entire Roman Empire.Carpentier et al. 2000, p. 81. But from the beginning of the 5th century, the resumed.Carpentier et al. 2000, p. 84. tribes invaded the region from present-day Germany, the settling in the southwest, the along the Rhine River Valley, and the Franks in the north.Carpentier et al. 2000, pp. 84–88.


Early Middle Ages (5th–10th century)
At the end of the period, ancient Gaul was divided into several Germanic kingdoms and a remaining Gallo-Roman territory, known as the Kingdom of Syagrius. Simultaneously, , fleeing the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, settled in the western part of . As a result, the Armorican peninsula was renamed , was revived, and independent arose in the region.

The first leader to unite all Franks was , who began his reign as king of the in 481, routing the last forces of the Roman governors of the province in 486. Clovis claimed that he would be baptised a Christian in the event of his victory against the Visigothic Kingdom, which was said to have guaranteed the battle. Clovis regained the southwest from the Visigoths, was baptised in 508 and made himself master of what is now western Germany.

Clovis I was the first conqueror after the fall of the Roman Empire to convert to Catholic Christianity, rather than ; thus France was given the title "Eldest daughter of the Church" ( links=no) by the papacy, and French kings would be called "the Most Christian Kings of France" ( Rex Christianissimus).

The Franks embraced the Christian Gallo-Roman culture, and ancient Gaul was eventually renamed ("Land of the Franks"). The Germanic Franks adopted Romanic languages, except in northern Gaul where Roman settlements were less dense and where Germanic languages emerged. Clovis made his capital and established the Merovingian dynasty, but his kingdom would not survive his death. The Franks treated land purely as a private possession and divided it among their heirs, so four kingdoms emerged from that of Clovis: Paris, Orléans, , and . The last Merovingian kings lost power to their mayors of the palace (head of household). One mayor of the palace, , defeated an Umayyad invasion of Gaul at the Battle of Tours (732) and earned respect and power within the Frankish kingdoms. His son, Pepin the Short, seized the crown of Francia from the weakened Merovingians and founded the Carolingian dynasty. Pepin's son, , reunited the Frankish kingdoms and built a vast empire across and .

Proclaimed Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III and thus establishing in earnest the French government's longtime historical association with the , See drop-down essay on "Religion and Politics until the French Revolution" Charlemagne tried to revive the Western Roman Empire and its cultural grandeur. Charlemagne's son, Louis I (r. 814–840), kept the empire united; however, this Carolingian Empire would not survive his death. In 843, under the Treaty of Verdun, the empire was divided between Louis' three sons, with going to Louis the German, to , and to Charles the Bald. West Francia approximated the area occupied by modern France and was its precursor.

During the 9th and 10th centuries, continually threatened by , France became a very decentralised state: the nobility's titles and lands became hereditary, and the authority of the king became more religious than secular and thus was less effective and constantly challenged by powerful noblemen. Thus was established in France. Over time, some of the king's vassals would grow so powerful that they often posed a threat to the king. For example, after the Battle of Hastings in 1066, William the Conqueror added "King of England" to his titles, becoming both the vassal to (as Duke of Normandy) and the equal of (as king of England) the king of France, creating recurring tensions.


High and Late Middle Ages (10th–15th century)
The Carolingian dynasty ruled France until 987, when , Duke of France and Count of Paris, was crowned king of the Franks. This date is often used as the transtition between and the Kingdom of France. His descendantsthe direct Capetians, the House of Valois and the House of Bourbonprogressively unified the country through wars and dynastic inheritance. Starting from 1190, during the reign of Philip II, the Capetian rulers began to be referred as "kings of France" ( rex Francie) rather than "kings of the Franks" ( rex Francorum).
(1985). 9780871697516, American Philosophical Society. .
Later kings would expand their directly possessed domaine royal to cover over half of modern continental France by the 15th century, including most of the north, centre and west of France. During this process, the royal authority became more and more assertive, centred on a hierarchically conceived society distinguishing , clergy, and commoners.

The French nobility played a prominent role in most to restore Christian access to the . French knights made up the bulk of the steady flow of reinforcements throughout the 200-year span of the Crusades, in such a fashion that the Arabs uniformly referred to the crusaders as Franj caring little whether they came from France.

(2024). 9781429932400, St. Martin's Press. .
The French Crusaders also imported the French language into the , making the base of the (lit. "Frankish language") of the . French knights also made up the majority in both the Hospital and the . The latter in particular held numerous properties throughout France and by the 13th century were the principal bankers for the French crown, until Philip IV annihilated the order in 1307. The Albigensian Crusade was launched in 1209 to eliminate the heretical in the southwestern area of modern-day France. In the end, the Cathars were exterminated and the autonomous County of Toulouse was annexed into the crown lands of France.

From the 11th century, the House of Plantagenet, the rulers of the County of Anjou, succeeded in establishing its dominion over the surrounding provinces of Maine and , then progressively built an "empire" that spanned from England to the and covering half of modern France. Tensions between the kingdom of France and the would last a hundred years, until Philip II of France conquered, between 1202 and 1214, most of the continental possessions of the empire, leaving England and to the Plantagenets.

Charles IV the Fair died without an heir in 1328. Under the crown of France could not pass to a woman nor could the line of kingship pass through the female line. Accordingly, the crown passed to Philip of Valois, rather than through the female line to Edward of Plantagenet, who would soon become Edward III of England. During the reign of Philip of Valois, the French monarchy reached the height of its medieval power. However Philip's seat on the throne was contested by Edward III of England in 1337, and England and France entered the off-and-on Hundred Years' War. The boundaries changed greatly with time, but landholdings inside France by the English Kings remained extensive for decades. With charismatic leaders, such as Joan of Arc and , strong French counterattacks won back most English continental territories. Like the rest of Europe, France was struck by the , from which half of the 17 million population of France died.

(1987). 9780520055230, University of California Press.
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(2024). 9780691116693, Princeton University Press.


Early modern period (15th century–1789)
The French Renaissance saw spectacular cultural development and the first standardisation of the French language, which would become the official language of France and the language of Europe's aristocracy. It also saw a long set of wars, known as the , between France and the House of Habsburg. French explorers such as and Samuel de Champlain claimed lands in the Americas for France, paving the way for the expansion of the French colonial empire. The rise of Protestantism in Europe led France to a civil war known as the French Wars of Religion, where, in the most notorious incident, thousands of were murdered in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572. Events such as this forced many Huguenots to flee to neighbouring Protestant regions such as the (especially to the Kentish coast), the Holy Roman Empire, , and more. The Wars of Religion were ended by Henry IV's Edict of Nantes, which granted some freedom of religion to the Huguenots. troops, the terror of Western Europe,
(2024). 9781445644035, Amberley Publishing Limited. .
assisted the Catholic side from 1589 to 1594 and invaded northern France in 1597; after some skirmishing in the 1620s and 1630s, Spain and France returned to all-out war between 1635 and 1659. The war cost France 300,000 casualties.Clodfelter 2017: 40

Under , Cardinal Richelieu promoted the centralisation of the state and reinforced royal power by disarming domestic power holders in the 1620s. He systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords and denounced the use of private violence (duelling, carrying weapons and maintaining private armies). By the end of the 1620s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the doctrine.Tilly, Charles (1985). "War making and state making as organized crime," in Bringing the State Back In, eds P.B. Evans, D. Rueschemeyer, & T. Skocpol. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. p. 174.

From the 16th to the 19th century, France was responsible for 11% of the transatlantic slave trade, second only to Great Britain during the 18th century. While the state began condoning the practice with in the 1630s, Louis XIII only formalized this authorization more generally in 1642 in the last year of his reign. By the mid-18th century, had become the principal French slave-trading port.

, the "Sun King", was the absolute monarch of France and made France the leading European power.]]During 's minority and the regency of Queen Anne and , a period of trouble known as the occurred in France. This rebellion was driven by the great feudal lords and as a reaction to the rise of royal absolute power in France. The monarchy reached its peak during the 17th century and the reign of Louis XIV. By turning powerful feudal lords into at the Palace of Versailles, his command of the military went unchallenged. Remembered for numerous wars, the so-called "Sun King" made France the leading European power. France became the most populous country in Europe and had tremendous influence over European politics, economy, and culture. French became the most-used language in diplomacy, science, literature and international affairs, and remained so until the 20th century. During his reign, France took colonial control of many overseas territories in the Americas, Africa and Asia. In 1685, Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes, forcing thousands of Huguenots into exile and published the providing the legal framework for slavery and expelling Jewish people from the French colonies.

Under the wars of (r. 1715–1774), France lost and most of its after its defeat in the Seven Years' War (1756–1763). Its European territory kept growing, however, with notable acquisitions such as (1766) and (1770). An unpopular king, Louis XV's weak rule, his ill-advised financial, political and military decisions—as well as the decadence of his court—discredited the monarchy, which arguably paved the way for the French Revolution 15 years after his death.;

(r. 1774–1793) actively supported the Americans with money, fleets and armies, helping them win independence from Great Britain. France gained revenge but spent so heavily that the government verged on bankruptcy—a factor that contributed to the French Revolution. Some of the Enlightenment occurred in French intellectual circles, and major scientific breakthroughs and inventions, such as the naming of oxygen (1778) and the first hot air balloon carrying passengers (1783), were achieved by French scientists. French explorers, such as Bougainville and Lapérouse, took part in the voyages of scientific exploration through maritime expeditions around the globe. The Enlightenment philosophy, in which is advocated as the primary source of legitimacy, undermined the power of and support for the monarchy and also was a factor in the French Revolution.


Revolutionary France (1789–1799)
Facing financial troubles, Louis XVI summoned the Estates-General (gathering the three Estates of the realm) in May 1789 to propose solutions to his government. As it came to an impasse, the representatives of the formed a National Assembly, signalling the outbreak of the French Revolution. Fearing that the king would suppress the newly created National Assembly, insurgents stormed the Bastille on 14 July 1789, a date which would become .

