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Tokyo (; 東京, , ), officially the Tokyo Metropolis (label=none, ), is the capital of and one of the most populous cities in the world with a population of over 14 million residents as of 2023. The Tokyo metropolitan area, which includes Tokyo and nearby prefectures, is the world's most-populous metropolitan area with 40.8 million residents , and is the second-largest metropolitan economy in the world after New York, with a 2022 gross metropolitan product estimated at US$2.08 trillion (US$51,124 per capita).

Located at the head of , Tokyo is part of the Kantō region on the central coast of , Japan's largest island. Tokyo serves as Japan's economic center and the seat of both the Japanese government and the Emperor of Japan. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government administers Tokyo's central 23 special wards (which formerly made up ), various commuter towns and suburbs in , and two outlying island chains known as the . Despite most of the world knowing Tokyo as a city, since 1943 its governing structure has been more akin to a prefecture, with an accompanying Governor and Assembly taking precedence over the smaller municipal governments which make up the metropolis.

Prior to the 17th century, Tokyo was predominantly a fishing village and was named . In 1603, however, the city ascended to political prominence after being named the seat of the Tokugawa shogunate. By the mid-18th century, Edo emerged as one of the world's most-populous cities with a population of over one million people. Following the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the imperial capital in was moved to Edo, and the city was renamed Tokyo (). In 1923, Tokyo was damaged substantially by the Great Kantō earthquake, and the city was later decimated by allied bombing raids during World War II in retaliation for Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor. Beginning in the mid-20th century, Tokyo underwent rapid reconstruction and expansion that contributed to the era's so-called Japanese economic miracle in which Japan's economy propelled to the second-largest in the world behind that of the United States. Tokyo is also part of an industrial region that spans from and Kawasaki to Chiba. , the city is home to 29 of the world's largest 500 companies listed in the annual Fortune Global 500.

In 2020, Tokyo ranked fourth on the Global Financial Centres Index behind New York City, , and . Tokyo is categorized as an by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. The city is home to the world's tallest tower, , and the world's largest underground floodwater diversion facility, the Metropolitan Area Outer Underground Discharge Channel in Kasukabe, Saitama, a Tokyo suburb. The Tokyo Metro Ginza Line, which opened in 1927, is the oldest underground metro line in . Tokyo is recognized as one of the world's most livable cities; it was ranked fourth in the world in Global Livability Ranking, published in 2021.

In the 20th and 21st centuries, Tokyo has hosted several major international events, including the 1964 Summer Olympics and Paralympics, the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics, and three G7 summits in 1979, 1986, and 1993. Tokyo is an international research and development hub and an academic center with several major universities, including the University of Tokyo, the top-ranking university in the country. is the central hub for the , Japan's high-speed railway network, and in Tokyo is the world's busiest train station. Notable special wards in Tokyo include Chiyoda, the site of the National Diet Building and the Tokyo Imperial Palace, , the city's administrative center, and , a commercial, cultural, and business hub in the city.


Etymology
Tokyo was originally known as , a [[kanji]] compound of [[wikt:江|江]] (''e'', "cove, inlet") and [[wikt:戸|戸]] (''to'', "entrance, gate, door").Room, Adrian. ''Placenames of the World''. McFarland & Company (1996), [https://books.google.com/books?id=PzIer-wYbnQC&pg=PA360 p. 360] . . The name, which can be translated as "[[estuary]]", is a reference to the original settlement's location at the meeting of the [[Sumida River]] and [[Tokyo Bay]]. During the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the name of the city was changed to extra=from  ''tō'' "east", and  ''kyō'' "capital", when it became the new imperial capital,US Department of State. (1906). [https://archive.org/details/digestofinternat07mooriala/page/751 ''A digest of international law as in diplomatic discussions, treaties and other international agreements'' (John Bassett Moore, ed.), Volume 5, p. 759] ; excerpt, "The Mikado, on assuming the exercise of power at Yedo, changed the name of the city to Tokio". in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital () in the name of the capital city (for example, [[Kyoto]] (), Keijō (), [[Beijing]] (), [[Nanjing]] (), and Xijing ()). During the early [[Meiji period]], the city was sometimes called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a [[kanji homograph]]. Some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei"; however, this pronunciation is now obsolete.
     


History

Pre-1869 (Edo period)
Tokyo was originally a village called Edo, in what was formerly part of the old . Edo was first fortified by the , in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built . In 1590, moved from (his lifelong base) to the Kantō region. When he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent , Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century.

Edo was still the home of the Tokugawa shogunate and not the capital of Japan (the Emperor himself lived in almost continuously from 794 to 1868). During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, and in the presence of such peace, the shogunate adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city. The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires, earthquakes, and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city.

This prolonged period of seclusion however came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and , leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations, especially in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Emperor leveraged the disruption that these widespread rebellious demonstrations were causing to further consolidate power by overthrowing the last Tokugawa shōgun, Yoshinobu, in 1867. After 265 years, the Pax Tokugawa came to an end.

File:Edo P2.jpg|, 17th century File:Commodore-Perry-Visit-Kanagawa-1854.jpg|Commodore Matthew Perry expedition and his first arrival in Japan in 1853 File:Shitamachi.jpg|Famous Edo Places. Yamanote (above), Nihonbashi (center) and Shitamachi (below), . File:Hiroshige, Sugura street.jpg|Suruga street with Mount Fuji by Hiroshige (1856)


1869–1943
Edo was renamed Tokyo (Eastern Capital) on September 3, 1868, as the new government was consolidating its power after the fall of the Edo shogunate. The young visited once at the end of that year and eventually moved in in 1869. Tokyo was already the nation's political center, and the emperor's residence made it a de facto imperial capital as well, with the former Edo Castle becoming the Imperial Palace. The was officially established on May 1, 1889.

