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   » » Wiki: Forensic Science
Tag Wiki 'Forensic Science'.
Forensic science is any that is applied to the field of . Forensic scientists are tasked with the collection, preservation, and analysis of scientific during the course of an investigation. While some forensic scientists travel to the scene to collect the evidence themselves, others occupy a purely laboratory role, performing analysis on objects brought to them by other individuals. In addition to their laboratory role, forensic scientists testify as in both criminal and civil cases and can work for either the or the defense. While any field could technically be forensic, certain sections have developed over time to encompass the majority of forensically related cases. Due to the nature of their position, forensic scientists are expected to uphold a high level of integrity and maintain strict ethical guidelines regarding their work.

The word forensic comes from the Latin term forēnsis, meaning "of or before the forum." The history of the term originates from Roman times, during which a criminal charge meant presenting the case before a group of public individuals in the . Both the person accused of the crime and the accuser would give speeches based on their sides of the story. The case would be decided in favor of the individual with the best argument and delivery. This origin is the source of the two modern usages of the word forensic – as a form of legal evidence and as a category of public presentation. In modern use, the term forensics in the place of forensic science can be considered correct, as the term forensic is effectively a for legal or related to courts. However, the term is now so closely associated with the scientific field that many dictionaries include the meaning that equates the word forensics with forensic science.


Early methods
The lacked standardized forensic practices, which aided criminals in escaping punishment. Criminal investigations and trials heavily relied on forced and witness . However, ancient sources do contain several accounts of techniques that foreshadow concepts in forensic science that were developed centuries later. ξ1

For instance, (287–212 BC) invented a method for determining the volume of an object with an irregular shape. According to , a for a temple had been made for King Hiero II, who had supplied the pure to be used, and Archimedes was asked to determine whether some had been substituted by the dishonest goldsmith. Archimedes had to solve the problem without damaging the crown, so he could not melt it down into a regularly shaped body in order to calculate its . Instead he used the law of to prove that the goldsmith had taken some of the gold and substituted silver instead.

The first written account of using and to solve criminal cases is attributed to the book of (translated as Washing Away of Wrongs A Brief Background of Forensic Science), written in China by (宋慈, 1186–1249) in 1248, during the . In one of the accounts, the case of a person murdered with a sickle was solved by an investigator who instructed everyone to bring his sickle to one location. (He realized it was a sickle by testing various blades on an animal carcass and comparing the wound.) Flies, attracted by the smell of blood, eventually gathered on a single sickle. In light of this, the murderer confessed. The book also offered advice on how to distinguish between a (water in the ) and (broken neck ), along with other evidence from examining corpses on determining if a death was caused by murder, suicide or an accident.

Methods from around the world involved saliva and examination of the mouth and tongue to determine innocence or guilt. In ancient and ξ2 cultures, sometimes suspects were made to fill their mouths with dried rice and spit it back out. In ancient cultures the accused were made to lick hot metal rods briefly. Both of these tests had some validity since a guilty person would produce less saliva and thus have a drier mouth. The accused were considered guilty if rice was sticking to their mouths in abundance or if their tongues were severely burned due to lack of shielding from saliva.

Origins of forensic science
In 16th-century Europe, medical practitioners in army and university settings began to gather information on the cause and . , a French army , systematically studied the effects of violent death on internal organs. ξ3 Two surgeons, Fortunato Fidelis and Paolo Zacchia, laid the foundation of modern by studying changes that occurred in the structure of the body as the result of disease. In the late 18th century, writings on these topics began to appear. These included A Treatise on Forensic Medicine and Public Health by the French physician ξ4 and The Complete System of Police Medicine by the German medical expert . ξ5

As the rational values of the increasingly permeated society in the 18th century, criminal investigation became a more evidence-based, rational procedure − the use of torture to force confessions was curtailed, and belief in witchcraft and other powers of the largely ceased to influence the court's decisions. Two examples of English forensic science in individual legal proceedings demonstrate the increasing use of and in criminal investigations at the time. In 1784, in , John Toms was tried and convicted for murdering Edward Culshaw with a . When the dead body of Culshaw was examined, a pistol wad (crushed paper used to secure powder and balls in the muzzle) found in his head wound matched perfectly with a torn newspaper found in Toms's pocket, leading to the conviction. ξ6