In early August 1789, the National Constituent Assembly abolished the privileges of the such as personal and exclusive hunting rights. Through the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (27 August 1789), France established fundamental rights for men. The declaration affirms "the natural and imprescriptible rights of man" to "liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression". Freedom of speech and press were declared, and arbitrary arrests were outlawed. It called for the destruction of aristocratic privileges and proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, as well as access to public office based on talent rather than birth. In November 1789, the Assembly decided to nationalise and sell all property of the Catholic Church which had been the largest landowner in the country. In July 1790, a Civil Constitution of the Clergy reorganised the French Catholic Church, cancelling the authority of the Church to levy taxes, et cetera. This fueled much discontent in parts of France, which would contribute to the civil war breaking out some years later. While Louis XVI still enjoyed popularity among the population, his disastrous flight to Varennes in June 1791 seemed to justify rumours he had tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign invasion. His credibility was so deeply undermined that the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic became an increasing possibility.

In the August 1791 Declaration of Pillnitz, the Emperor of Austria and the King of Prussia threatened to restore the French monarch by force. In September 1791, the National Constituent Assembly forced Louis XVI to accept the French Constitution of 1791, thus turning the French absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy. In the newly established Legislative Assembly (October 1791), enmity developed and deepened between a group later called the '', who favoured war with Austria and Prussia, and a group later called '' or '' who opposed such a war. A majority in the Assembly in 1792 however saw a war with Austria and Prussia as a chance to boost the popularity of the revolutionary government and thought that such a war could be won and so declared war on Austria on 20 April 1792.

On 10 August 1792, an angry crowd threatened the palace of Louis XVI, who took refuge in the Legislative Assembly. A Prussian army invaded France later in August 1792. In early September, Parisians, infuriated by the Prussian Army capturing Verdun and counter-revolutionary uprisings in the west of France, murdered between 1,000 and 1,500 prisoners by raiding the Parisian prisons. The Assembly and the Paris City Council seemed unable to stop that bloodshed. The National Convention, chosen in the first elections under male universal suffrage, Noah Shusterman – De Franse Revolutie (The French Revolution). Veen Media, Amsterdam, 2015. (Translation of: The French Revolution. Faith, Desire, and Politics. Routledge, London/New York, 2014.) Chapter 5 (p. 187–221) : The end of the monarchy and the September Murders (summer-fall 1792). on 20 September 1792 succeeded the Legislative Assembly and on 21 September abolished the monarchy by proclaiming the French First Republic. Louis XVI was convicted of treason and guillotined in January 1793. France had declared war on Great Britain and the Dutch Republic in November 1792 and did the same on Spain in March 1793; in the spring of 1793, Austria and Prussia invaded France; in March, France created a "" in the "Republic of Mainz" and kept it under control.

Also in March 1793, a counter-revolution in Vendée began, evoked by both the Civil Constitution of the Clergy of 1790 and the nationwide army conscription in early 1793; elsewhere in France rebellion was brewing too. A factionalist feud in the National Convention, smouldering ever since October 1791, came to a climax on 2 June 1793 with the group of the Girondins being forced to resign and leave the convention. By July the counter-revolution had spread to Brittany, Normandy, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Toulon, and Lyon. Between October and December 1793, Paris' Convention government took brutal measures to subdue most internal uprisings at the cost of tens of thousands of lives. Some historians consider the civil war to have lasted until 1796 with a toll of possibly 450,000 lives.; Jacques Hussenet (dir.), " Détruisez la Vendée ! " Regards croisés sur les victimes et destructions de la guerre de Vendée, La Roche-sur-Yon, Centre vendéen de recherches historiques, 2007 By the end of 1793, the allies had been driven from France.

Political disagreements and enmity in the National Convention reached unprecedented levels, leading to dozens of Convention members being sentenced to death and guillotined. Meanwhile, France's external wars in 1794 were prospering, for example in Belgium. In 1795, the government seemed to return to indifference towards the desires and needs of the lower classes concerning freedom of (Catholic) religion and fair distribution of food. Until 1799, politicians, apart from inventing a new parliamentary system (the ''), busied themselves with dissuading the people from Catholicism and royalism.


Napoleon and 19th century (1799–1914)
General Bonaparte seized control of the Republic in 1799 becoming and later Emperor of the French Empire (1804–1814; 1815). As a continuation of the French Revolutionary Wars, changing sets of European coalitions declared . His armies conquered most of continental Europe with swift victories such as the battles of Jena-Auerstadt and Austerlitz. Members of the Bonaparte family were appointed as monarchs in some of the newly established kingdoms.

These victories led to the worldwide expansion of French revolutionary ideals and reforms, such as the , the and the Declaration of the Rights of Man. In June 1812 Napoleon attacked Russia, reaching Moscow. Thereafter his army disintegrated through supply problems, disease, Russian attacks, and finally winter. After the catastrophic Russian campaign and the ensuing uprising of European monarchies against his rule, Napoleon was defeated. About a million Frenchmen died during the Napoleonic Wars. After his from exile, Napoleon was finally defeated in 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo, and the Bourbon monarchy was restored with new constitutional limitations.

The discredited Bourbon dynasty was overthrown by the of 1830, which established the constitutional . In that year, French troops began the conquest of Algeria. In 1848, general unrest led to the February Revolution and the end of the July Monarchy. The abolition of slavery and the introduction of male universal suffrage, which were briefly enacted during the French Revolution, was re-enacted in 1848. In 1852, the president of the French Republic, , Napoleon I's nephew, was proclaimed emperor of the Second Empire, as Napoleon III. He multiplied French interventions abroad, especially in , Mexico and Italy which resulted in the annexation of the Duchy of Savoy and the County of Nice, then part of the Kingdom of Sardinia. Napoleon III was unseated following defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, and his regime was replaced by the Third Republic. By 1875, the French conquest of Algeria was complete, with approximately 825,000 Algerians killed from famine, disease, and violence.

(2024). 9780300100983, Yale University Press. .

France had colonial possessions, in various forms since the beginning of the 17th century, but in the 19th and 20th centuries its global overseas colonial empire extended greatly and became the second-largest in the world behind the . Including metropolitan France, the total area of land under French reached almost 13 million square kilometres in the 1920s and 1930s, 8.6% of the world's land. Known as the Belle Époque, the turn of the century was a period characterised by optimism, regional peace, economic prosperity and technological, scientific and cultural innovations. In 1905, was officially established.


Early to mid-20th century (1914–1946)
France was invaded by Germany and defended by Great Britain to start World War I in August 1914. A rich industrial area in the northeast was occupied. France and the Allies emerged victorious against the at a tremendous human and material cost. World War I left 1.4 million French soldiers dead, 4% of its population. Between 27 and 30% of soldiers conscripted from 1912 to 1915 were killed.Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts (2005). Encyclopedia Of World War I: A Political, Social, And Military History. ABC-CLIO. The interbellum years were marked by intense international tensions and a variety of social reforms introduced by the Popular Front government (e.g., , , women in government). posing with their war-torn flag in 1917, during World War I]]In 1940, France was invaded and quickly defeated by . France was divided into a German occupation zone in the north, an Italian occupation zone in the southeast and an unoccupied territory, the rest of France, which consisted of the southern French metropolitan territory (two-fifths of pre-war metropolitan France) and the French empire (including French Tunisia, French Morocco, and ); the , a newly established authoritarian regime collaborating with Germany, ruled the unoccupied territory. , the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle, was set up in London.
(1996). 9782070730322, Gallimard.

From 1942 to 1944, about 160,000 French citizens, including around 75,000 Jews,; ; France, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, were deported to death camps and in Germany and occupied Poland.Noir sur Blanc: Les premières photos du camp de concentration de Buchenwald après la libération, (French) In September 1943, was the first French metropolitan territory to liberate itself from the . On 6 June 1944, the Allies invaded Normandy, and in August they invaded Provence. Over the following year, the Allies and the French Resistance emerged victorious, and French sovereignty was restored with the establishment of the Provisional Government of the French Republic (GPRF). This interim government, established by de Gaulle, aimed to continue to wage war against Germany and to purge collaborators from office. It also made several important reforms (e.g., suffrage extended to women and the creation of a social security system).


Contemporary period (1946–present)
The GPRF laid the groundwork for a new constitutional order that resulted in the Fourth Republic (1946–1958), which saw spectacular economic growth ( les Trente Glorieuses). France was one of the founding members of . France attempted to regain control of French Indochina but was defeated by the in 1954 at the climactic Battle of Dien Bien Phu. Only months later, France faced another , then treated as an integral part of France and home to over one million European settlers (). During the conflict, the French systematically used torture and repression, including extrajudicial killings to keep control of Algeria.
(2024). 9781317864806, Routledge. .
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This conflict wracked the country and nearly led to a coup and civil war in France.

During the May 1958 crisis, the weak and unstable Fourth Republic gave way to the Fifth Republic, which included a strengthened presidency. In the latter role, de Gaulle managed to keep the country together while taking steps to end the Algerian War. The war was concluded with the Évian Accords in 1962 which led to Algerian independence. Algerian independence came at a high price: it resulted in between half a million and one million deaths and over 2 million internally displaced Algerians.;

(2024). 9780195334029, OUP US.
;
(2024). 9781107310650, Cambridge University Press. .
Around one million Pied-Noirs and fled from Algeria to France upon independence.
(2024). 9780199241040, Oxford University Press. .
Referring to Evans, Martin. 2012. Algeria: France's Undeclared War. New York: Oxford University Press.
A vestige of the colonial empire are the .