The Tokyo Metro Ginza Line portion between and was the first subway line built in Japan and East Asia completed on December 30, 1927. Central Tokyo, like , has been designed since about 1900 to be centered on major railway stations in a high-density fashion, so suburban railways were built relatively cheaply at street level and with their own right-of-way. Though have been built in Tokyo, the basic design has not changed.

Tokyo went on to suffer two major catastrophes in the 20th century: the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, which left 140,000 dead or missing; and World War II.

File:Tokyo-Sumida-River-Taito-ku-1930.png|An aerial view of the with Taitō-ku (west) and Sumida-ku (east) in Tokyo, c. 1930 File:Nihonbashi after Great Kanto earthquake.JPG| after Great Kanto Earthquake, 1 September 1923 File:Ginza in 1933.JPG|The Ginza area in 1933 File:Eidan type 1000 train.jpg|"The first underground railway in the Orient", Tokyo Underground, opened on 30 December 1927


1943–1945
In 1943, the city of Tokyo merged with the prefecture of Tokyo to form the "Metropolitan Prefecture" of Tokyo. Since then, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government served as both the prefecture government for Tokyo, as well as administering the special wards of Tokyo, for what had previously been Tokyo City. World War II wrought widespread destruction of most of the city due to the persistent Allied air raids on Japan and the use of . The bombing of Tokyo in 1944 and 1945 is estimated to have killed between 75,000 and 200,000 civilians and left more than half of the city destroyed.
(2024). 9780585453224, Routledge.

The deadliest night of the war came on March 9-10, 1945, the night of the American "Operation Meetinghouse" raid; as nearly 700,000 incendiary bombs rained on the eastern half of the city, mainly in heavily residential wards. Two-fifths of the city were completely burned, more than 276,000 buildings were demolished, 100,000 civilians were killed, and 110,000 more were injured. Between 1940 and 1945, the population of Japan's capital city dwindled from 6,700,000 to less than 2,800,000, with the majority of those who lost their homes living in "ramshackle, makeshift huts".

File:Firebombing of Tokyo.jpg|The bombing of Tokyo in 1945 File:Tokyo 1945-3-10-1.jpg|The aftermath of the bombing of Tokyo, March 1945 File:Sto1001.jpg|Nihonbashi in 1946


1945–present
After the war, Tokyo became the base from which the United States under Douglas MacArthur administered Japan for six years. Tokyo struggled to rebuild as occupation authorities stepped in and drastically cut back on Japanese government rebuilding programs, focusing instead on simply improving roads and transportation. Tokyo did not experience fast economic growth until the 1950s.Andre Sorensen. The Making of Urban Japan: Cities and Planning from Edo to the Twenty First Century RoutledgeCurzon, 2004. .

After the occupation of Japan ended in 1952, Tokyo was completely rebuilt and was showcased to the world during the 1964 Summer Olympics, such as the Yoyogi National Gymnasium and the 0 Series Shinkansen, the first bullet train of its class in the world. The 1970s and the 1980s brought new high-rise developments. In 1978, Sunshine 60 – the tallest skyscraper in Asia until 1985, and in Japan until 1991 – and Narita International Airport were constructed, and the population increased to about 11 million in the metropolitan area. The Edo-Tokyo Open Air Architectural Museum has historic Japanese buildings that existed in the urban landscape of pre-war Tokyo.

and commuter rail network became one of the busiest in the world as more and more people moved to the area. In the 1980s, real estate prices skyrocketed during a real estate and debt bubble. The bubble burst in the early 1990s, and many companies, banks, and individuals were caught with mortgage-backed debts while real estate was shrinking in value. A major recession followed, making the 1990s Japan's "Lost Decade",

(2024). 9781405119177, Blackwell Publishing Limited.
from which it is now slowly recovering.

Tokyo still sees new urban developments on large lots of less profitable land. Recent projects include Ebisu Garden Place, Tennōzu Isle, , , Shinagawa (Shinagawa Station, a major hub for ), and the side of . Buildings of significance have been demolished for more up-to-date shopping facilities such as .

projects in Tokyo have also been going on for centuries. The most prominent is the area, now a major shopping and entertainment center. Various plans have been proposed for transferring national government functions from Tokyo to secondary capitals in other regions of Japan, to slow down rapid development in Tokyo and revitalize economically lagging areas of the country. These plans have been controversial within Japan and have yet to be realized.

The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami that devastated much of the northeastern coast of Honshu was felt in Tokyo. However, due to Tokyo's earthquake-resistant infrastructure, damage in Tokyo was very minor compared to areas directly hit by the tsunami, although activity in the city was largely halted. The subsequent nuclear crisis caused by the tsunami has also largely left Tokyo unaffected, despite occasional spikes in levels.

On September 7, 2013, the selected Tokyo to host the 2020 Summer Olympics. Tokyo thus became the first Asian city to host the Olympic Games twice. However, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2020 Olympic Games took place from July 23, 2021, to August 8, 2021. It is also unclear how the city will deal with an increasing number of issues, urging scholars to offer possible alternatives approaches to tackle the most urgent problems.

(2024). 9789811566868, Palgrave.
Although, the COVID-19 pandemic in Tokyo has impeded the growth of many industries, the real estate market in Japan is yet to be negatively impacted. Japanese real estate has become one of the safest investments for foreign investors around the world.