In in 1816, a farm labourer was tried and convicted of the murder of a young maidservant. She had been drowned in a shallow pool and bore the marks of violent assault. The police found footprints and an impression from corduroy cloth with a sewn patch in the damp earth near the pool. There were also scattered grains of and chaff. The breeches of a farm labourer who had been threshing wheat nearby were examined and corresponded exactly to the impression in the earth near the pool. ξ7

Toxicology and ballistics
A method for detecting arsenious oxide, simple , in corpses was devised in 1773 by the Swedish chemist . ξ8 His work was expanded, in 1806, by German chemist Valentin Ross, who learned to detect the poison in the walls of a victim's stomach.

was the first to apply this new science to the art of forensics. He was called by the prosecution in a murder trial to give evidence as a chemist in 1832. The defendant, John Bodle, was accused of poisoning his grandfather with arsenic-laced coffee. Marsh performed the standard test by mixing a suspected sample with and . While he was able to detect arsenic as yellow , when it was shown to the jury it had deteriorated, allowing the suspect to be acquitted due to reasonable doubt.

Annoyed by this, Marsh developed a much better test. He combined a sample containing arsenic with and arsenic-free , resulting in gas. The gas was ignited, and it decomposed to pure metallic arsenic, which, when passed to a cold surface, would appear as a silvery-black deposit. So sensitive was the test that it could detect as little as one-fiftieth of a milligram of arsenic. He first described this test in The Edinburgh Philosophical Journal in 1836.

Henry Goddard at pioneered the use of bullet comparison in 1835. He noticed a flaw in the bullet that killed the victim and was able to trace this back to the mold that was used in the manufacturing process.

The French police officer was the first to apply the anthropological technique of to law enforcement, thereby creating an identification system based on physical measurements. Before that time, criminals could only be identified by name or photograph.As reported in, "A Fingerprint Fable: The Will and William West Case". Moana Thompson, Crime Films: Investigating the Scene. London: Wallflower Press (2007): 10 Dissatisfied with the ad hoc methods used to identify captured criminals in France in the 1870s, he began his work on developing a reliable system of anthropometrics for human classification. ξ9

Bertillon created many other techniques, including , the use of compounds to preserve , , and the , used to determine the degree of force used in . Although his central methods were soon to be supplanted by , "his other contributions like the and the systematization of crime-scene photography remain in place to this day."

Sir was one of the first to advocate the use of fingerprinting in the identification of criminal suspects. While working for the , he began to use thumbprints on documents as a security measure to prevent the then-rampant repudiation of signatures in 1858. ξ10

In 1877 at Hooghly (near Calcutta), he instituted the use of fingerprints on contracts and deeds, and he registered government pensioners' fingerprints to prevent the collection of money by relatives after a pensioner's death. Herschel also fingerprinted prisoners upon sentencing to prevent various frauds that were attempted in order to avoid serving a prison sentence.

In 1880, Dr. , a Scottish surgeon in a hospital, published his first paper on the subject in the scientific journal , discussing the usefulness of fingerprints for identification and proposing a method to record them with printing ink. He established their first classification and was also the first to identify fingerprints left on a vial. Returning to the UK in 1886, he offered the concept to the in London, but it was dismissed at that time. See also this on-line article on Henry Faulds:

Faulds wrote to with a description of his method, but, too old and ill to work on it, Darwin gave the information to his cousin, , who was interested in anthropology. Having been thus inspired to study fingerprints for ten years, Galton published a detailed statistical model of fingerprint analysis and identification and encouraged its use in forensic science in his book Finger Prints. He had calculated that the chance of a "false positive" (two different individuals having the same fingerprints) was about 1 in 64 billion.

, an Argentine chief police officer, created the first method of recording the fingerprints of individuals on file. In 1892, after studying Galton's pattern types, Vucetich set up the world's first fingerprint bureau. In that same year, Francisca Rojas of was found in a house with neck injuries whilst her two sons were found dead with their throats cut. Rojas accused a neighbour, but despite brutal interrogation, this neighbour would not confess to the crimes. Inspector Alvarez, a colleague of Vucetich, went to the scene and found a bloody thumb mark on a door. When it was compared with Rojas' prints, it was found to be identical with her right thumb. She then confessed to the murder of her sons.

