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Tamil Nadu ( ; ); literally The Land of or Tamil Country is one of the 29 states of . Its capital and largest city is (formerly known as ). Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the and is bordered by the of and the states of , , and . It is bounded by the on the north, by the , the , and on the west, by the in the east, by the and the on the southeast, and by the on the south. It also shares a maritime border with the nation of .

Tamil Nadu is the eleventh largest state in India by area and the sixth most populous state in India. The state was ranked sixth among according to the Human Development Index in 2011. Tamil Nadu is the in India with in gross domestic product. The state has the highest number (10.56 per cent) of business enterprises and stands second in total (9.97 per cent) in India, compared to the population share of about 6 per cent. Tamil Nadu was ranked as the third most developed state in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by a panel headed by current governor . Its official language is , which is one of the longest surviving in the world.

Tamil Nadu is home to many , , , , of , , , multi-religious pilgrimage sites, and eight .


Archaeological evidence . Archeologists from the (ASI) unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, skeletons, bones, husks, grains of rice, charred rice and of the period, 3,800 years ago. The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" . Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, and most of these are in the . Virumandi Andithevar, of the Piramalai Kallar community from the Tamil Nadu region of southern India, was identified by the Genographic Project as one of the direct descendants of the first modern human settlers in India. His Y belongs to Haplogroup C and he carries the M130 marker which defines the first migrants to South East Asia and Australia from the African coast 60,000 years ago; more than half of Australian Aborigines also carry the M130 gene. dictate that himself taught sage this language. Sage is considered to be the father of Tamil literature and compiled the first Tamil grammar called Agathiyam, but the scripts of Agathiyam no longer exist.

Indus valley script between 2000 and 1500 BC
Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Dravidian language.The discovery of a Neolithic stone celt, a hand-held axe, with the Indus script on it at Sembian-Kandiyur in Tamil Nadu is, according to , "Stone axe with Indus Valley script found near Mayiladuthurai,Tamil Nadu was a major discovery because for the first time a text in the Indus script has been found in the State on a datable artefact, which is a polished neolithic celt. He estimated the date of the artefact with the script to be around 1500 BC.

Sangam Period (300 BC – AD 300)
The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as . Numismatic, archaeological and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about six centuries, from 300 BC to AD 300.

Three dynasties, namely the , and , ruled the area of present-day Tamil Nadu and . The ruled the whole of present-day Kerala and parts of western Tamil Nadu comprising , , , and districts from the capital of (thought to be modern day ). The ruled the northern and central parts of Tamil Nadu from their capital, ; and the Pandya dynasty ruled southern Tamil Nadu, from capitals at and .

All three dynasties had extensive trade relationships with Rome, , , , , , and . Trade flourished in commodities such as spices, ivory, pearls, beads and gems. Chera traded extensively from on the west coast, Chola from and and Pandya through Korkai port. A Greco-Roman trade and travel document, the (c. AD 60 – 100) gives a description of the Tamil country and its ports.

Besides these three dynasties, the Sangam era (Tamil homeland) was also divided into various provinces named 'nadu', meaning 'country'. Sangam literature refers these provinces as "koduntamil mandalam" which were not exactly political or socio-cultural units but linguistic agglomerations like , , , , and .

Between the 3rd and 7th centuries AD, the three Tamil kingdoms were overwhelmed by the . The period of their rule is sometimes referred to as the "Dark Age" in history and little is known about it. The Kalabhras were expelled by the , and in the 6th century.

Bhakti Movement
The Bhakti movement originated in Tamil Speaking region of south India and spread northwards through India. The was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the (4th-10th centuries) ξ1 and the who spread bhakti poetry and devotion . The and were instrumental in propagating the tradition.