File:Tokyo Tower and around Skyscrapers.jpg|, built in 1958 File:Kokuritsu Yoyogi Kyōgijō 1.jpg|Yoyogi National Gymnasium, built for the 1964 Summer Olympics File:Sunshine 60.JPG|Sunshine 60, at , the tallest building in Asia until 1985, and in Japan until 1991 File:Landscape seen from top floors of 住友不動産六本木通ビル 9.jpg|thumb|Landscape of Tokyo seen from top floors of Sumitomo Fudosan Roppongi Grand Tower File:Minato City, Tokyo, Japan (Night).jpg|thumb|Minato City at night


Geography and government
The mainland portion of Tokyo lies northwest of and measures about east to west and north to south. The average elevation in Tokyo is . borders it to the east, Yamanashi to the west, Kanagawa to the south, and Saitama to the north. Mainland Tokyo is further subdivided into the special wards (occupying the eastern half) and the Tama area () stretching westwards. Tokyo has a of 35.65 (near the 36th parallel north), which makes it more southern than (41.90), (40.41), New York City (40.71) and (39.91).

Within the administrative boundaries of Tokyo Metropolis are two island chains in the Pacific Ocean directly south: the , and the Ogasawara Islands, which stretch more than away from the mainland. Because of these islands and the mountainous regions to the west, Tokyo's overall population density figures far under-represent the real figures for the urban and suburban regions of Tokyo.

Under Japanese law, the prefecture of Tokyo is designated as a 都, translated as . Tokyo Prefecture is the most populous prefecture and the densest, with ; by geographic area it is the third-smallest, above only and Kagawa. Its administrative structure is similar to that of Japan's other prefectures. The tokubetsu-ku, which until 1943 constituted the , are self-governing municipalities, each having a mayor, a council, and the status of a city.

In addition to these 23 special wards, Tokyo also includes 26 more cities ( -shi), five towns ( -chō or machi), and eight villages ( -son or -mura), each of which has a local government. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government administers the whole metropolis including the 23 special wards and the cities and towns that constitute the prefecture. It is headed by a publicly elected governor and metropolitan assembly. Its headquarters is in Shinjuku Ward.


Municipalities
Since 2001, Tokyo consists of 62 municipalities: 23 special wards, 26 cities, 5 towns and 8 villages. Any municipality of Japan has a directly elected mayor and a directly elected assembly, each elected on independent four-year cycles. 23 of Tokyo's municipalities cover the area that had been until WWII, 30 remain today in the (former North Tama, West Tama and South Tama districts), 9 on Tokyo's outlying islands.
  • The tokubetsu-ku of Tokyo comprise the area formerly incorporated as . The special wards use the word "city" in their official English name (e.g. Chiyoda City). The wards differ from other cities in having a unique administrative relationship with the prefectural government. Certain municipal functions, such as waterworks, sewerage, and fire-fighting, are handled by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. To pay for the added administrative costs, the prefecture collects municipal taxes, which would usually be levied by the city.
The Structure of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government (Tokyo government webpage) The "three central wards" of Tokyo – Chiyoda, Chūō and Minato – are the business core of the city, with a daytime population more than seven times higher than their nighttime population. The Population of Tokyo – Tokyo Metropolitan Government (Retrieved on July 4, 2009) Chiyoda Ward is unique in that it is in the very heart of the former , yet is one of the least populated wards. It is occupied by many major Japanese companies and is also the seat of the national government, and the Japanese emperor. It is often called the "political center" of the country. , known for being an cultural center and a shopping district for computer goods, is also in Chiyoda.
  • To the west of the special wards, Tokyo Metropolis consists of cities, towns, and villages that enjoy the same legal status as those elsewhere in Japan. While serving as "bed towns" for those working in central Tokyo, some of them also have a local commercial and industrial base, such as . Collectively, these are often known as the Tama area or . The far west of the Tama area is occupied by the district ( gun) of Nishi-Tama. Much of this area is mountainous and unsuitable for urbanization. The highest mountain in Tokyo, , is high; other mountains in Tokyo include Takanosu (), Odake (), and Mitake (). , on the near Yamanashi Prefecture, is Tokyo's largest lake. The district is composed of three towns (Hinode, Mizuho and Okutama) and one village (Hinohara). The Tokyo Metropolitan Government has designated Hachiōji, Tachikawa, Machida, Ōme and Tama New Town as regional centers of the Tama area, as part of its plans to relocate urban functions away from central Tokyo.
  • Tokyo has numerous outlying islands, which extend as far as from central Tokyo. Because of the islands' distance from the administrative headquarters of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government in Shinjuku, local subprefectural branch offices administer them. The are a group of volcanic islands and form part of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park. The islands in order from closest to Tokyo are Izu Ōshima, , , , Kōzu-shima, , , Hachijō-jima, and . The Izu Islands are grouped into three subprefectures. Izu Ōshima and Hachijojima are towns. The remaining islands are six villages, with Niijima and Shikinejima forming one village. The include, from north to south, , Nishinoshima, , Kita Iwo Jima, , and Minami Iwo Jima. Ogasawara also administers two tiny outlying islands: , the easternmost point in Japan and at the most distant island from central Tokyo, and , the southernmost point in Japan. Japan's claim on an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) surrounding Okinotorishima is contested by and as they regard Okinotorishima as uninhabitable rocks which have no EEZ. The Iwo chain and the outlying islands have no permanent population, but hosts Japan Self-Defense Forces personnel. Local populations are only found on Chichi-Jima and Haha-Jima. The islands form both Ogasawara Subprefecture and the village of Ogasawara, Tokyo.