In the context of the , de Gaulle pursued a policy of "national independence" towards the and . To this end, he withdrew from NATO's military-integrated command (while remaining within the NATO alliance), launched a nuclear development programme and made France the fourth nuclear power. He restored cordial Franco-German relations to create a European counterweight between the American and Soviet spheres of influence. However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe, favouring a Europe of . In the wake of the series of worldwide protests of 1968, the revolt of May 1968 had an enormous social impact. It was the watershed moment when a conservative moral ideal (religion, patriotism, respect for authority) shifted towards a more liberal moral ideal (secularism, individualism, sexual revolution). Although the revolt was a political failure (as the party emerged even stronger than before) it announced a split between the French people and de Gaulle, who resigned shortly after.Julian Bourg, From revolution to ethics: May 1968 and contemporary French thought (McGill-Queen's Press-MQUP, 2017).

In the post-Gaullist era, France remained one of the most developed economies in the world but faced several economic crises that resulted in high unemployment rates and increasing public debt. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, France has been at the forefront of the development of a supranational , notably by signing the Maastricht Treaty (which created the European Union) in 1992, establishing the in 1999 and signing the Treaty of Lisbon in 2007. France has also gradually but fully reintegrated into NATO and has since participated in most NATO-sponsored wars.

Since the 19th century, France has received many immigrants. These have been mostly male from European Catholic countries who generally returned home when not employed.Marie-Christine Weidmann-Koop, Rosalie Vermette, "France at the dawn of the twenty-first century, trends and transformations", p. 160 During the 1970s France faced an economic crisis and allowed new immigrants (mostly from the ) to permanently settle in France with their families and acquire French citizenship. It resulted in hundreds of thousands of Muslims (especially in the larger cities) living in subsidised public housing and suffering from very high unemployment rates.Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and Michael J. Balz, "The October Riots in France: A Failed Immigration Policy or the Empire Strikes Back?" International Migration (2006) 44#2 pp. 23–34. Simultaneously France renounced the assimilation of immigrants, where they were expected to adhere to French traditional values and cultural norms. They were encouraged to retain their distinctive cultures and traditions and required merely to integrate.Sylvia Zappi, "French Government Revives Assimilation Policy", in Migration Policy Institute

Since the 1995 Paris MĂ©tro and RER bombings, France has been sporadically targeted by Islamist organisations, notably the Charlie Hebdo attack in January 2015 which provoked the largest public rallies in French history, gathering 4.4 million people,; the November 2015 Paris attacks which resulted in 130 deaths, the deadliest attack on French soil since World War II; and the deadliest in the European Union since the Madrid train bombings in 2004, as well as the 2016 Nice truck attack, which caused 87 deaths during celebrations. OpĂ©ration Chammal, France's military efforts to contain ISIS, killed over 1,000 ISIS troops between 2014 and 2015.;


Geography

Location and borders
The vast majority of France's territory and population is situated in Western Europe and is called Metropolitan France, to distinguish it from the country's various overseas polities. It is bordered by the in the north, the in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Mediterranean sea in the southeast. Its land borders consist of and in the northeast, and in the east, and in the southeast, and and in the south and southwest. Except for the northeast, most of France's land borders are roughly delineated by natural boundaries and geographic features: to the south and southeast, the Pyrenees and the Alps and the Jura, respectively, and to the east, the Rhine river. Due to its shape, France is often referred to as l'Hexagone ("The "). Metropolitan France includes various coastal islands, of which the largest is . Metropolitan France is situated mostly between latitudes 41° and 51° N, and longitudes 6° W and 10° E, on the western edge of Europe, and thus lies within the northern zone. Its continental part covers about 1000 km from north to south and from east to west.

Metropolitan France covers , the largest among members. France's total land area, with its overseas departments and territories (excluding Adélie Land), is , 0.45% of the total land area on Earth. France possesses a wide variety of landscapes, from coastal plains in the north and west to mountain ranges of the in the southeast, the in the south-central and in the southwest.

Due to its numerous overseas departments and territories scattered across the planet, France possesses the second-largest exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in the world, covering , just behind the EEZ of the , which covers , but ahead of the EEZ of Australia, which covers . Its EEZ covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world.


Geology, topography and hydrography
Metropolitan France has a wide variety of topographical sets and natural landscapes. Large parts of the current territory of France were raised during several tectonic episodes like the Hercynian uplift in the Paleozoic Era, during which the , the , the , the and ranges and the island of were formed. These massifs delineate several sedimentary basins such as the Aquitaine basin in the southwest and the Paris basin in the north, the latter including several areas of particularly fertile ground such as the silt beds of Beauce and Brie. Various routes of natural passage, such as the RhĂ´ne Valley, allow easy communication. The Alpine, Pyrenean and Jura mountains are much younger and have less eroded forms. At above sea level, , located in the Alps on the French and Italian border, is the highest point in Western Europe. Although 60% of municipalities are classified as having seismic risks, these risks remain moderate.

The coastlines offer contrasting landscapes: mountain ranges along the , coastal cliffs such as the Côte d'Albâtre, and wide sandy plains in the . Corsica lies off the Mediterranean coast. France has an extensive river system consisting of the four major rivers , the , the , the Rhône and their tributaries, whose combined catchment includes over 62% of the metropolitan territory. The Rhône divides the Massif Central from the Alps and flows into the Mediterranean Sea at the . The Garonne meets the Dordogne just after Bordeaux, forming the , the largest estuary in Western Europe which after approximately empties into the Atlantic Ocean. Other water courses drain towards the Meuse and Rhine along the northeastern borders. France has of marine waters within three oceans under its jurisdiction, of which 97% are overseas.


Environment
France was one of the first countries to create an environment ministry, in 1971. Although it is one of the most industrialised countries in the world, France is ranked only 19th by carbon dioxide emissions, behind less populous nations such as Canada or Australia. This is due to the country's heavy investment in nuclear power following the 1973 oil crisis, which now accounts for 75 per cent of its electricity production and results in less pollution. According to the 2020 Environmental Performance Index conducted by and Columbia, France was the fifth most environmentally conscious country in the world (behind the United Kingdom).

Like all European Union state members, France agreed to cut by at least 20% of 1990 levels by 2020, compared to the United States' plan to reduce emissions by 4% of 1990 levels. , French carbon dioxide emissions per capita were lower than that of China. The country was set to impose a in 2009 at 17 euros per tonne of carbon emitted, which would have raised 4 billion euros of revenue annually. However, the plan was abandoned due to fears of burdening French businesses.

Forests account for 31 per cent of France's land area—the fourth-highest proportion in Europe—representing an increase of 7 per cent since 1990. French forests are some of the most diverse in Europe, comprising more than 140 species of trees. France had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 4.52/10, ranking it 123rd globally out of 172 countries. There are nine and 46 in France, with the government planning to convert 20% of its exclusive economic zone into a Marine protected area by 2020. A regional nature park (links=no or PNR) is a public establishment in France between local authorities and the national government covering an inhabited rural area of outstanding beauty, to protect the scenery and heritage as well as setting up sustainable economic development in the area.

(2024). 9781853837913, Earthscan.
A PNR sets goals and guidelines for managed human habitation, sustainable economic development and protection of the natural environment based on each park's unique landscape and heritage. The parks foster ecological research programmes and public education in the natural sciences. there are 54 PNRs in France.


Administrative divisions
The French Republic is divided into 18 regions (located in Europe and overseas), five overseas collectivities, one overseas territory, one special collectivity – and one uninhabited island directly under the authority of the Minister of Overseas France – Clipperton.


Regions
Since 2016, France is divided into 18 administrative regions: 13 regions in metropolitan France (including ), and five . The regions are further subdivided into 101 departments, which are numbered mainly alphabetically. The department number is used in postal codes and was formerly used on vehicle registration plates. Among the 101 French departments, five (, Guadeloupe, , , and RĂ©union) are in overseas regions (ROMs) that are simultaneously overseas departments (DOMs), enjoying the same status as metropolitan departments and are thereby included in the European Union.

The 101 departments are subdivided into 335 arrondissements, which are, in turn, subdivided into 2,054 cantons. These cantons are then divided into 36,658 communes, which are municipalities with an elected municipal council. Three communes—Paris, Lyon and Marseille—are subdivided into 45 municipal arrondissements.


Overseas territories and collectivities
In addition to the 18 regions and 101 departments, the French Republic has five overseas collectivities (, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and Wallis and Futuna), one collectivity (), one overseas territory (French Southern and Antarctic Lands), and one island possession in the Pacific Ocean (Clipperton Island). Overseas collectivities and territories form part of the French Republic, but do not form part of the European Union or its fiscal area (except for St. Bartelemy, which seceded from Guadeloupe in 2007). The Pacific Collectivities (COMs) of French Polynesia, Wallis and Futuna, and New Caledonia continue to use the whose value is strictly linked to that of the euro. In contrast, the five overseas regions used the French franc and now use the euro.


Government and politics

Government
France is a representative democracy organised as a , semi-presidential . As one of the earliest republics of the modern world, democratic traditions and values are deeply rooted in French culture, identity and politics. The Constitution of the Fifth Republic was approved by referendum on 28 September 1958, establishing a framework consisting of executive, legislative and judicial branches.
(2024). 9780333792438, Palgrave Macmillan.
It sought to address the instability of the Third and Fourth Republics by combining elements of both parliamentary and presidential systems, while greatly strengthening the authority of the executive relative to the legislature.

The executive branch has two leaders. The President of the Republic, currently , is the head of state, elected directly by universal adult suffrage for a five-year term. The Prime Minister, currently , is the head of government, appointed by the President to lead the government. The President has the power to dissolve Parliament or circumvent it by submitting referendums directly to the people; the President also appoints judges and civil servants, negotiates and ratifies international agreements, as well as serves as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. The Prime Minister determines public policy and oversees the civil service, with an emphasis on domestic matters. In the 2022 presidential election, president Macron was re-elected. 2 months later, in the June 2022 legislative elections, Macron lost his parliamentary majority and had to form a minority government.