Medieval Period (600–1300)
During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the under and his son Mamalla . The Pallavas ruled parts of with as their capital. reached its peak during Pallava rule. built the which is a . ]] Much later, the were replaced by the as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the in the 13th century. The Pandyan capital was in the deep south away from the coast. They had extensive trade links with the south east Asian maritime empires of and their successors, as well as contacts, even formal diplomatic contacts, reaching as far as the . During the 13th century, mentioned the Pandyas as the in existence. Temples such as the at and at are the best examples of Pandyan temple architecture. The Pandyas excelled in both trade and literature. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the south coast of India, between Sri Lanka and India, which produced some of the finest pearls in the known ancient world.

Chola Empire
During the 9th century, the Chola dynasty was once again revived by , who established as Chola's new capital by conquering central Tamil Nadu from the local clans of Mutharayar and the Pandya king . and his son expanded the kingdom to the northern parts of Tamil Nadu by defeating the last Pallava king, . expanded the Chola empire into what is now interior Andhra Pradesh and coastal Karnataka, while under the great and his son , the Cholas rose to a notable power in south east Asia. Now the stretched as far as and . At its peak, the empire spanned almost . Rajaraja Chola conquered all of peninsular and parts of . 's navy went even further, occupying coasts from Burma (now ) to , the , Lakshadweep, , , , in South East Asia and Pegu islands. He defeated , the king of Bengal, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital and named it .

The Cholas were prolific temple builders right from the times of the first medieval king . These are the earliest specimen of Dravidian temples under the Cholas. His son Aditya I built several temples around the Kanchi and Kumbakonam regions. The Cholas went on to becoming a great power and built some of the most imposing religious structures in their lifetime and they also renovated temples and buildings of the , acknowledging their common socio-religious and cultural heritage. The celebrated temple at and the at held special significance for the which have been mentioned in their inscriptions as their tutelary deities. and his son built temples such as the of and of , the of and the (Shiva) Temple, also called the Kampahareswarar Temple at , the last two temples being located near Kumbakonam. The first three of the above four temples are titled among the .

The Chola period is also remarkable for its sculptures and bronzes all over the world. Among the existing specimens in museums around the world and in the temples of southern India the fine figures of Siva in various forms, and his consort , and the Siva saints are the examples of Chola bronze. Though conforming generally to the iconographic conventions established by long tradition, the sculptors worked with great freedom in the 11th and the 12th centuries to achieve a classic grace and grandeur. The best example of this can be seen in the form of the Divine Dancer .

Vijayanagar and Nayak period (1336–1646)
The Muslim invasions of southern India triggered the establishment of the with in modern Karnataka as its capital. The Vijayanagara empire eventually conquered the entire Tamil country by c. 1370 and ruled for almost two centuries until its defeat in the in 1565 by a confederacy of . Subsequently, as the Vijayanagara Empire went into decline after the mid-16th century, many local rulers, called , succeeded in gaining the trappings of independence. This eventually resulted in the further weakening of the empire; many Nayaks declared themselves independent, among whom the and Tanjore were the first to declare their independence, despite initially maintaining loose links with the Vijayanagara kingdom. The Nayaks of Madurai and were the most prominent of Nayaks in the 17th century. They reconstructed some of the well-known temples in Tamil Nadu such as the .

Power Struggles of 18th Century (1692–1801)
By the early 18th century, the political scene in Tamil Nadu saw a major change-over and was under the control of many minor rulers aspiring to be independent. Fall of Vijayanagara empire and Chandragiri Nayakas led to the appointment of for taxation of the northern parts seated at . Fall of led to a short lived in the central parts. Fall of brought up many small Nayakars of southern Tamil Nadu, who ruled small parcels of land called Palayams. The chieftains of these Palayams were known as (or 'polygar' as called by British) and were ruling under Nawabs of Carnatic.

Europeans started to establish trade centers during the 17th century in the eastern coastal regions. Around 1609, the Dutch established a settlement in , Bethencourt p.211 while the Danes had their establishment in also known as Tranquebar. In 1639, the British, under the East India Company, established a settlement further south of Pulicat, in present-day . British constructed ξ3 and established a trading post at Madras. ξ4 By 1693, the French established in trading posts at . The British and French were competing to expand the trade in the northern parts of Tamil Nadu which also witnessed many battles like as part of . British reduced the French dominions in India to Puducherry. Nawabs of the Carnatic bestowed tax revenue collection rights on the East India Company for defeating the . Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah surrendered much of his territory to the East India Company which firmly established the British in the northern parts. In 1762, a tripartite treaty was signed between Thanjavur Maratha, Carnatic and the British by which Thanjavur became a vassal of the Nawab of the Carnatic which eventually ceded to British.