Adachirowspan="49"13121
ArakawaArakawa Ward13118
BunkyōBunkyō Ward13105
ChiyodaChiyoda Ward13101
ChūōChūō Ward
(Central Ward)
13102
EdogawaEdogawa Ward
(Edo River Ward)
13123
Itabashi Ward13119
Katsushika Ward
(after Katsushika District)
13122
KitaKita Ward
(North Ward)
13117
KōtōKōtō Ward13108
Meguro Ward13110
MinatoMinato Ward
(Harbor/Port District)
13103
NakanoNakano Ward13114
Nerima Ward13120
ŌtaŌta Ward13111
Setagaya Ward13112
Shibuya Ward13113
Shinagawa Ward13109
Shinjuku Ward13104
Suginami Ward13115
SumidaSumida Ward13107
TaitōTaitō Ward13106
Toshima Ward
(after Toshima District)
13116
AkirunoAkiruno City13228
AkishimaAkishima City13207
ChōfuChōfu City13208
FuchūFuchū City
( city)
13206
FussaFussa City13218
HachiōjiHachiōji City13201
HamuraHamura City13227
HigashikurumeHigashi-Kurume City
East Kurume City
(as opposed to Kurume City, Western Japan)
13222
HigashimurayamaHigashi-Murayama City
East Murayama City
(after Murayama Region)
13213
HigashiyamatoHigashi-Yamato City
(here: Tokyo's Yamato City)Literally, 東/Higashi- means East; but when Yamato Town was renamed to Higashi-Yamato City in 1970, 東 was meant to represent the 東/Tō- in Tokyo, see Higashi-Yamato City: 市の名称 「東大和」の名称について (Japanese: On the city name "Higashi-Yamato"), retrieved July 6, 2021.
(as opposed to Kanagawa's Yamato City)
13220
HinoHino City13212
InagiInagi City13225
KiyoseKiyose City13221
KodairaKodaira City13211
KoganeiKoganei City13210
KokubunjiKokubunji City
( city)
13214
KomaeKomae City13219
KunitachiKunitachi City13215
MachidaMachida City13209
MitakaMitaka City13204
MusashimurayamaMusashi-Murayama City
(as opposed to Murayama City, Dewa Province)
13223
MusashinoMusashino City
(after Musashino Region)
13203
Nishi-Tokyo City
(Western Tokyo City)
13229
ŌmeŌme City13205
TachikawaTachikawa City13202
TamaTama City
(after Tama district//)
13224
HinodeNishi-Tama
(Western )
13305
Hinohara Village13307
MizuhoMizuho Town13303
OkutamaOkutama Town
(Rear/Outer Tama Town)
13308
HachijōHachijō13401
AogashimaAogashima Village
(on )
13402
MiyakeMiyake13381
MikurajimaMikurajima Village
( Village)
13382
ŌshimaŌshima13361
To-shimaTo-shima Village
(on homonymous island)
13362
NiijimaNiijima Village
(on )
13363
KōzushimaKōzushima Village
(on homonymous island)
13364
OgasawaraOgasawara13421

File:多摩ニュータウンの中心「多摩センター」駅周辺の街並み(2021年3月26日撮影).jpg|Tama File:Takao-san HachiojiUrbanDistrict.JPG| File:Musashino in the afternoon.jpg|Musashino


Municipal mergers
When Tokyo reached its current extent except for smaller border changes in 1893, it consisted of over 170 municipalities, 1 (by definition: district-independent) city, nine districts with their towns and villages, plus the island communities that had never part of ritsuryō districts. By 1953, the number of municipalities had dropped to 97. The current total of 62 was reached in 2001.


National parks
As of March 31, 2008, 36% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks (second only to ), namely the Chichibu Tama Kai, Fuji-Hakone-Izu, and Ogasawara National Parks (the last a UNESCO World Heritage Site); Meiji no Mori Takao Quasi-National Park; and Akikawa Kyūryō, Hamura Kusabana Kyūryō, Sayama, Takao Jinba, Takiyama, and Tama Kyūryō Prefectural Natural Parks.

A number of museums are located in : Tokyo National Museum, National Museum of Nature and Science, Shitamachi Museum and National Museum for Western Art, among others. There are also artworks and statues at several places in the park. There is also a zoo in the park, and the park is a popular destination to view cherry blossoms.


Earthquakes

Minor quakes
Tokyo is near the boundary of three plates, making it an extremely active region for smaller quakes and which frequently affect the urban area with swaying as if in a boat, although epicenters within mainland Tokyo (excluding Tokyo's –long island jurisdiction) are quite rare. It is not uncommon in the metro area to have hundreds of these minor quakes (magnitudes 4–6) that can be felt in a single year, something local residents merely brush off but can be a source of anxiety not only for foreign visitors but for Japanese from elsewhere as well. They rarely cause much damage (sometimes a few injuries) as they are either too small or far away as quakes tend to dance around the region. Particularly active are offshore regions and to a lesser extent and Ibaraki.


Infrequent powerful quakes
Tokyo has been hit by powerful earthquakes in 1703, 1782, 1812, 1855, 1923, and much more indirectly (with some liquefaction in landfill zones) in 2011; the frequency of direct and large quakes is a relative rarity. The 1923 earthquake, with an estimated magnitude of 8.3, killed 142,000 people, the last time the urban area was directly hit.