The legislature consists of the French Parliament, a body made up of a , the National Assembly ( Assemblée nationale) and an , the Senate. Legislators in the National Assembly, known as députés, represent local constituencies and are directly elected for five-year terms. The Assembly has the power to dismiss the government by majority vote. Senators are chosen by an electoral college for six-year terms, with half the seats submitted to election every three years. The Senate's legislative powers are limited; in the event of disagreement between the two chambers, the National Assembly has the final say. The parliament is responsible for determining the rules and principles concerning most areas of law, political amnesty, and fiscal policy; however, the government may draft specific details concerning most laws.

Until World War II, Radicals were a strong political force in France, embodied by the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party which was the most important party of the Third Republic. From World War II until 2017, French politics was dominated by two politically opposed groupings: one left-wing, the French Section of the Workers' International, which was succeeded by the Socialist Party (in 1969); and the other right-wing, the , whose name changed over time to the Rally of the French People (1947), the Union of Democrats for the Republic (1958), the Rally for the Republic (1976), the Union for a Popular Movement (2007) and The Republicans (since 2015). In the 2017 presidential and legislative elections, the party La République En Marche! (LREM) became the dominant force, overtaking both Socialists and Republicans. LREM's opponent in the second round of the 2017 and 2022 presidential elections was the growing far-right party (RN). Since 2020, Europe Ecology – The Greens (EELV) have performed well in mayoral elections in major cities while on a national level, an alliance of Left parties (the ) was the second-largest voting block elected to the lower house in 2022. Additionally, right-wing populist RN became the largest opposition party in the National Assembly in 2022.

The electorate is constitutionally empowered to vote on amendments passed by the Parliament and bills submitted by the president. Referendums have played a key role in shaping French politics and even foreign policy; voters have decided on such matters as Algeria's independence, the election of the president by popular vote, the formation of the EU, and the reduction of presidential term limits.


Law
France uses a civil legal system, wherein law arises primarily from written statutes; judges are not to make law, but merely to interpret it (though the amount of judicial interpretation in certain areas makes it equivalent to in a system). Basic principles of the rule of law were laid in the (which was, in turn, largely based on the royal law codified under ). In agreement with the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, the law should only prohibit actions detrimental to society. As , first president of the Court of Cassation wrote about the management of prisons: "Freedom is the rule, and its restriction is the exception; any restriction of Freedom must be provided for by Law and must follow the principles of necessity and proportionality." That is, Law should lay out prohibitions only if they are needed, and if the inconveniences caused by this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is supposed to remedy.

French law is divided into two principal areas: and . Private law includes, in particular, civil law and . Public law includes, in particular, administrative law and constitutional law. However, in practical terms, French law comprises three principal areas of law: civil law, criminal law, and administrative law. Criminal laws can only address the future and not the past (criminal ex post facto laws are prohibited).In European countries, legal doctrine has long faced the question of succession of criminal laws in time: While administrative law is often a subcategory of civil law in many countries, it is completely separated in France and each body of law is headed by a specific supreme court: ordinary courts (which handle criminal and civil litigation) are headed by the Court of Cassation and administrative courts are headed by the Council of State. To be applicable, every law must be officially published in the Journal officiel de la République française.

France does not recognise as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions; it has long abolished laws and (the latter in 1791). However, "offences against " ( contraires aux bonnes mœurs) or disturbing public order ( trouble à l'ordre public) have been used to repress public expressions of homosexuality or street prostitution.

France generally has a positive reputation regarding LGBT rights. Since 1999, civil unions for homosexual couples have been permitted, and since 2013, same-sex marriage and are legal. Laws prohibiting discriminatory speech in the press are as old as 1881. Some consider hate speech laws in France to be too broad or severe, undermining freedom of speech."France: Strict Defamation and Privacy Laws Limit Free Expression â€“ Index on Censorship| Index on Censorship." France: Strict Defamation and Privacy Laws Limit Free Expression â€“ Index on Censorship| Index on Censorship. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 February 2014. . France has laws against racism and , La lutte contre le racisme et l'antisĂ©mintisme en France. AmbaFrance while the 1990 prohibits .

Freedom of religion is constitutionally guaranteed by the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. The 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State is the basis for laïcité (state secularism): the state does not formally recognise any religion, except in Alsace-Moselle, which was part of Germany in 1905, and continues to subsidize education and clergy of Catholicism, Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Judaism. Nonetheless, France does recognise religious associations. The Parliament has listed many religious movements as dangerous cults since 1995 and has banned wearing conspicuous religious symbols in schools since 2004. In 2010, it banned the wearing of face-covering Islamic veils in public; human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch described the law as discriminatory towards Muslims. However, it is supported by most of the population.


Foreign relations
France is a founding member of the United Nations and serves as one of the permanent members of the UN Security Council with veto rights. In 2015, it was described as "the best networked state in the world" due to its membership in more international institutions than any other country; these include the G7, World Trade Organization (WTO), the Pacific Community (SPC) and the Indian Ocean Commission (COI). It is an associate member of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) and a leading member of the italic=no (OIF) of 84 French-speaking countries.

As a significant hub for international relations, France has the third-largest assembly of diplomatic missions, second only to China and the United States, which are far more populous. It also hosts the headquarters of several international organisations, including the OECD, , , the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, and the OIF.

French foreign policy after World War II has been largely shaped by membership in the European Union, of which it was a . Since the 1960s, France has developed close ties with reunified Germany to become the most influential driving force of the EU. In the 1960s, France sought to exclude the British from the European unification process, seeking to build its standing in continental Europe. However, since 1904, France has maintained an "" with the United Kingdom, and there has been a strengthening of links between the countries, especially militarily.

France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), but under President de Gaulle excluded itself from the joint military command, in protest of the Special Relationship between the United States and Britain, and to preserve the independence of French foreign and security policies. Under Nicolas Sarkozy, France rejoined the NATO joint military command on 4 April 2009.

France retains strong political and economic influence in its former African colonies ( Françafrique) and has supplied economic aid and troops for peacekeeping missions in Ivory Coast and Chad. From 2012 to 2021, France and other African states intervened in support of the government in the Northern Mali conflict.

In 2017, France was the world's fourth-largest donor of in absolute terms, behind the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom. This represents 0.43% of its , the 12th highest among the OECD. Aid is provided by the governmental French Development Agency, which finances primarily humanitarian projects in sub-Saharan Africa, with an emphasis on "developing infrastructure, access to health care and education, the implementation of appropriate economic policies and the consolidation of the rule of law and democracy". France priorities  â€“ France Diplomatie


Military
The French Armed Forces (Forces armĂ©es françaises) are the military and paramilitary forces of France, under the President of the Republic as supreme commander. They consist of the (ArmĂ©e de Terre), the ( Marine Nationale, formerly called ArmĂ©e de Mer), the French Air and Space Force ( ArmĂ©e de l'Air et de l’Espace), and the National Gendarmerie ( Gendarmerie nationale), which serves as both and civil police in rural areas. Together they are among the largest armed forces in the world and the largest in the EU. According to a 2018 study by CrĂ©dit Suisse, the French Armed Forces ranked as the world's sixth-most powerful military, and the second most powerful in Europe after . France's annual military expenditure in 2022 was US$53.6 billion, or 1.9% of its GDP, making it the eighth biggest military spender in the world. Trends in World Military Expenditure SIPRI. Retrieved 18 December 2019. There has been no national since 1997. La fin du service militaire obligatoire  â€“ La documentation française

France has been a recognised nuclear state since 1960. It is a party to both the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The French nuclear force (formerly known as " Force de Frappe") consists of four Triomphant class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles. In addition to the submarine fleet, it is estimated that France has about 60 ASMP medium-range air-to-ground missiles with ; Centre de Documentation et de Recherche sur la Paix et les Conflits, Etat des forces nucléaires françaises au 15 août 2004 50 are deployed by the Air and Space Force using the Mirage 2000N long-range nuclear strike aircraft, while around 10 are deployed by the French Navy's Super Étendard Modernisé (SEM) attack aircraft, which operate from the nuclear-powered Charles de Gaulle.

France has major military industries and one of the largest aerospace sectors in the world. The country has produced such equipment as the Rafale fighter, the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier, the missile and the Leclerc tank among others. France is a major arms seller, with most of its arsenal's designs available for the export market, except for nuclear-powered devices.

One French intelligence unit, the Directorate-General for External Security ( Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure), is considered to be a component of the Armed Forces under the authority of the Ministry of Defense. The other, the Central Directorate for Interior Intelligence ( Direction centrale du renseignement intérieur) is a division of the National Police Force ( Direction générale de la Police Nationale). France's are regularly ranked as some of the most robust of any nation in the world.Bruce Sussman, The List: Best and Worst Countries for Cybersecurity, 13 November 2019, Securworld Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI) 2018, International Telecommunication Union

French weapons exported totaled 27 billion euros in 2022, up from 11.7 billion euros the previous year 2021. Additionally, the UAE alone contributed more than 16 billion euros arms to the French total. Among the largest French defence companies are , and .


Economy

Overview
was in 2017 ranked by Ernst & Young as the leading central business district in continental Europe, and the fourth in the world. The attractiveness of world-class business districts: Paris La DĂ©fense vs. its global competitors, EY, November 2017]]France has a , characterised by sizeable government involvement, and economic diversity. For roughly two centuries, the French economy has consistently ranked among the ten largest globally; it is currently the world's ninth-largest by purchasing power parity, the seventh-largest by , and the second-largest in the European Union by both metrics. France is considered an , with membership in the Group of Seven leading industrialised countries, the (OECD), and the Group of Twenty largest economies.