A Fingerprint Bureau was established in Calcutta (), India, in 1897, after the Council of the Governor General approved a committee report that fingerprints should be used for the classification of criminal records. Working in the Calcutta Anthropometric Bureau, before it became the Fingerprint Bureau, were and . Haque and Bose were Indian fingerprint experts who have been credited with the primary development of a fingerprint classification system eventually named after their supervisor, . The , co-devised by Haque and Bose, was accepted in England and Wales when the first United Kingdom Fingerprint Bureau was founded in , the headquarters, London, in 1901. Sir Edward Richard Henry subsequently achieved improvements in dactyloscopy.

In the United States, Dr. Henry P. DeForrest used fingerprinting in the in 1902, and by 1906, Deputy Commissioner Joseph A. Faurot, an expert in the Bertillon system and a fingerprint advocate at Police Headquarters, introduced the fingerprinting of criminals to the United States.

By the turn of the 20th century, the science of forensics had become largely established in the sphere of criminal investigation. Scientific and surgical investigation was widely employed by the during their pursuit of the mysterious , who had killed a series of in the 1880s. This case is a watershed in the application of forensic science. Large teams of policemen conducted house-to-house inquiries throughout Whitechapel. Forensic material was collected and examined. Suspects were identified, traced and either examined more closely or eliminated from the inquiry. Police work follows the same pattern today. (1994), Criminal Shadows: Inside the Mind of the Serial Killer, London: HarperCollins, pp. 12–13, ISBN 0-00-255215-9 Over 2000 people were interviewed, "upwards of 300" people were investigated, and 80 people were detained.Inspector 's report to the Home Office, 1888, HO 144/221/A49301C, quoted in Begg, Jack the Ripper: The Definitive History, p. 205; Evans and Rumbelow, p. 113; Evans and Skinner, The Ultimate Jack the Ripper Sourcebook, p. 125

The investigation was initially conducted by the (CID), headed by Detective Inspector . Later, Detective Inspectors , , and were sent from Central Office at to assist. Initially, butchers, surgeons and physicians were suspected because of the manner of the mutilations. The alibis of local butchers and slaughterers were investigated, with the result that they were eliminated from the inquiry.Inspector Donald Swanson's report to the , 1888, HO 144/221/A49301C, quoted in Begg, Jack the Ripper: The Definitive History, p. 206 and Evans and Skinner, The Ultimate Jack the Ripper Sourcebook, p. 125 Some contemporary figures thought the pattern of the murders indicated that the culprit was a butcher or cattle drover on one of the cattle boats that plied between London and mainland Europe. Whitechapel was close to the ,Marriott, John, "The Imaginative Geography of the Whitechapel murders", in Werner, p. 48 and usually such boats docked on Thursday or Friday and departed on Saturday or Sunday.Rumbelow, p. 93; Daily Telegraph, 1888, quoted in Evans and Skinner, The Ultimate Jack the Ripper Sourcebook, p. 341 The cattle boats were examined, but the dates of the murders did not coincide with a single boat's movements, and the transfer of a crewman between boats was also ruled out.Robert Anderson to Home Office, 1889, 144/221/A49301C ff. 235–6, quoted in Evans and Skinner, The Ultimate Jack the Ripper Sourcebook, p. 399

At the end of October, Robert Anderson asked police surgeon to give his opinion on the extent of the murderer's surgical skill and knowledge.Evans and Rumbelow, pp. 186–187; Evans and Skinner, The Ultimate Jack the Ripper Sourcebook, pp. 359–360 The opinion offered by Bond on the character of the "Whitechapel murderer" is the earliest surviving .Canter, pp. 5–6 Bond's assessment was based on his own examination of the most extensively mutilated victim and the notes from the four previous canonical murders.Letter from Thomas Bond to Robert Anderson, 1888, HO 144/221/A49301C, quoted in Evans and Skinner, The Ultimate Jack the Ripper Sourcebook, pp. 360–362 and Rumbelow, pp. 145–147 In his opinion the killer must have been a man of solitary habits, subject to "periodical attacks of homicidal and erotic ", with the character of the mutilations possibly indicating "". Bond also stated that "the homicidal impulse may have developed from a revengeful or brooding condition of the mind, or that religious mania may have been the original disease but I do not think either hypothesis is likely".