In the south, Nawabs granted taxation rights to the British which led to conflicts between British and the Palaiyakkarar, which resulted in series of wars called to establish independent states by the aspiring Palaiyakkarar. was one of the earliest opponents of the British rule in South India. Thevar's prominent exploits were his confrontations with , who later rebelled against the British in the late 1750s and early 1760s. , was the first woman freedom fighter of India and Queen of Sivagangai. She was drawn to war after her husband Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar (1750–1772), King of was murdered at temple by British. Before her death, Queen Velu Nachi granted powers to to rule Sivaganga. (1760–1799), Palaiyakkara chief of Panchalakurichi who fought the British in the First . He was captured by the British at the end of the war and hanged near Kayattar in 1799. Bagathur Vella Thevar was captain of the Panchalakurichi, he was fought against British rule. (1700–1800) was the General of Kattabomman Nayakan's palayam, who died in the process of blowing up a British ammunition dump 1799 which killed more than 150 British soldiers to save Kattapomman Palace. , younger brother of Kattabomman, took asylum under the , Periya Marudhu and Chinna Marudhu and raised army. They formed a coalition with and Kerala Varma which fought the British in Second Polygar Wars. (1756–1805), Polygar chieftain of Kongu and feudatory of Tipu Sultan who fought the British in the Second Polygar War. After winning the Polygar wars in 1801, the East India Company consolidated most of southern India into the .

During British rule (1801–1947)
At the beginning of 19th century, the British firmly established the governance over the entire Tamil Nadu. The on 10 July 1806 was the first instance of a large-scale and violent mutiny by Indian sepoys against the British East India Company, predating the Indian Rebellion of 1857 by half a century. The revolt, which took place in , was brief, lasting only one full day, but brutal as mutineers broke into the Vellore fort and killed or wounded 200 British troops, before they were subdued by reinforcements from nearby Arcot,. The British crown took over the control governance from the Company and the reminder of the 19th century did not witness any native resistance until the beginning of 20th century Indian Independence movements. During the period of governor Harris (1854–1859), measures were taken to improve education and increase representation of Indians in the administration. Legislative powers were given to the Governor's council under the Indian Councils Act 1861 and 1909 eventually led to the establishment of the . Failure of the summer monsoons and administrative shortcomings of the system resulted in two severe famine in the Madras Presidency, the and the . The famine led to migration of people as bonded labours for British to various countries which eventually formed the present .

India (1947–present)
When India became independent in 1947, Madras Presidency became , comprising present day Tamil Nadu, coastal Andhra Pradesh up to Ganjam district in Orissa, South Canara district Karnataka, and parts of Kerala. The state was subsequently split up along linguistic lines. In 1969, Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu, meaning "Tamil country".

Tamil Nadu covers an area of , and is the eleventh largest state in India. The bordering states are to the west, to the north west and to the north. To the east is the and the state encircles the union territory of . The southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula is which is the meeting point of the , the Bay of Bengal, and the Indian Ocean.

The western, southern and the north western parts are hilly and rich in vegetation. The and the meet at the . The Western Ghats traverse the entire western border with Kerala, effectively blocking much of the rain bearing clouds of the south west monsoon from entering the state. The eastern parts are fertile coastal plains and the northern parts are a mix of hills and plains. The central and the south central regions are arid plains and receive less rainfall than the other regions.

Tamil Nadu has a of about which is the country's third longest coastline. Tamil Nadu's coastline bore the brunt of the 2004 when it hit India, which caused 7,793 direct deaths in the state. Tamil Nadu falls mostly in a region of low seismic hazard with the exception of the western border areas that lie in a low to moderate hazard zone; as per the 2002 Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) map, Tamil Nadu falls in Zones II & III. Historically, parts of this region have experienced seismic activity in the M5.0 range.