France's economy is highly diversified; represent two-thirds of both the workforce and GDP, Country profile: France, while the industrial sector accounts for a fifth of GDP and a similar proportion of employment. France is the third-biggest manufacturing country in Europe, behind Germany and Italy, and ranks eighth in the world by share of global manufacturing output, at 1.9 per cent. Less than 2 per cent of GDP is generated by the , namely agriculture; Country profil: France, CIA World factbook however, France's agricultural sector is among the largest in value and leads the EU in terms of overall production. France: the market , Société Générale (latest Update: September 2020)

In 2018, France was the fifth-largest trading nation in the world and the second-largest in Europe, with the value of exports representing over a fifth of GDP. World Trade Statistical Review 2019, World Trade Organization, p. 11 Its membership in the and the broader European single market facilitates access to capital, goods, services, and skilled labour. Despite policies over certain industries, particularly in agriculture, France has generally played a leading role in fostering free trade and commercial integration in Europe to enhance its economy. In 2019, it ranked first in Europe and 13th in the world in foreign direct investment, with European countries and the United States being leading sources. How can Europe reset the investment agenda now to rebuild its future?, EY, 28 May 2020 According to the Bank of France (founded in 1800), the leading recipients of FDI were manufacturing, real estate, finance and insurance. The Paris Region has the highest concentration of multinational firms in Europe.

Under the doctrine of , the government historically played a major role in the economy; policies such as indicative planning and are credited for contributing to three decades of unprecedented postwar economic growth known as Trente Glorieuses. At its peak in 1982, the public sector accounted for one-fifth of industrial employment and over four-fifths of the credit market. Beginning in the late 20th century, France loosened regulations and state involvement in the economy, with most leading companies now being privately owned; state ownership now dominates only transportation, defence and broadcasting. Policies aimed at promoting economic dynamism and privatisation have improved France's economic standing globally: it is among the world's 10 most countries in the 2020 Bloomberg Innovation Index, These are the world's most innovative countries, and the 15th most competitive, according to the 2019 Global Competitiveness Report (up two places from 2018).

The Paris stock exchange (La Bourse de Paris) is one of the oldest in the world, created by in 1724. In 2000, it merged with counterparts in Amsterdam and Brussels to form , which in 2007 merged with the New York stock exchange to form , the world's largest stock exchange. , the French branch of NYSE Euronext, is Europe's second-largest stock exchange market, behind the London Stock Exchange. Some examples of the most valuable French companies include , L'Oréal and Sociéte Générale.

France has historically been one of the world's major agricultural centres and remains a "global agricultural powerhouse"; France is the world's sixth-biggest exporter of agricultural products, generating a trade surplus of over €7.4 billion. Nicknamed "the granary of the old continent", over half its total land area is farmland, of which 45 per cent is devoted to permanent field crops such as cereals. The country's diverse climate, extensive arable land, modern farming technology, and EU subsidies have made it Europe's leading agricultural producer and exporter.


Tourism
With 89 million international tourist arrivals in 2018,
(2024). 9789284421145, United Nations World Tourism Organization. .
France is the world's top tourist destination, ahead of Spain (83 million) and the United States (80 million). However, it ranks third in tourism-derived income due to the shorter duration of visits. The most popular tourist sites include (annual visitors): (6.2 million), Château de Versailles (2.8 million), italic=no (2 million), Pont du Gard (1.5 million), Arc de Triomphe (1.2 million), Mont Saint-Michel (1 million), (683,000), Château du Haut-KĹ“nigsbourg (549,000), Puy de DĂ´me (500,000), MusĂ©e Picasso (441,000), and (362,000).

France, especially Paris, has some of the world's largest and most renowned museums, including the , which is the most visited art museum in the world (7.7 million visitors in 2022), the MusĂ©e d'Orsay (3.3 million), mostly devoted to , the MusĂ©e de l'Orangerie (1.02 million), which is home to eight large Water Lily murals by , as well as the Centre Georges Pompidou (3 million), dedicated to . is Europe's most popular theme park, with 15 million combined visitors to the resort's Disneyland Park and Walt Disney Studios Park in 2009.

With more than 10 million tourists a year, the (French: CĂ´te d'Azur), in Southeast France, is the second leading tourist destination in the country, after the Paris Region. It benefits from 300 days of sunshine per year, of coastline and beaches, 18 golf courses, 14 ski resorts and 3,000 restaurants. Each year the CĂ´te d'Azur hosts 50% of the world's fleet.

With 6 million tourists a year, the castles of the Loire Valley (French: châteaux) and the itself are the third leading tourist destination in France; this World Heritage Site is noteworthy for its architectural heritage, in its historic towns but in particular its castles, such as the Châteaux d'Amboise, de Chambord, d'Ussé, de Villandry, Chenonceau and Montsoreau. The Château de Chantilly, Versailles and , all three located near Paris, are also visitor attractions.

France has 52 sites inscribed in UNESCO's World Heritage List and features cities of high cultural interest, beaches and seaside resorts, ski resorts, as well as rural regions that many enjoy for their beauty and tranquillity (). Small and picturesque French villages are promoted through the association Les Plus Beaux Villages de France (literally "The Most Beautiful Villages of France"). The "Remarkable Gardens" label is a list of the over 200 gardens classified by the Ministry of Culture. This label is intended to protect and promote remarkable gardens and parks. France attracts many religious pilgrims on their way to St. James, or to , a town in the Hautes-Pyrénées that hosts several million visitors a year.


Energy
France is the world's tenth-largest producer of electricity. Électricité de France (EDF), which is majority-owned by the French government, is the country's main producer and distributor of electricity, and one of the world's largest , ranking third in revenue globally. In 2018, EDF produced around one-fifth of the 's electricity, primarily from . Electricity production, consumption and market overview, As of 2021, France was the biggest energy exporter in Europe, mostly to the U.K. and Italy, and the largest net exporter of electricity in the world.

Since the 1973 oil crisis, France has pursued a strong policy of , namely through heavy investment in nuclear energy. It is one of 32 countries with nuclear power plants, ranking second in the world by the number of operational nuclear reactors, at 56. Consequently, 70% of France's electricity is generated by nuclear power, the highest proportion in the world by a wide margin; only Slovakia and Ukraine derive a majority of electricity from nuclear power, at roughly 53% and 51%, respectively. France is considered a world leader in nuclear technology, with reactors and fuel products being major exports.

Due to its overwhelming reliance on nuclear power, renewable energies have seen relatively little growth compared to other Western countries. Nevertheless, between 2008 and 2019, France's production capacity from renewable energies rose consistently and nearly doubled. is by far the leading source, accounting for over half the country's renewable energy sources and contributing 13% of its electricity, the highest proportion in Europe after Norway and Turkey. As with nuclear power, most hydroelectric plants, such as , Étang de Soulcem, and Lac de Vouglans, are managed by EDF. France aims to further expand hydropower into 2040.


Transport
France's railway network, which stretches as of 2008, is the second most extensive in Western Europe after Germany. It is operated by the , and high-speed trains include the , the and , which travels at . The Eurostar, along with the Eurotunnel Shuttle, connects with the United Kingdom through the . Rail connections exist to all other neighbouring countries in Europe except Andorra. Intra-urban connections are also well developed, with most major cities having or tramway services complementing bus services.

There are approximately of serviceable roadway in France, ranking it the most extensive network of the European continent. The Paris Region is enveloped with the densest network of roads and highways, which connect it with virtually all parts of the country. French roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighbouring Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Andorra and Monaco. There is no annual registration fee or ; however, usage of the mostly privately owned motorways is through tolls except in the vicinity of large communes. The new car market is dominated by domestic brands such as , and Citroën. L'automobile magazine, hors-série 2003/2004 page 294 France possesses the , the world's tallest bridge, and has built many important bridges such as the Pont de Normandie. and -driven cars and lorries cause a large part of the country's and greenhouse gas emissions.

There are 464 airports in France. Charles de Gaulle Airport, located in the vicinity of Paris, is the largest and busiest airport in the country, handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic and connecting Paris with virtually all major cities across the world. is the national carrier airline, although numerous private airline companies provide domestic and international travel services. There are ten major ports in France, the largest of which is in , which also is the largest bordering the Mediterranean Sea. of waterways traverse France including the Canal du Midi, which connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean through the river.


Science and technology
Since the , France has contributed to scientific and technological achievement. In the early 11th century, the French-born Pope Sylvester II reintroduced the and and introduced and to much of Europe. The University of Paris, founded in the mid-12th century, is still one of the most important academic institutions in the Western world.André Thuilier, Histoire de l'université de Paris et de la Sorbonne, Paris, Nouvelle librairie de France, 1994 In the 17th century, mathematician and philosopher René Descartes pioneered , while became famous for his work on and ; both were key figures of the Scientific Revolution, which blossomed in Europe during this period. The French Academy of Sciences, founded in the mid-17th century by to encourage and protect French scientific research, was one of the earliest national scientific institutions in history.

The Age of Enlightenment was marked by the work of biologist Buffon, one of the first naturalists to recognize ecological succession, and chemist Lavoisier, who discovered the role of in . and D'Alembert published the Encyclopédie, which aimed to give the public access to "useful knowledge" that could be applied to everyday life.Burke, Peter, A social history of knowledge: from Gutenberg to Diderot, Malden: Blackwell Publishers Inc., 2000, p. 17 The Industrial Revolution of the 19th century saw spectacular scientific developments in France, with founding modern , Sadi Carnot laying the foundations of , and pioneering . Other eminent French scientists of the period have their names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower.

Famous French scientists of the 20th century include the mathematician and physicist Henri Poincaré; physicists , and , who remain famous for their work on ; physicist ; and virologist , co-discoverer of . Hand transplantation was developed in Lyon in 1998 by an international team that included Jean-Michel Dubernard, who afterward performed the first successful double hand transplant. was first performed by French surgeons led by Jacques Marescaux on 7 September 2001 across the Atlantic Ocean. A was first done on 27 November 2005 by Bernard Devauchelle. France ranked 11th in the 2023 Global Innovation Index, compared to 16th in 2019.

(2023). 9789280534320, World Intellectual Property Organization. .


Demographics
With an estimated January 2024 population of 68,373,433 people, France is the 20th most populous country in the world, the third-most populous in Europe (after and ), and the second most populous in the (after Germany).