Handbook for Coroners, police officials, military policemen was written by the criminal jurist in 1893, and is generally acknowledged as the birth of the field of criminalistics. The work combined in one system fields of knowledge that had not been previously integrated, such as psychology and science, and which could be successfully used against crime. Gross adapted some fields to the needs of criminal investigation, such as . He went on to found the Institute of Criminalistics in 1912, as part of the University of Graz' Law School. This Institute was followed by many similar institutes all over the world. ξ11

In 1909, founded the Institut de police scientifique of the , the first school of forensic science in the world. Dr. , became known as the " of ". He formulated the basic principle of forensic science: "Every contact leaves a trace", which became known as . In 1910, he founded what may have been the first criminal laboratory in the world, after persuading the Police Department of (France) to give him two attic rooms and two assistants.

Symbolic of the new found prestige of forensics and the use of reasoning in detective work was the popularity of the fictional character , written by in the late 19th century. He remains a great inspiration for forensic science, especially for the way his acute study of a crime scene yielded small clues as to the precise sequence of events. He made great use of such as shoe and tire impressions, as well as fingerprints, and handwriting analysis, now known as . ξ12 Such evidence is used to test theories conceived by the police, for example, or by the investigator himself. ξ13 All of the techniques advocated by Holmes later became reality, but were generally in their infancy at the time Conan Doyle was writing. In many of his reported cases, Holmes frequently complains of the way the crime scene has been contaminated by others, especially by the police, emphasising the critical importance of maintaining its integrity, a now well-known feature of crime scene examination. He used for analysis as well as examination and determination for poisons. He used by measuring bullet and matching them with a suspected murder weapon. ξ14

20th century
Later in the 20th century several British pathologists, , , and pioneered new forensic science methods. pioneered the use of in forensic science in 1984. He realized the scope of DNA fingerprinting, which uses variations in the to identify individuals. The method has since become important in forensic science to assist police detective work, and it has also proved useful in resolving paternity and immigration disputes. DNA fingerprinting was first used as a police forensic test to identify the rapist and killer of two teenagers, Lynda Mann and Dawn Ashworth, who were both murdered in , in 1983 and 1986 respectively. was identified and convicted of murder after samples taken from him matched samples taken from the two dead girls.

Forensic science has been fostered by a number of national forensic science learned bodies including the (founded 1948), publishers of the ; Journal of Forensic Sciences the (founded 1953), publishers of the ; the British Academy of Forensic Sciences (founded 1960), publishers of Medicine, science and the law, and the (founded 1967), publishers of the Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences

  • Forensic Investigation also known as forensic audit is the examination of documents and the interviewing of people to extract evidence. Forensic investigation is fast emerging as a lucrative professional practice field. With increased sophistication of white collar criminals, there is demand for well trained experts to carry out investigations and also institute preventive, deterrence and detective measures.