Flora and fauna
There are about 2000 species of wildlife that are native to Tamil Nadu. Protected areas provide safe habitat for large mammals including , , , , , , , , , and , resident and migratory birds such as , , , , , and , , , , a few migratory and occasionally , marine species such as the , turtles, dolphins, and a wide variety of fish and insects.

Indian diversity comprises 17,672 species with Tamil Nadu leading all states in the country, with 5640 species accounting for 1/3 of the total flora of India. This includes 1559 species of , 533 species, 260 species of wild relatives of cultivated plants and 230 species. The diversity of the country is 64 species of which Tamil Nadu has four indigenous species and about 60 introduced species. The diversity of India includes 1022 species of which Tamil Nadu has about 184 species. Vast numbers of , , fungi, and bacteria are among the wild plant diversity of Tamil Nadu.

Common plant species include the state tree: , , rubber, , clumping bamboos ( ), , , , , and blooming trees like , , and . Rare and unique plant life includes Combretum ovalifolium, ( Diospyros nilagrica), (orchid), , , , and .

National and state parks
Tamil Nadu has a wide range of extending east from the in the through the and to and then to the beaches, , , , and of the . The state has a range of flora and fauna with many species and habitats. To protect this diversity of wildlife there are of Tamil Nadu as well as which protect larger areas of natural habitat often include one or more National Parks. The established in 1986 is a marine ecosystem with seaweed and sea grass communities, coral reefs, salt marshes and mangrove forests. The located in the and comprises part of adjoining states of Kerala and Karnataka. The is in the south west of the state bordering Kerala in the Western Ghats. Tamil Nadu is home to five declared National parks located in , , , and located in the centre of city. , and are the tiger reserves in the state. has the largest elephant population in India. Besides these bio reserves, there are many state and central run wild life sanctuaries for tiger, elephant and birds.

Tamil Nadu is mostly dependent on monsoon rains, and thereby is prone to droughts when the monsoons fail. The climate of the state ranges from dry sub-humid to semi-arid. The state has two distinct periods of rainfall:

The annual rainfall of the state is about of which 48 per cent is through the north east monsoon, and 32 per cent through the south west monsoon. Since the state is entirely dependent on rains for recharging its water resources, monsoon failures lead to acute water scarcity and severe drought. Tamil Nadu is divided into seven agro-climatic zones: north east, north west, west, southern, high rainfall, high altitude hilly, and Delta (the most fertile agricultural zone). The table below shows the maximum and minimum temperatures that the state experiences in the plains and .

Governance and administration
The Governor is the constitutional head of the state while the is the head of the government and the head of the council of ministers. The of the is the head of the judiciary. The present Governor, Chief Minister and the Chief Justice are , and Justice Sanjay Kishan Kaul respectively. Administratively the state is divided into 32 districts. (formerly known as Madras) is the state capital. It is the fourth largest urban agglomeration in India and is also one of the major Metropolitan cities of India. The state comprises 39 constituencies and 234 Legislative Assembly constituencies.

Tamil Nadu had a until 1986, when it was replaced with a , like most other states in India. The term length of the government is five years. The present government is headed by of the . The is housed at the in Chennai. The state had come under the rule on four occasions – first from 1976 to 1977, next for a short period in 1980, then from 1988 to 1989 and the latest in 1991.

Tamil Nadu has been a pioneering state of initiatives in India. A large part of the government records like land ownership records are digitised and all major offices of the state government like – all the corporations and municipal office activities – revenue collection, land registration offices, and transport offices have been computerised. Tamil Nadu is one of the states where law and order has been maintained largely successfully. The Force is over 140 years old. It is the fifth largest state police force in India and has the largest strength of women police personnel in the country to specifically handled . In 2003, the state had a total police population ratio of 1:668, higher than the national average of 1:717.