France is an outlier among developed countries, particularly in Europe, for its relatively high rate of natural population growth: By birth rates alone, it was responsible for almost all natural population growth in the European Union in 2006. Between 2006 and 2016, France saw the second-highest overall increase in population in the EU and was one of only four EU countries where natural births accounted for the most population growth. This was the highest rate since the end of the in 1973 and coincides with the rise of the total fertility rate from a nadir of 1.7 in 1994 to 2.0 in 2010.

, the fertility rate declined slightly to 1.84 children per woman, below the of 2.1, and considerably below the high of 4.41 in 1800. France's fertility rate and crude birth rate nonetheless remain among the highest in the EU. However, like many developed nations, the French population is aging; the average age is 41.7 years, while about a fifth of French people are 65 or over. The life expectancy at birth is 82.7 years, the 12th highest in the world.

From 2006 to 2011, population growth averaged 0.6 per cent per year; since 2011, annual growth has been between 0.4 and 0.5 per cent annually. Immigrants are major contributors to this trend; in 2010, 27 per cent of newborns in metropolitan France had at least one foreign-born parent and another 24 per cent had at least one parent born outside Europe (excluding French overseas territories).


Ethnic groups
Historically, were mainly of - origin, with a significant admixture of () and () groups reflecting centuries of respective migration and settlement. Through the course of the , France incorporated various neighbouring ethnic and linguistic groups, as evidenced by elements in the west, in the southwest, Scandinavian in the northwest, in the northeast, and in the southeast.

Large-scale immigration over the last century and a half have led to a more multicultural society; beginning with the French Revolution, and further codified in the French Constitution of 1958, the government is prohibited from collecting data on ethnicity and ancestry; most demographic information is drawn from private sector organisations or academic institutions. In 2004, the Institut Montaigne estimated that within Metropolitan France, 51 million people were White (85% of the population), 6 million were Northwest African (10%), 2 million were Black (3.3%), and 1 million were Asian (1.7%).

A 2008 poll conducted jointly by and estimated that the largest ancestry groups were Italian (5 million), followed by Northwest African (3–6 million),

(1995). 9780521444057, Cambridge University Press. .
"Les personnes d'origine maghrĂ©bine y sont Ă©galement au nombre de 5 Ă  6 millions; 3,5 millions ont la nationalitĂ© française (don't 500 000 harkis)", Évelyne Perrin, IdentitĂ© Nationale, Amer Ministère, L'Harmattan, 2010, p. 112 (2.5 million), Armenian (500,000), and Turkish (200,000). There are also sizeable minorities of other European ethnic groups, namely , Portuguese, , and . France has a significant Gitan (Romani) population, numbering between 20,000 and 400,000; many foreign are expelled back to Bulgaria and Romania frequently.


Immigration
It is currently estimated that 40% of the French population is descended at least partially from the different waves of immigration since the early 20th century; between 1921 and 1935 alone, about 1.1 million net immigrants came to France.
(1991). 9780871698179, American Philosophical Society.
The next largest wave came in the 1960s when around 1.6 million returned to France following the independence of its Northwest African possessions, Algeria and Morocco.
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They were joined by numerous former colonial subjects from North and West Africa, as well as numerous European immigrants from Spain and Portugal.

France remains a major destination for immigrants, accepting about 200,000 legal immigrants annually. In 2005, it was Western Europe's leading recipient of seekers, with an estimated 50,000 applications (albeit a 15% decrease from 2004). In 2010, France received about 48,100 asylum applications—placing it among the top five asylum recipients in the world. In subsequent years it saw the number of applications increase, ultimately doubling to 100,412 in 2017. The European Union allows free movement between the member states, although France established controls to curb migration. Foreigners' rights are established in the Code of Entry and Residence of Foreigners and of the Right to Asylum. Immigration remains a contentious political issue.

In 2008, the INSEE (National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies) estimated that the total number of foreign-born immigrants was around 5 million (8% of the population), while their French-born descendants numbered 6.5 million, or 11% of the population. Thus, nearly a fifth of the country's population were either first or second-generation immigrants, of which more than 5 million were of European origin and 4 million of ancestry. In 2008, France granted to 137,000 persons, mostly from Morocco, Algeria and Turkey.

In 2014, the INSEE reported a significant increase in the number of immigrants coming from Spain, Portugal and Italy between 2009 and 2012. According to the institute, this increase resulted from the financial crisis that hit several European countries in that period. Statistics on Spanish immigrants in France show a growth of 107 per cent between 2009 and 2012, with the population growing from 5,300 to 11,000. Of the total of 229,000 foreigners who were in France in 2012, nearly 8% were Portuguese, 5% British, 5% Spanish, 4% Italian, 4% German, 3% Romanian, and 3% Belgian.


Major cities
France is a highly urbanised country, with its largest cities (in terms of metropolitan area population in 2019) being Paris (13,114,718 inh.), (2,280,845), (1,873,270), (1,510,079), (1,454,158), (1,363,711), (1,011,020), (853,110), (801,595), and (755,668). (Note: since its 2020 revision of metropolitan area borders, considers that is a metropolitan area separate from the - metropolitan area; these two combined would have a population of 1,008,296, as of the 2019 census). was a perennial political issue throughout most of the 20th century.


Language
world:

]] The official language of France is French, La Constitution- La Constitution du 4 Octobre 1958 â€“ LĂ©gifrance. a derived from . Since 1635, the AcadĂ©mie française has been France's official authority on the French language, although its recommendations carry no legal weight. There are also regional languages spoken in France, such as , , , ( dialect), (German dialect), , and Corsican (Italian dialect). Italian was the official language of Corsica until 9 May 1859.Abalain, HervĂ©, (2007) Le français et les langues historiques de la France, Éditions Jean-Paul Gisserot, p. 113.

The Government of France does not regulate the choice of language in publications by individuals, but the use of French is required by law in commercial and workplace communications. In addition to mandating the use of French in the territory of the Republic, the French government tries to promote French in the European Union and globally through institutions such as the italic=no. The perceived threat from has prompted efforts to safeguard the position of the French language in France. Besides French, there exist 77 vernacular minority languages of France, eight spoken in French metropolitan territory and 69 in the French overseas territories. It is estimated that between 300 million and 500 million Qu'est-ce que la Francophonie ?  â€“ Organisation internationale de la Francophonie people worldwide can speak French, either as a mother tongue or as a second language.

According to the 2007 Adult Education survey, part of a project by the and carried out in France by the and based on a sample of 15,350 persons, French was the native language of 87.2% of the total population, or roughly 55.81 million people, followed by Arabic (3.6%, 2.3 million), Portuguese (1.5%, 960,000), Spanish (1.2%, 770,000) and Italian (1.0%, 640,000). Native speakers of other languages made up the remaining 5.2% of the population.


Religion
France is a secular country in which freedom of religion is a constitutional right. The French policy on religion is based on the concept of laïcité, a strict separation of church and state under which the government and public life are kept completely secular, detached from any religion. The region of and is an exception to the general French norm, since the local law stipulates official status and state funding for , and . According to the national survey of 2020 holden by the , 34% of the French population adhered to , of whom 25% were Catholics and 9% other Christians (without further specification); at the same time, 11% of the French population adhered to , 0.5% to , 0.5% to Judaism, and 1.0% to other religions. 53% of the population declared that they had no religion.

Catholicism was the main religion in France for more than a millennium, and it was once the country's . Its role nowadays, however, has been greatly reduced, although, as of 2012, among the 47,000 religious buildings in France 94% were still Catholic churches. During the French Revolution, activists conducted a brutal campaign of de-Christianisation, which put an end to the role of the Catholic Church as the state religion. In some cases, clergy and churches were attacked, with iconoclasm stripping the churches of statues and ornaments. After alternating between royal and secular republican governments during the 19th century, in 1905 France passed the 1905 law on the Separation of the Churches and the State, which established the aforementioned principle of laïcité.

To this day, the government is prohibited from recognising specific rights to any religious community (with the exception of legacy statutes like those of military chaplains and the aforementioned local law in Alsace-Moselle). It recognises religious organisations according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine, and religious organisations are expected to refrain from intervening in policymaking. Joy of Sects, Sam Jordison, 2006, p. 166 Some religious groups, such as , the Children of God, the Unification Church, and the Order of the Solar Temple, are considered ( sectes in French, which is considered a pejorative term) in France, and therefore they are not granted the same status as recognised religions.


Health
The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance. In its 2000 assessment of world health care systems, the World Health Organization found that France provided the "close to best overall health care" in the world. The French health care system was ranked first worldwide by the World Health Organization in 1997. The ranking, see spreadsheet details for a whole analysis photius.com In 2011, France spent 11.6% of its GDP on health care, or US$4,086 per capita, a figure much higher than the average spent by countries in Europe but less than in the United States. Approximately 77% of health expenditures are covered by government-funded agencies.The World Health Report 2000: WHO

Care is generally free for people affected by ( affections de longues durées) such as cancer, AIDS or . The life expectancy at birth is 78 years for men and 85 years for women, one of the highest in the European Union and the World. There are 3.22 physicians for every 1000 inhabitants in France, and average health care spending per capita was US$4,719 in 2008. , approximately 140,000 inhabitants (0.4%) of France are living with HIV/AIDS.


Education
In 1802, created the lycée, the second and final stage of secondary education that prepares students for higher education studies or a profession. Nevertheless, is considered the father of the French modern school, leading reforms in the late 19th century that established free, secular and compulsory education (currently mandatory until the age of 16). II. L'évolution du contenu de l'obligation scolaire. Sénat.fr 1881–1882 : Lois Ferry École publique gratuite, laïque et obligatoire. Assemblé Nationale

French education is centralised and divided into three stages: Primary, secondary, and higher education. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the , ranked France's education as near the OECD average in 2018. France was one of the PISA-participating countries where school children perceived some of the lowest levels of support and feedback from their teachers. Schoolchildren in France reported greater concern about the disciplinary climate and behaviour in classrooms compared to other countries.