  • concerns the art authentication cases to help research the work's authenticity. Art authentication methods are used to detect and identify forgery, faking and copying of art works, e.g. paintings.
  • concerns the development of algorithms and software to assist forensic examination.
  • is the application of various sciences to answer questions relating to examination and comparison of , , impression evidence (such as , , and ), , , firearm and toolmark examination, and other evidence in criminal investigations. In typical circumstances evidence is processed in a .
  • is the application of proven scientific methods and techniques in order to recover data from electronic / digital media. Digital Forensic specialists work in the field as well as in the lab.
  • is the study and interpretation of accounting evidence.
  • is the study and interpretation of aerial photographic evidence.
  • is the application of in a legal setting, usually for the recovery and identification of human remains.
  • is the application of a combination of techniques and forensic science, typically in law enforcement.
  • uses methods from to determine past celestial constellations for forensic purposes.
  • is the study of plant life in order to gain information regarding possible crimes.
  • is the study of detection and identification of , accelerants used in cases, explosive and .
  • is the study of .
  • Forensic document examination or answers questions about a disputed document using a variety of scientific processes and methods. Many examinations involve a comparison of the questioned document, or components of the document, with a set of known standards. The most common type of examination involves handwriting, whereby the examiner tries to address concerns about potential authorship.
  • takes advantage of the uniqueness of an individual's DNA to answer forensic questions such as and placing a suspect at a crime scene, e.g. in a .
  • is the scientific examination and analysis of structures and products relating to their failure or cause of damage.
  • deals with the examination of in, on and around human remains to assist in determination of time or location of death. It is also possible to determine if the body was moved after death using entomology.
  • deals with in the form of soils, minerals and petroleum.
  • Forensic geomorphology is the study of the ground surface to look for potential location(s) of buried object(s).
  • is the application of geophysical techniques such as radar for detecting objects hidden underground or underwater.
  • process starts with the collection of data and ends with the integration of results within into the analysis of crimes under investigation.p.611 Jahankhani,Hamid; Watson, David Lilburn; Me, Gianluigi Handbook of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics World Scientific, 2009
  • are conducted using the science of professionally using expertise to conduct a variety of investigative interviews with victims, witnesses, suspects or other sources to determine the facts regarding suspicions, allegations or specific incidents in either public or private sector settings.
  • is the analysis of evidence collected from crime scenes in or around fresh-water sources. Examination of biological organisms, in particular , can be useful in connecting suspects with victims.
  • deals with issues in the legal system that requires linguistic expertise.
  • is a site-specific analysis of past weather conditions for a point of loss.
  • is the study of the uniqueness of dentition, better known as the study of teeth.
  • is the study of glasses and other eyewear relating to crime scenes and criminal investigations.
  • is a field in which the principles of and are applied to determine a cause of death or injury in the context of a legal inquiry.
  • is an application of the study of feet or footwear and their traces to analyze scene of crime and to establish personal identity in forensic examinations.
  • is a specialized branch of as applied to and based on scientific .
  • is the study of the mind of an individual, using forensic methods. Usually it determines the circumstances behind a criminal's behavior.
  • is the study of techniques to distinguish the seismic signals generated by underground nuclear explosions from those generated by earthquakes.
  • is the study of the body fluids.
  • is the specialist study of theories and their applications to a clinical, criminal justice or setting. Practitioners of forensic social work connected with the are often termed Social Supervisors, whilst the remaining use the interchangeable titles , or Forensic Practitioner and they conduct specialist assessments of risk, care planning and act as an officer of the court.
  • is the study of the effect of and on/in the human body.
  • is the scientific examination, comparison and evaluation of video in legal matters.
  • is the scientific examination and evaluation of evidence found in mobile phones, e.g. Call History and Deleted SMS, and includes SIM Card Forensics.
  • analysis is the analysis and comparison of trace evidence including glass, paint, fibres and hair (e.g., using ).
  • applies a range of scientific disciplines to legal cases involving non-human biological evidence, to solve crimes such as poaching, , and trade in endangered species.
  • is the scientific examination of blood spatter patterns found at a crime scene to reconstruct the events of the crime.

Education and research
Academic centre of education and research in forensic sciences:

Notable forensic scientists

Questionable techniques
Some forensic techniques, believed to be scientifically sound at the time they were used, have turned out later to have much less scientific merit or none. Some such techniques include:
  • was used by the FBI for over four decades, starting with the in 1963. The theory was that each batch of possessed a chemical makeup so distinct that a bullet could be traced back to a particular batch or even a specific box. Internal studies and an outside study by the found that the technique was unreliable, and the FBI abandoned the test in 2005.
  • has come under fire: in at least two cases bite-mark evidence has been used to convict people of murder who were later freed by DNA evidence. A 1999 study by a member of the American Board of Forensic Odontology found a 63 percent rate of false identifications and is commonly referenced within online news stories and conspiracy websites. The study was based on an informal workshop during an ABFO meeting, which many members did not consider a valid scientific setting.
  • By the late 2000s, scientists were able to show that it is possible to fabricate DNA evidence, thus "undermining the credibility of what has been considered the gold standard of proof in criminal cases".Polloack, Andrew (August 17, 2009). " DNA Evidence Can Be Fabricated, Scientists Show". The New York Times.

Litigation science
Litigation science describes analysis or data developed or produced expressly for use in a trial versus those produced in the course of independent research. This distinction was made by the US 9th Circuit Court of Appeals when evaluating the admissibility of experts.

This uses , which is evidence created in preparation of trial by or .

International demographics
In the there are over 12,000 forensic science technicians, as of 2010. U.S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2011. "19-4092 Forensic Science Technicians".

Examples in popular culture
The Argentinean writer claims that the police novel genre is inaugurated with 's short story, "". But it is first , the fictional character created by Sir in works produced from 1887 to 1915, who used forensic science as one of his investigating methods. Conan Doyle credited the inspiration for Holmes on his teacher at the medical school of the , the gifted surgeon and forensic detective .

's and books and television series glorify too a similar prototype.

The also featured a detective using a considerable number of forensic methods, although sometimes the methods were more fanciful than actually possible.

In comic books published by , ( of The Flash) is a forensic scientist for the Central City police department.