Administrative subdivisions
Tamil Nadu is subdivided into 32 , which are listed below. A district is administered by a who is mostly an (IAS) member, appointed by State Government. Districts are further divided into 226 administrated by comprising 1127 . A District has also one or more Revenue Divisions (in total 76) constituted by many Revenue Blocks. 16,564 Revenue villages () are the primary grassroots level administrative units which in turn might include many villages and administered by a Village Administrative Officer (VAO), many of which form a Revenue Block. Cities and towns are administered by and respectively. The urban bodies include 12 , 125 and 529 town panchayats. The rural bodies include 31 district panchayats, 385 panchayat unions and 12,524 village panchayats.



Prior to Indian independence Tamil Nadu was under British colonial rule as part of the . The main party in Tamil Nadu at that time was the (INC). have dominated state politics since 1916. One of the earliest regional parties, the South Indian Welfare Association, a forerunner to in Tamil Nadu, was started in 1916. The party was called after its English organ, , by it opponents. Later, was adopted as its official name. The reason for victory of the Justice Party in elections was the non-participation of the INC, demanding complete independence of India.

The Justice Party which was under E.V.Ramaswamy was renamed in 1944. It was a non-political party which demanded the establishment of an independent state called . However, due to the differences between its two leaders EVR and , the party was split. Annadurai left the party to form the (DMK). The DMK decided to enter politics in 1956.

Source: Election Commission of India.

Re-organisation of Indian states according to linguistic and ethnic basis has moderated Tamil nationalism, especially the demand for separation from the Indian Union. The in mid-1960s made the DMK more popular and a more powerful political force in the state. The DMK routed the INC in the 1967 elections and took control of the state government, ending INC's stronghold in Tamil Nadu. C.N. Annadurai became the DMK's first . took over as Chief Minister and party leader after Annadurai's death in 1969. Karunanidhi's leadership was soon challenged by , popularly known as MGR. In 1972, he split from DMK and formed the Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK) and later renamed the party as All India Anna Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam. He was the Chief Minister of the state from 1977 until his death in 1987. After the death of MGR, AIADMK was defeated in 1989 assembly polls because of the split of the party into two factions headed by Janaki (wife of MGR) and Jayalalithaa. Later on took control of the party. She was elected as the General Secretary of the unified AIADMK. There have been several splits in both the DMK and the AIADMK, but since 1967 one of those two parties has held power in the state.

Tamil Nadu is the seventh most populous state in India. 44 per cent of the state's population live in urban areas, the highest among large states in India. The state has registered the lowest in India in year 2005–06 with 1.7 children born for each woman, lower than required for population sustainability.

At the 2001 India census, Tamil Nadu had a population of 62,405,679. The sex ratio of the state is 987 with 31,400,909 males and 31,004,770 females. There are a total of 14,665,983 households. The total children under the age of 6 is 7,235,160. A total of 14,438,445 people constituting 20.01 per cent of the total population belonged to (SC) and 794,697 people constituting 1.10 per cent of the population belonged to (ST).

The state has 40,524,545 literates, making the literacy rate 73.45 per cent. There are a total of 27,878,282 workers, comprising 4,738,819 cultivators, 6,062,786 agricultural labourers, 1,261,059 in house hold industries, 11,695,119 other workers, 4,120,499 marginal workers, 377,220 marginal cultivators, 2,574,844 marginal agricultural labourers, 238,702 marginal workers in household industries and 929,733 other marginal workers.

Among the cities in 2011, the state capital, Chennai, was the , followed by , , and respectively. India has a human development index calculated as 0.619, while the corresponding figure for Tamil Nadu is 0.736, placing it among the top states in the country. The at birth for males is 65.2 years and for females it is 67.6 years. However, it has a high level of poverty especially in the rural areas. In 2004–2005, the poverty line was set at 351.86/month for rural areas and 547.42/month for urban areas. Poverty in the state dropped from 51.7 per cent in 1983 to 21.1 per cent in 2001 For the period 2004–2005, the Trend in Incidence of Poverty in the state was 22.5 per cent compared with the national figure of 27.5 per cent. The World Bank is currently assisting the state in reducing poverty, High drop-out and low completion of secondary schools continue to hinder the quality of training in the population. Other problems include class, gender, inter-district and urban-rural disparities. Based on URP – Consumption for the period 2004–2005, percentage of the state's population was 27.5 per cent. The ranks Tamil Nadu to have a of 0.141, which is in the level of among the developing countries. Corruption is a major problem in the state with Transparency International ranking it the second most corrupt among the states of India.