Higher education is divided between public universities and the prestigious and selective Grandes Ă©coles, such as for Political studies, for Economics, Polytechnique, the École des hautes Ă©tudes en sciences sociales for Social studies and the École nationale supĂ©rieure des mines de Paris that produce high-profile engineers, or the École nationale d'administration for careers in the Grands Corps of the state. The Grandes Ă©coles have been criticised for alleged , producing many if not most of France's high-ranking civil servants, CEOs and politicians. Les grandes Ă©coles dans la tourmente â€“


Culture

Art
The origins of French art were very much influenced by and by at the time of the . , the most famous medieval French painter, is said to have been the first to travel to Italy and experience the Early Renaissance firsthand. The Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired by Italian painters such as and , who both worked in France. Two of the most famous French artists of the time of the , and , lived in Italy.

French artists developed the style in the 18th century, as a more intimate imitation of the old baroque style, the works of the court-endorsed artists , François Boucher and Jean-Honoré Fragonard being the most representative in the country. The French Revolution brought great changes, as favoured artists of such as Jacques-Louis David and the highly influential Académie des Beaux-Arts defined the style known as .

In the second part of the 19th century, France's influence over painting grew, with the development of new styles of painting such as and Symbolism. The most famous impressionist painters of the period were , Édouard Manet, , and . The second generation of impressionist-style painters, Paul Cézanne, , and , were also at the avant-garde of artistic evolutions, RFI, Le néo-impressionnisme de Seurat à Paul Klee 15 March 2005 as well as the artists , André Derain and Maurice de Vlaminck.National Gallery of Art (United States), The Fauves (dossier) RFI, Vlaminck, version fauve , 25 February 2008

At the beginning of the 20th century, Cubism was developed by and the Spanish painter , living in Paris. Other foreign artists also settled and worked in or near Paris, such as Vincent van Gogh, , Amedeo Modigliani and Wassily Kandinsky.

There are many art museums in France, the most famous of which being the state-owned , which collects artwork from the 18th century and earlier. The MusĂ©e d'Orsay was inaugurated in 1986 in the old railway station Gare d'Orsay, in a major reorganisation of national art collections, to gather French paintings from the second part of the 19th century (mainly Impressionism and Fauvism movements).MusĂ©e d'Orsay (official website), History of the museum â€“ From station to museum It was voted the best museum in the world in 2018. The top 10 museums in the world, , 6 September 2018 Modern works are presented in the MusĂ©e National d'Art Moderne, which moved in 1976 to the Centre Georges Pompidou. These three state-owned museums are visited by close to 17 million people a year. Ministry of Tourism, Sites touristiques en France page 2 "Palmarès des 30 premiers sites culturels (entrĂ©es comptabilisĂ©es)" Ranking


Architecture
During the Middle Ages, many fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers. Some French castles that survived are Chinon, Château d'Angers, the massive Château de Vincennes and the so-called . During this era, France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe.

Gothic architecture, originally named Opus Francigenum meaning "French work",

(2024). 9781884446054, Oxford University Press.
was born in ĂŽle-de-France and was the first French style of architecture to be imitated throughout Europe. Northern France is the home of some of the most important Gothic cathedrals and basilicas, the first of these being the Saint Denis Basilica (used as the royal necropolis); other important French Gothic cathedrals are Notre-Dame de Chartres and . The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: Notre-Dame de Reims. Histoire et Architecture â€“ Site officiel de la Cathedrale de Notre-Dame de Reims

The final victory in the Hundred Years' War marked an important stage in the evolution of French architecture. It was the time of the French Renaissance and several artists from Italy were invited to the French court; many residential palaces were built in the , from 1450 as a first reference the Château de Montsoreau. Examples of such residential castles include the Château de Chambord, the Château de Chenonceau, or the Château d'Amboise.

Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque architecture replaced the traditional Gothic style. However, in France, baroque architecture found greater success in the secular domain than in the religious one. Claude LĂ©bedel â€“ Les Splendeurs du Baroque en France: Histoire et splendeurs du baroque en France page 9: "Si en allant plus loin, on prononce les mots 'art baroque en France', on provoque alors le plus souvent une moue interrogative, parfois seulement Ă©tonnĂ©e, parfois franchement rĂ©probatrice: Mais voyons, l'art baroque n'existe pas en France!" In the secular domain, the Palace of Versailles has many baroque features. Jules Hardouin Mansart, who designed the extensions to Versailles, was one of the most influential French architects of the baroque era; he is famous for his dome at .

(2024). 9780754603092, Ashgate Publishing. .
Some of the most impressive provincial baroque architecture is found in places that were not yet French such as in Nancy. On the military architectural side, Vauban designed some of the most efficient fortresses in Europe and became an influential military architect; as a result, imitations of his works can be found all over Europe, the Americas, Russia and Turkey.

After the Revolution, the favoured although it was introduced in France before the revolution with such buildings as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse. Built during the first French Empire, the Arc de Triomphe and Sainte Marie-Madeleine represent the best example of architecture.

(2024). 9781740598507, Lonely Planet. .
Under , a new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth; extravagant buildings such as the neo-baroque were built. The urban planning of the time was very organised and rigorous; most notably, Haussmann's renovation of Paris. The architecture associated with this era is named Second Empire in English, the term being taken from the Second French Empire. At this time there was a strong Gothic resurgence across Europe and in France; the associated architect was Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. In the late 19th century, designed many bridges, such as the , and remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his time, although he is best remembered for the .

In the 20th century, French-Swiss architect designed several buildings in France. More recently, French architects have combined both modern and old architectural styles. The is an example of modern architecture added to an older building. The most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar. For instance, in Paris, since 1977, new buildings had to be under . France's largest financial district is La DĂ©fense, where a significant number of skyscrapers are located. In the heart of the main European Business area  â€“ NCI Business Center Other massive buildings that are a challenge to integrate into their environment are large bridges; an example of the way this has been done is the . Some famous modern French architects include , Dominique Perrault, Christian de Portzamparc and .


Literature and philosophy
The earliest French literature dates from the when what is now known as modern France did not have a single, uniform language. There were several languages and dialects, and writers used their own spelling and grammar. Some authors of French medieval texts, such as Tristan and Iseult and are unknown. Three famous medieval authors are Chrétien de Troyes, Christine de Pizan (langue d'oïl), and Duke William IX of Aquitaine (). Much medieval French poetry and literature was inspired by the legends of the Carolingian cycle, such as The Song of Roland and the various chansons de geste. The Roman de Renart, written in 1175 by Perrout de Saint Cloude, tells the story of the medieval character ('the Fox') and is another example of early French writing. An important 16th-century writer was François Rabelais, who wrote five popular early novels. Rabelais was also in regular communication with Marguerite de Navarre, author of the . Another 16th-century author was Michel de Montaigne, whose most famous work, Essais, started a literary genre.

French literature and poetry flourished during the 18th and 19th centuries. 's best-known works are Jacques the Fatalist and Rameau's Nephew. He is best known, however, as the main editor of the Encyclopédie, whose aim was, to sum up all the knowledge of his century (in fields such as arts, sciences, languages, and philosophy) and to fight ignorance and . During that same century, was a prolific writer of children's fairy tales including Puss in Boots, , and . At the start of the 19th century, was an important movement in French literature, with poets such as Charles Baudelaire, and Stéphane Mallarmé.

The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned French authors. Victor Hugo is sometimes seen as "the greatest French writer of all time" for excelling in all . The preface of his play Cromwell is considered to be the manifesto of the . Les Contemplations and La Légende des siècles are considered "poetic masterpieces", Hugo's verse has been compared to that of Shakespeare, and . His novel Les Misérables is widely seen as one of the greatest novels ever written and The Hunchback of Notre Dame has remained immensely popular. Other major authors of that century include ( The Three Musketeers and The Count of Monte-Cristo), ( Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea), Émile Zola ( Les Rougon-Macquart), Honoré de Balzac ( La Comédie humaine), Guy de Maupassant, Théophile Gautier and ( The Red and the Black, The Charterhouse of Parma), whose works are among the most well known in France and the world.

In the early 20th century France was a haven for literary freedom. Works banned for obscenity in the US, the UK and other Anglophone nations were published in France decades before they were available in the respective authors' home countries. The French were disinclined to punish literary figures for their writing, and prosecutions were rare. Important writers of the 20th century include , Louis-Ferdinand Céline, , , and . Antoine de Saint Exupéry wrote The Little Prince, which has remained popular for decades and is one of the best selling books in history. Modiano strengthens France's literature Nobel dominance , , 9 October 2014

Medieval philosophy was dominated by until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance. Modern philosophy began in France in the 17th century with the philosophy of René Descartes, and Nicolas Malebranche. Descartes was the first Western philosopher since ancient times to attempt to build a philosophical system from the ground up rather than building on the work of predecessors.Russell, Bertrand (2004) 1945. A History of Western Philosophy. Routledge. p. 511Kenny, Anthony (2006). The Rise of Modern Philosophy: A New History of Western Philosophy, vol. 3. Oxford University Press. pp. 40 France in the 18th Century saw major philipshocial contributions from who came to embody the Enlightenment and Jean-Jacques Rousseau whose work highly influenced the French Revolution. French philosophers made major contributions to the field in the 20th century including the works of Simone de Beauvoir, Camus, and Sartre. Other influential contributions during this time include the moral and political works of , contributions to including from Claude Lévi-Strauss and the post-structuralist works by .