Volcanic eruptions
is about southwest of Tokyo. There is a low risk of eruption. The last recorded was the Hōei eruption which started on December 16, 1707, and ended about January 1, 1708 (16 days). During the Hōei eruption, the ash amount was 4 cm in southern Tokyo (bay area) and 2 cm to 0.5 cm in central Tokyo. had 16 cm to 8 cm ash and Saitama 0.5 to 0 cm. Https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Volcanic-ash-downfall_map_of_Mt.Fuji_Hoei-eruption01.jpg Ashfall distribution map for examining disaster prevention measures (Mt. Fuji Hoei eruption) If the wind blows north-east it could send to Tokyo metropolis. According to the government, less than a millimeter of the volcanic ash from a Mount Fuji eruption could cause power grid problems such as blackouts and stop trains in the Tokyo metropolitan area. A mixture of ash with rain could stick to cellphone antennas, power lines and cause temporary power outages. The affected areas would need to be evacuated.


Water management
Tokyo is located on the Kantō Plain with five river systems and dozens of rivers that expand during each season. Important rivers are , Nakagawa, Arakawa, , and . In 1947, struck Tokyo, destroying 31,000 homes and killing 1,100 people. In 1958, Typhoon Ida dropped of rain in a single week, causing streets to flood. In the 1950s and 1960s, the government invested 6–7% of the national budget on disaster and risk reduction. A huge system of dams, levees and tunnels was constructed. The purpose is to manage heavy rain, rain, and river floods.

Tokyo has currently the world's largest underground floodwater diversion facility called the Metropolitan Area Outer Underground Discharge Channel (MAOUDC). It took 13 years to build and was completed in 2006. The MAOUDC is a long system of tunnels, underground, with tall cylindrical tanks, each tank being large enough to fit a space shuttle or the Statue of Liberty. During floods, excess water is collected from rivers and drained to the . Low-lying areas of Kōtō, Edogawa, Sumida, , Taitō and Arakawa near the Arakawa River are most at risk of flooding.


Climate
The former city of Tokyo and the majority of Tokyo prefecture lie in the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen climate classification: Cfa),Peel, M.C., Finlayson, B.L., and McMahon, T.A.: Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification , Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1633–1644, 2007. with hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters with occasional cold spells. The region, like much of Japan, experiences a one-month . The warmest month is August, which averages . The coolest month is January, averaging . The record low temperature was on January 13, 1876. The record high was on July 20, 2004. The record highest low temperature is , on August 12, 2013, making Tokyo one of only seven observation sites in Japan that have recorded a low temperature over .

Annual rainfall averages nearly , with a wetter summer and a drier winter. The growing season in Tokyo lasts for about 322 days from around mid-February to early January. Snowfall is sporadic, and occurs almost annually. Tokyo often sees typhoons every year, though few are strong. The wettest month since records began in 1876 was October 2004, with of rain, including on the ninth of that month. The most recent of four months on record to observe no precipitation is December 1995. Annual precipitation has ranged from in 1984 to in 1938.

Tokyo's climate has warmed significantly since temperature records began in 1876.

The western mountainous area of mainland Tokyo, also lies in the humid subtropical climate (Köppen classification: Cfa).

The climates of Tokyo's offshore territories vary significantly from those of the city. The climate of in Ogasawara village is on the boundary between the tropical savanna climate (Köppen classification: Aw) and the tropical rainforest climate (Köppen classification: Af). It is approximately south of the Greater Tokyo Area, resulting in much different climatic conditions.

Tokyo's easternmost territory, the island of in Ogasawara village, is in the tropical savanna climate zone (Köppen classification: Aw). Tokyo's Izu and Ogasawara islands are affected by an average of 5.4 typhoons a year, compared to 3.1 in mainland Kantō.


Cityscape
Architecture in Tokyo has largely been shaped by Tokyo's history. Twice in recent history has the metropolis been left in ruins: first in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake and later after extensive firebombing in World War II. Because of this, Tokyo's urban landscape consists mainly of modern and contemporary architecture, and older buildings are scarce.Hidenobu Jinnai. Tokyo: A Spatial Anthropology. University of California Press (1995), pp. 1–3 . . Tokyo features many internationally famous forms of modern architecture including Tokyo International Forum, Asahi Beer Hall, Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower, NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building and Rainbow Bridge. Tokyo features two distinctive towers: and , the latter of which is the tallest tower in both Japan and the world, and the second tallest structure in the world after the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. Mori Building Co started work on Tokyo's new tallest building which was set to be finished in March 2023. The project will cost 580 billion yen ($5.5 billion).

Tokyo contains numerous parks and gardens. There are four national parks in Tokyo Prefecture, including the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, which includes all of the Izu Islands.


Environment
Tokyo has enacted a measure to cut greenhouse gases. Governor Shintaro Ishihara created Japan's first emissions cap system, aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emission by a total of 25% by 2020 from the 2000 level. Tokyo is an example of an urban heat island, and the phenomenon is especially serious in its special wards.Barry, Roger Graham & Richard J. Chorley. Atmosphere, Weather and Climate. Routledge (2003), p. 344 . .Toshiaki Ichinose, Kazuhiro Shimodozono, and Keisuke Hanaki. Impact of anthropogenic heat on urban climate in Tokyo. Atmospheric Environment 33 (1999): 3897–3909. According to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, the annual mean temperature has increased by about over the past 100 years. Tokyo has been cited as a "convincing example of the relationship between urban growth and climate".

In 2006, Tokyo enacted the "10 Year Project for Green Tokyo" to be realized by 2016. It set a goal of increasing roadside trees in Tokyo to 1 million (from 480,000), and adding of green space, of which will be a new park named "Umi no Mori" (Sea Forest) which will be on a reclaimed island in which used to be a landfill. From 2007 to 2010, of the planned 1,000 ha of green space was created and 220,000 trees were planted, bringing the total to 700,000. , roadside trees in Tokyo have increased to 950,000, and a further of green space has been added.