Defense attorney occasionally used forensic techniques, both in the novels and television series.

One of the earliest to focus on the scientific analysis of evidence was (1976–83, and based loosely on an even earlier Canadian series titled ), with the title character, a working in solving crimes through careful study. The opening theme of each episode featured a clip of the title character, played by , beginning a lecture to a group of police officers with "Gentlemen, you are about to enter the most fascinating sphere of police work, the world of forensic medicine." Later series with similar premises include , , , , , , , , , , , , and , depict glamorized versions of the activities of 21st-century forensic scientists. Some claim these TV shows have changed individuals' expectations of forensic science, an influence termed the "".

Non-fiction TV shows such as , , , and 's have also popularized forensic science.

The series features forensic science, mainly in and the DS-only case in .

Questions about certain areas of forensic science, such as fingerprint evidence and the assumptions behind these disciplines have been brought to light in some publications including the New York Post. The article stated that "No one has proved even the basic assumption: That everyone's fingerprint is unique." The article also stated that "Now such assumptions are being questioned - and with it may come a radical change in how forensic science is used by police departments and prosecutors." Law professor Jessica Gabel said on NOVA that forensic science "lacks the rigors, the standards, the quality controls and procedures that we find, usually, in science."Jessica Gabel, lawyer and lecturer from NOVA "Forensics on Trial"

In America, on 25 June 2009, the Supreme Court issued a 5-to-4 decision in stating that crime laboratory reports may not be used against criminal defendants at trial unless the analysts responsible for creating them give testimony and subject themselves to cross-examination. The Supreme Court cited the National Academies report Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States in their decision. Writing for the majority, Justice referred to the report in his assertion that "Forensic evidence is not uniquely immune from the risk of manipulation."

In 2009, scientists indicated that it is possible to fabricate DNA evidence, therefore suggesting it is possible to falsely accuse or acquit a person or persons using forged evidence.

In America, another area of forensic science that has come under question in recent years is the lack of laws requiring the accreditation of forensic labs. Some states require accreditation, but some states do not. Because of this, many labs have been caught performing very poor work resulting in false convictions or acquittals. For example, it was discovered after an audit of the Houston Police Department in 2002 that the lab had fabricated evidence which led George Rodriguez being convicted of raping a fourteen-year-old girl. The former director of the lab, when asked, said that the total number of cases that could have been contaminated by improper work could be in the range of 5,000 to 10,000. This could have been avoided if the lab had been accredited by organizations such as ASCLD/Lab, which require crime labs to undergo rigorous assessments to show that they are able to perform multiple tests accurately. Once they become accredited, they are periodically re-evaluated to ensure that the lab is still functioning at its best. Periodic evaluations of a lab's performance by an independent organization will help to prevent scandals from occurring in forensic science laboratories.

Although forensic science has greatly enhanced the investigator's ability to solve crimes, it has limitations and must be scrutinized in and out of the courtroom to avoid the occurrence of wrongful convictions.

Forensic science and humanitarian work
The (ICRC) uses forensic science for humanitarian purposes to clarify the fate of missing persons after armed conflict, disasters or migration, and is one of the services related to and Missing Persons. Knowing what has happened to a missing relative can often make it easier to proceed with the grieving process and move on with life for families of missing persons.

Forensic science is used by various other organizations to clarify the fate and whereabouts of persons who have gone missing. Examples include the NGO , working to clarify the fate of people who disappeared during the period of the 1976–1983 military dictatorship. The (ICMP) uses forensic science to find missing persons, for example after the conflicts in the Balkans.

See also


External links

    ^ (2024). 9781587654237, .
    ^ 9788176253659, Sarup & Sons. .
    ^ 9780465037186, Basic Books. .
    ^ 9780470979990, Wiley Blackwell. .
    ^ 9780521412544, University of Cambridge. .
    ^ 9781847946836, Random House Books. .
    ^ (1972). 9780385092494, Doubleday.
    ^ 9780816055104, Facts on File. .
    ^ (1984). 9780253352354, ''History Workshop'', Indiana University Press.
    ^ (2024). 9781104662257, Oxford University Press. .
    ^ (1999). 9780773481640, .
    ^ (2006). 9780199285907 .
    ^ (1994). 9780671798260 .
    ^ (1994). 9780299143541 .
    ^ (2024). 9780123822413, Academic Press.
    ^ (2024). 9780307279088

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