Music
France has a long and varied musical history. It experienced a golden age in the 17th century thanks to Louis XIV, who employed talented musicians and composers in the royal court. The most renowned composers of this period include Marc-Antoine Charpentier, François Couperin, Michel-Richard Delalande, Jean-Baptiste Lully and , all of them composers at the court. After the death of the "Roi Soleil", French musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige, and he is still one of the most renowned French composers. Rameau became the dominant composer of and the leading French composer of the harpsichord.Girdlestone, Cuthbert (1969). Jean-Philippe Rameau: His Life and Work (paperback ed.). Dover. p. 14: "It is customary to couple him with Couperin as one couples Haydn with Mozart or Ravel with Debussy."

was a key member of the early-20th-century Parisian . 's best-known works are his piano suite Trois mouvements perpétuels (1919), the ballet (1923), the Concert champêtre (1928) for and orchestra, the opera Dialogues des Carmélites (1957) and the Gloria (1959) for , choir and orchestra. and are the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music. Debussy was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and influenced many composers who followed. Debussy's music is noted for its sensory content and frequent usage of . The two composers invented new musical forms and new sounds. Ravel's piano compositions, such as Jeux d'eau, , Le tombeau de Couperin and Gaspard de la nuit, demand considerable virtuosity. His mastery of orchestration is evident in the Rapsodie espagnole, Daphnis et Chloé, his arrangement of Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition and his orchestral work Boléro (1928). More recently, in the middle of the 20th century, , and contributed to the evolution of contemporary classical music.

French music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music in the middle of the 20th century. Although English-speaking creations achieved popularity in the country, French pop music, known as chanson française, has also remained very popular. Among the most important French artists of the century are Édith Piaf, , Léo Ferré, and . Although there are very few rock bands in France compared to English-speaking countries, bands such as Noir Désir, Mano Negra, Niagara, Les Rita Mitsouko and more recently Superbus, Phoenix and Gojira, or , have reached worldwide popularity.


Cinema
France has historical and strong links with , with two Frenchmen, Auguste and Louis Lumière (known as the Lumière Brothers) credited with creating cinema in 1895. The world's first female filmmaker, Alice Guy-Blaché, was also from France. Several important cinematic movements, including the late 1950s and 1960s , began in the country. It is noted for having a strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the Government of France. France remains a leader in filmmaking, producing more films than any other European country. The nation also hosts the , one of the most important and famous film festivals in the world.

Apart from its strong and innovative film tradition, France has also been a gathering spot for artists from across Europe and the world. For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. Directors from nations such as Poland (, Krzysztof Kieślowski, Andrzej Żuławski), Argentina (Gaspar Noé, Edgardo Cozarinsky), Russia (Alexandre Alexeieff, ), Austria () and Georgia (Géla Babluani, ) are prominent in the ranks of French cinema. Conversely, French directors have had prolific and influential careers in other countries, such as , or in the United States. Although the French film market is dominated by Hollywood, France is the only nation in the world where American films make up the smallest share of total film revenues, at 50%, compared with 77% in Germany and 69% in Japan. Damien Rousselière Cinéma et diversité culturelle: le cinéma indépendant face à la mondialisation des industries culturelles. Horizons philosophiques Vol. 15 No. 2 2005 French films account for 35% of the total film revenues of France, which is the highest percentage of national film revenues in the developed world outside the United States, compared to 14% in Spain and 8% in the UK. In 2013 France was the second greatest exporter of films in the world, after the United States.

As part of its advocacy of cultural exception, a political concept of treating culture differently from other commercial products,JoĂ«lle Farchy (1999) La Fin de l'exception culturelle ? France succeeded in convincing all EU members to refuse to include culture and audiovisuals in the list of liberalised sectors of the WTO in 1993. The cultural exception is not negotiable by Catherine Trautmann â€“ Ministry of Culture Moreover, this decision was confirmed in a vote by in 2005: the principle of "cultural exception" won an overwhelming victory with 198 countries voting for it and only 2 countries, the United States and Israel, voting against it.


Fashion
Fashion has been an important industry and cultural export of France since the 17th century, and modern "haute couture" originated in Paris in the 1860s. Today, Paris, along with London, Milan, and New York City, is considered one of the world's , and the city is home or headquarters to many of the premier fashion houses. The expression is, in France, a legally protected name, guaranteeing certain quality standards.

The association of France with fashion and style (la mode) dates largely to the reign of Louis XIVKelly, 181. DeJean, chapters 2–4. when the luxury goods industries in France came increasingly under royal control and the French royal court became, arguably, the arbiter of taste and style in Europe. But France renewed its dominance of the high fashion (couture haute couture) industry in the years 1860–1960 through the establishment of the great houses such as , Dior, and . The French perfume industry is the world leader in its sector and is centred on the town of .

According to 2017 data compiled by , Louis Vuitton Moet Hennessey (LVMH), a French brand, is the largest luxury company in the world by sales, selling more than twice the amount of its nearest competitor. Global Powers of Luxury Goods 2019: Bridging the gap between the old and the new, Moreover, France also possesses 3 of the top 10 luxury goods companies by sales (, , L'Oréal), more than any other country in the world.


Media
In 2021, regional daily newspapers (like , Sud Ouest, La Voix du Nord, DauphinĂ© LibĂ©rĂ©, Le TĂ©lĂ©gramme, and Le Progrès) more than doubled the sales of national newspapers (like , , L'Équipe (sports), , and Les Echos (finance). Free dailies, distributed in metropolitan centers, continue to increase their market share. The sector of weekly magazines includes more than 400 specialised weekly magazines published in the country. Observatoire de la Presse, Presse Magazine â€“ Synthèse

The most influential news magazines are the left-wing Le Nouvel Observateur, centrist L'Express and right-wing (in 2009 more than 400,000 copies), Observatoire de la Presse, Presse News but the highest circulation numbers for weeklies are attained by TV magazines and by women's magazines, among them and , which have foreign versions. Influential weeklies also include investigative and satirical papers Le Canard Enchaîné and , as well as . As in most industrialised nations, the print media have been affected by a with the rise of the internet. In 2008, the government launched a major initiative to help the sector reform and become financially independent, The Telegraph, Nicolas Sarkozy: French media faces 'death' without reform 2 October 2008French government portal, Lancement des états généraux de la presse 2 October 2008 Launching but in 2009 it had to give 600,000 euros to help the print media cope with the economic crisis, in addition to existing subsidies. In 1974, after years of centralised monopoly on radio and television, the governmental agency was split into several national institutions, but the three already-existing TV channels and four national radio stationsRadio France, "L'entreprise", Repères. Landmarks of Radio France company Vie Publique, Chronologie de la politique de l'audiovisuel 20 August 2004 Chronology remained under state control. It was only in 1981 that the government allowed free broadcasting in the territory, ending the state monopoly on radio.


Cuisine
French cuisine is renowned for being one of the finest in the world.
(2024). 9780812217766, University of Pennsylvania Press. .
(2024). 9780226243276, University of Chicago Press. .
Different regions have different styles. In the North, butter and cream are common ingredients, whereas is more commonly used in the South. Each region of France has traditional specialties: in the Southwest, in Alsace, in the Lorraine region, in , , etc. France is most famous for its , and cheeses, which are often named for the territory where they are produced (AOC). A meal typically consists of three courses, entrée (starter), plat principal (main course), and fromage (cheese) or dessert, sometimes with a salad served before the cheese or dessert.

French cuisine is also regarded as a key element of the quality of life and the attractiveness of France. A French publication, the , awards Michelin stars for excellence to a select few establishments. The acquisition or loss of a star can have dramatic effects on the success of a restaurant. By 2006, the Michelin Guide had awarded 620 stars to French restaurants.

In addition to its wine tradition, France is also a major producer of beer and rum. The three main French brewing regions are Alsace (60% of national production), Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Lorraine. French rum is made in distilleries located on islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans.


Sports
France hosts "the world's biggest annual sporting event", the Tour de France. Other popular sports played in France include: football, , , Les licences sportives en France â€“ Insee and pĂ©tanque. France has hosted events such as the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, France wins right to host the 2007 rugby world cup. Associated Press. 11 April 2003 and the 2023 Rugby World Cup. The country also hosted the 1960 European Nations' Cup, UEFA Euro 1984, UEFA Euro 2016 and 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup. The Stade de France in Saint-Denis is France's largest stadium and was the venue for the 1998 FIFA World Cup and 2007 Rugby World Cup finals. Since 1923, France is famous for its 24 Hours of Le Mans sports car endurance race. â€“ Site officiel du 24 heures du Mans Several major tennis tournaments take place in France, including the and the , one of the four Grand Slam tournaments. French include and . was named the best European footballer of the past 50 years in a 2004 poll. "Zidane voted Europe's best ever" The Guardian. Retrieved 17 November 2013]]

France has a close association with the Modern Olympic Games; it was a French aristocrat, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, who suggested the Games' revival, at the end of the 19th century.

(1996). 9780719044519, Manchester University Press ND. .
Olympic History â€“ World Atlas of Travel After was awarded the first Games, in reference to the Olympics' Greek origins, Paris hosted the second Games in 1900. Paris was the first home of the International Olympic Committee, before it moved to . Lausanne, olympic capital â€“ Tourism in Lausanne Since 1900, France has hosted the Olympics on 4 further occasions: the 1924 Summer Olympics, again in Paris and three Winter Games (1924 in , 1968 in and 1992 in ). Similar to the Olympics, France introduced Olympics for the deaf people (Deaflympics) in 1924 with the idea of a French deaf car mechanic, Eugène Rubens-Alcais who paved the way to organise the inaugural edition of the Summer Deaflympics in Paris.

Both the national football team and the national rugby union team are nicknamed " Les Bleus" in reference to the team's shirt colour as well as the national French tricolour flag. Football is the most popular sport in France, with over 1,800,000 registered players and over 18,000 registered clubs.

The French Open, also called Roland-Garros, is a major tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris. It is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments.

is popular, particularly in Paris and the southwest of France. Rugby. 123 Voyage The national rugby union team has competed at every Rugby World Cup; it takes part in the annual Six Nations Championship.


See also
  • Outline of France


Footnotes

Further reading

External links


Economy


Government


Culture

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