Demographics
As of October 2012, the official intercensal estimate showed 13.506 million people in Tokyo, with 9.214 million living within Tokyo's 23 wards. During the daytime, the population swells by over 2.5 million as workers and students commute from adjacent areas. This effect is even more pronounced in the three central wards of Chiyoda, Chūō, and Minato, whose collective population as of the 2005 National Census was 326,000 at night, but 2.4 million during the day.

In 1889, the recorded 1,375,937 people in and a total of 1,694,292 people in Tokyo-fu. (National Diet Library Digital Archive) (digital page number 32) In the same year, a total of 779 foreign nationals were recorded as residing in Tokyo. The most common nationality was English (209 residents), followed by American (182) and Chinese nationals (137). (National Diet Library Digital Archive) (digital page number 46)

{ class="wikitable" style="float:right;" +Registered foreign nationals
|- | [[File:Growth rate map of municipalities of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan.svg|thumb|upright=1.8|center|This chart is growth rate of municipalities of Tokyo, Japan. It is estimated by census carried out in 2005 and 2010.

Increase

Decrease

]] |

+ Population of Tokyo
{
1 Estimates as of October 1, 2007.
2 as of January 1, 2007.
3 National Census.
4 as of January 1, 2024.
|} |}


Economy
Tokyo has the second-largest metropolitan economy in the world, after New York City, with a gross metropolitan product estimated at US$2 trillion.

Tokyo is a major international finance center;

it houses the headquarters of several of the world's largest and insurance companies, and serves as a hub for Japan's transportation, publishing, and broadcasting industries. During the centralized growth of Japan's economy following World War II, many large firms moved their headquarters from cities such as (the historical commercial capital) to Tokyo, in an attempt to take advantage of better access to the government. This trend has begun to slow due to ongoing population growth in Tokyo and the high cost of living there.

Tokyo was rated by the Economist Intelligence Unit as the most expensive (highest cost-of-living) city in the world for 14 years in a row ending in 2006, when it was replaced by , and later .

Tokyo emerged as a leading international (IFC) in the 1960s and has been described as one of the three "command centers" for the , along with New York City and .

(2024). 9780691070636, Princeton University Press.
In the 2020 Global Financial Centers Index, Tokyo was ranked as having the fourth most competitive financial center in the world (alongside cities such as New York City, London, , , , , San Francisco, and Zürich in the top 10), and second most competitive in Asia (after Shanghai). The Japanese financial market opened up slowly in 1984 and accelerated its internationalization with the "Japanese Big Bang" in 1998. Despite the emergence of Singapore and Hong Kong as competing financial centers, the Tokyo IFC manages to keep a prominent position in Asia. The Tokyo Stock Exchange is Japan's largest , and third largest in the world by market capitalization and fourth largest by share turnover. In 1990 at the end of the Japanese asset price bubble, it accounted for more than 60% of the world stock market value. Tokyo had of agricultural land as of 2003, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, placing it last among the nation's prefectures. The farmland is concentrated in Western Tokyo. Perishables such as vegetables, fruits, and flowers can be conveniently shipped to the markets in the eastern part of the prefecture. and are the most important vegetables; as of 2000, Tokyo supplied 32.5% of the komatsuna sold at its central produce market.

With 36% of its area covered by forest, Tokyo has extensive growths of and Japanese cypress, especially in the mountainous western communities of Akiruno, Ōme, Okutama, Hachiōji, Hinode, and Hinohara. Decreases in the price of timber, increases in the cost of production, and advancing old age among the forestry population have resulted in a decline in Tokyo's output. In addition, pollen, especially from cryptomeria, is a major allergen for the nearby population centers. Tokyo Bay was once a major source of fish. Most of Tokyo's fish production comes from the outer islands, such as Izu Ōshima and Hachijō-Jima. , , and are among the ocean products.

Tourism in Tokyo is also a large contributor to its economy. In 2006, 4.81 million foreigners and 420 million Japanese visits to Tokyo were made; the economic value of these visits totaled 9.4 trillion yen according to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Many tourists visit the various downtowns, stores, and entertainment districts throughout the neighborhoods of the special wards of Tokyo. Cultural offerings include both omnipresent Japanese pop culture and associated districts such as Shibuya and , subcultural attractions such as anime center, as well as museums like the Tokyo National Museum, which houses 37% of the country's artwork national treasures (87/233).

The in Tokyo is the largest wholesale fish and seafood market in the world since it opened on October 11, 2018. It is also one of the largest wholesale food markets of any kind. It is located in the area of Kōtō ward. The Toyosu Market holds strong to the traditions of its predecessor, the Tsukiji Fish Market and fish market, and serves some 50,000 buyers and sellers every day. Retailers, whole-sellers, auctioneers, and public citizens alike frequent the market, creating a unique microcosm of organized chaos that still continues to fuel the city and its food supply after over four centuries.


Transportation
Tokyo, which is the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, is Japan's largest domestic and international hub for rail and ground transportation. Public transportation within Tokyo is dominated by an extensive network of "clean and efficient" trains and subways run by a variety of operators, with buses, monorails and trams playing a secondary feeder role. There are up to 62 electric train lines and more than 900 train stations in Tokyo. is the "world's busiest pedestrian crossing", with around 3,000 people crossing at a time.

Narita International Airport in is the major gateway for international travelers to Japan. Japan's flag carrier , as well as All Nippon Airways, have a hub at this airport. on the reclaimed land at Ōta, offers domestic and international flights.

Various islands governed by Tokyo have their own airports. Hachijō-jima (Hachijojima Airport), (Miyakejima Airport), and Izu Ōshima () have services to Tokyo International and other airports.

Rail is the primary mode of transportation in Tokyo,

(2024). 9781317007326, Routledge.
which has the most extensive urban railway network in the world and an equally extensive network of surface lines. operates Tokyo's largest railway network, including the loop that circles the center of downtown Tokyo. It operates rail lines in the entire metropolitan area of Tokyo and in the rest of the northeastern part of . JR East is also responsible for high-speed rail lines.

Two different organizations operate the subway network: the private and the governmental Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation. The Metropolitan Government and private carriers operate bus routes and one tram route. Local, regional, and national services are available, with major terminals at the giant railroad stations, including , Shinagawa, and .

Expressways link the capital to other points in the Greater Tokyo Area, the Kantō region, and the islands of and . To build them quickly before the 1964 Summer Olympics, most were constructed above existing roads. Other transportation includes taxis operating in the special wards and the cities and towns. Also, long-distance ferries serve the islands of Tokyo and carry passengers and cargo to domestic and foreign ports.


Education
Tokyo is the educational, academic and cultural hub of the country. From primary to tertiary levels, a number of educational institutions that cater to the needs of various pupils operate in the city.

Most notably, Tokyo is the heartland of tertiary education in the country, home to 143 authorised universities in 2020. This number includes the nation's most prestigious and selective universities, such as, University of Tokyo, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Hitotsubashi University, Waseda University, and . Apart from those aforementioned top-ranking universities, other notable universities in Tokyo include:

  • Gakushuin University
  • National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
  • Sophia University
  • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
  • Tokyo Metropolitan University
  • Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
  • Tokyo University of Science
  • Tokyo University of the Arts

The United Nations University, which is the academic arm of the United Nations, is headquartered in , Tokyo.

At the secondary level, 429 senior high schools are located in Tokyo, six of which are national, 186 are public, and 237 are private. Some senior high schools, often prestigious national or private ones, run jointly with their affiliated junior high schools, providing six-year educational programmes ( Chūkō Ikkan Kyōiku). The , Komaba Junior & Senior High School, University of Tsukuba, Azabu High School, and Oin Junior and Senior High School, the largest sources of successful applicants to the nation's top university, the University of Tokyo, are some examples of such. At the primary level, there are 1332 elementary schools in Tokyo. Six of them are national, 1261 are public, and 53 are private.

Early-modern-established academies such as Gakushuin and Keio provide all-through educational programmes from primary schools to universities, originally to cater to the needs of traditionally affluent and powerful families.

There are international and ethnic schools that abide by the national curricula of their respective countries or international curricula rather than the Japanese one as well, such as the British School in Tokyo, Tokyo Chinese School, the American School in Japan, and the Tokyo International School.


Culture
Tokyo has many museums. In , there is the Tokyo National Museum, the country's largest museum and specializing in traditional ; the National Museum of Western Art and . Other museums include the in Chūō; the in ; the in Sumida, across the from the center of Tokyo; the in Aoyama; and the National Diet Library, National Archives, and the National Museum of Modern Art, which are near the Imperial Palace.

Tokyo has many theaters for performing arts. These include national and private theaters for traditional forms of Japanese drama. Noteworthy are the National Noh Theatre for and the for .Milner, Rebecca (2013). "Pocket Tokyo." 4th Edition. Lonely Planet Publications. Symphony orchestras and other musical organizations perform modern and traditional music. The New National Theater Tokyo in is the national center for the performing arts, including opera, ballet, contemporary dance and drama. Tokyo also hosts modern Japanese and international pop, and at venues ranging in size from intimate clubs to internationally known areas such as the .

Many different festivals occur throughout Tokyo. Major events include the Sannō at , the Sanja at , and the biennial Festivals. The last features a parade with elaborately decorated floats and thousands of people. Annually on the last Saturday of July, an enormous display over the attracts over a million viewers. Once bloom in spring, many residents gather in Ueno Park, , and the National Garden for picnics under the blossoms.

, a neighborhood in Shibuya, is known internationally for its youth style, fashion and .

In November 2007, released their first guide for fine dining in Tokyo, awarding 191 stars in total, or about twice as many as Tokyo's nearest competitor, Paris. As of 2017, 227 restaurants in Tokyo have been awarded (92 in Paris). Twelve establishments were awarded the maximum of three stars (Paris has 10), 54 received two stars, and 161 earned one star.


Sports
Tokyo, with a diverse array of sports, is home to two professional baseball clubs, the who play at the and Tokyo Yakult Swallows at Meiji-Jingu Stadium. The Japan Sumo Association is also headquartered in Tokyo at the Ryōgoku Kokugikan sumo arena where three official tournaments are held annually (in January, May, and September). Soccer clubs in Tokyo include F.C. Tokyo and , both of which play at Ajinomoto Stadium in Chōfu, and FC Machida Zelvia at Nozuta Stadium in Machida. is also played in Tokyo, with multiple Japan Rugby League One clubs based in the city including: Black Rams Tokyo (Setagaya), (Fuchū) and Toshiba Brave Lupus Tokyo (Fuchū).

Basketball clubs include the Hitachi SunRockers, Toyota Alvark Tokyo and .

Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, thus becoming the first Asian city to host the Summer Games. The National Stadium, also known as the Olympic Stadium, was host to a number of international sporting events. In 2016, it was to be replaced by the New National Stadium. With a number of world-class sports venues, Tokyo often hosts national and international sporting events such as basketball tournaments, women's volleyball tournaments, tennis tournaments, swim meets, marathons, rugby union and sevens rugby games, soccer exhibition games, judo, and . Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium, in , , is a large sports complex that includes swimming pools, training rooms, and a large indoor arena. According to Around the Rings, the gymnasium has played host to the October 2011 artistic gymnastics world championships, despite the International Gymnastics Federation's initial doubt in Tokyo's ability to host the championships following the March 11 tsunami. Tokyo was also selected to host a number of games for the 2019 Rugby World Cup, and to host the 2020 Summer Olympics and the Paralympics which had to be rescheduled to the summer of 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan.


In popular culture
As the largest population center in Japan and the site of the country's largest broadcasters and studios, Tokyo is frequently the setting for many Japanese movies, television shows, animated series' (), , , , and comic books (). In the (monster movie) genre, landmarks of Tokyo are usually destroyed by giant monsters such as and .

Tokyo is also a popular foreign setting for non-Japanese media. Some Hollywood directors have turned to Tokyo as a backdrop for movies set in Japan. Postwar examples include Tokyo Joe, , and the film You Only Live Twice; recent examples include , , Lost in Translation, Babel, , The Wolverine and .

Japanese author has based some of his novels in Tokyo (including Norwegian Wood), and David Mitchell's first two novels ( number9dream and Ghostwritten) featured the city. Contemporary British painter spent 10 years living in Tokyo as an artist, creating a body of work depicting the city's crowded streets and public spaces.


International relations
Tokyo is the founding member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21 and is a member of the Council of Local Authorities for International Relations. Tokyo was also a founding member of the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group.


Sister cities and states
, Tokyo has twinning or friendship agreements with the following twelve cities and states:

  • New York City, United States (since February 1960)
  • , China (since March 1979)
  • , France (since July 1982)
  • New South Wales, Australia (since May 1984)
  • , South Korea (since September 1988)
  • , Indonesia (since October 1989)
  • São Paulo State, Brazil (since June 1990)
  • , Egypt (since October 1990)
  • , Russia (since July 1991)
  • , Germany (since May 1994)
  • , Italy (since July 1996)
  • , United Kingdom (since October 2015)


Friendship and cooperation agreements
  • , Russia (since May 2015)
  • , Belgium (since October 2016)
  • , India (since November 2016)
  • Los Angeles County, United States (since August 2021)


International academic and scientific research
Research and development in Japan and the Japanese space program are globally represented by several of Tokyo's medical and scientific facilities, including the University of Tokyo and other universities in Tokyo, which work in collaboration with many international institutions. Especially with the United States, including and the many private spaceflight companies,
(2024). 9789264805958, OECD Publishing. .
Tokyo universities have working relationships with all of the institutions (including Harvard and ), along with other research universities and development , such as Stanford, MIT, and the UC campuses throughout California, as well as UNM and Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Other partners worldwide include Oxford University in the United Kingdom, the National University of Singapore in Singapore, the University of Toronto in Canada, and Tsinghua University in China.


See also
  • List of cities proper by population
  • List of cities with the most skyscrapers
  • List of tallest structures in Tokyo
  • List of development projects in Tokyo
  • List of largest cities
  • List of metropolitan areas in Asia
  • List of most expensive cities for expatriate employees
  • List of urban agglomerations in Asia
  • List of urban areas by population
  • Yamanote and Shitamachi


Bibliography
  • Fiévé, Nicolas and Paul Waley. (2003). Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ;
  • McClain, James, John M Merriman and Kaoru Ugawa. (1994). Edo and Paris: Urban Life and the State in the Early Modern Era. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ;
  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ;
  • Sorensen, Andre. (2002). The Making of Urban Japan: Cities and Planning from Edo to the Twenty First Century. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ;


Further reading

Guides
  • Bender, Andrew, and Timothy N. Hornyak. Tokyo (City Travel Guide) (2010)
  • Mansfield, Stephen. Dk Eyewitness Top 10 Travel Guide: Tokyo (2013)
  • Waley, Paul. Tokyo Now and Then: An Explorer's Guide. (1984). 592 pp
  • Yanagihara, Wendy. Lonely Planet Tokyo Encounter


Contemporary
  • Allinson, Gary D. Suburban Tokyo: A Comparative Study in Politics and Social Change. (1979). 258 pp.
  • Bestor, Theodore. Neighborhood Tokyo (1989). online edition
  • Bestor, Theodore. Tsukiji: The Fish Market at the Centre of the World. (2004) online edition
  • Fowler, Edward. San'ya Blues: Labouring Life in Contemporary Tokyo. (1996) .
  • Friedman, Mildred, ed. Tokyo, Form and Spirit. (1986). 256 pp.
  • Jinnai, Hidenobu. Tokyo: A Spatial Anthropology. (1995). 236 pp.
  • Jones, Sumie et al. eds. A Tokyo Anthology: Literature from Japan's Modern Metropolis, 1850–1920 (2017); primary sources excerpt
  • Perez, Louis G. Tokyo: Geography, History, and Culture (ABC-CLIO, 2019).
  • Reynolds, Jonathan M. "Japan's Imperial Diet Building: Debate over Construction of a National Identity". Art Journal. 55#3 (1996) pp. 38+.
  • Sassen, Saskia. The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. (1991). 397 pp.
  • Sorensen, A. Land Readjustment and Metropolitan Growth: An Examination of Suburban Land Development and Urban Sprawl in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2000)
  • Taira, J. [re]TOKYO. (2018). San Francisco: ORO Editions.
  • Waley, Paul. "Tokyo-as-world-city: Reassessing the Role of Capital and the State in Urban Restructuring". Urban Studies 2007 44(8): 1465–1490. Fulltext:


External links

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