About 86 per cent of the population in Tamil Nadu are Hindus and the state is home to the core schools of medieval and modern Hinduism as well as several non-mainstream Hindu movements. These include , , , and . In modern times, well known figures for Hinduism in the state include and the Kanchi . All Hindu deities in various forms and a large number of are worshiped by Hindus in Tamil Nadu. is considered to be the Tamil God. Tamil Nadu dominates the list of in the world which include the , , at , , at among others. The emblem of depicts the Gopuram (gateway tower) of the at . and together form close to 11 per cent of the population. Christians are mainly concentrated in the southern districts of Kanyakumari (54 per cent of the population in 2001), Thoothukudi (17 per cent in 2001) and Tirunelveli (11 per cent in 2001). in Chennai, the place where , one of the disciples of Jesus, was believed to have been martyred, is an important pilgrimage site for Indian Christians. The , built atop the site widely believed by Christians to have been the tomb of St. Thomas, and the are churches revered by Christians in India. The and the Pentecostal Mission Church are headquartered in Chennai.

Muslims constitute close to 6% of the total population of Tamil Nadu and they are mainly concentrated in following Districts., Tanjavur, , , , and . Among Muslims, 97.5 per cent are Sunni and the rest are . The adhere to either or schools of thought. in Ramanathapuram district and Nagore in Nagapattinam district are important pilgrimage sites for Muslims. in , and Karpudaiyar masjid in Kayalpatnam are among the earlier mosques in Tamil Nadu.

or have a legacy dating back to 250 BC. They made significant contributions to Tamil literature. According to the 2001 census there were 83,359 in Tamil Nadu. make up 0.13 per cent of the population. Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes comprise 19 per cent and 1 per cent of the population respectively. Though an overwhelming percentage of SC/ST population identify themselves as Hindu, the SC/STs are enumerated separately in the census and not as a subgroup of Hinduism. An anti-conversion law came into force in 2002. However, the law was repealed in June 2004 after the defeat of the led coalition in the 2004 elections.

Tamil is the official language of Tamil Nadu. English is also in common usage as an . When India adopted national standards, Tamil was the first language to be recognized as a . As of 2001 census, Tamil is spoken as the first language by 89.43 per cent of the population followed by by 5.65 per cent, by 2.68 per cent, by 1.51 per cent and by 0.89 per cent.

Tamil Nadu is one of the most literate states in India. Tamil Nadu has performed reasonably well in terms of during the decade 2001–2011. A survey conducted by the Industry body Assocham ranks Tamil Nadu top among Indian states with about 100 per cent Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in primary and upper primary education. One of the basic limitations for improvement in education in the state is the rate of absence of teachers in public schools, which at 21.4 per cent is significant. The analysis of primary school education in the state by shows a low drop-off rate but poor quality of state education compared to other states. Tamil Nadu has , 552 engineering colleges, 449 Polytechnic Colleges and 566 arts and science colleges, 34335 elementary schools, 5167 high schools, 5054 higher secondary schools and 5000 hospitals. Some of the notable educational institutes present in Tamil Nadu are , , , , , , and .

Tamil Nadu now has 69 per cent reservation in educational institutions for socially backward section of the society, the highest among all Indian states. The programme in Tamil Nadu, initiated by , was expanded considerably by in 1983, although the state is among the 12 states in India that have an alarming level of hunger, according to the 2008 Global Hunger Index.

Tamil Nadu has a long tradition of venerable culture. Tamil Nadu is known for its rich tradition of literature, music and dance which continue to flourish today. Tamil Nadu is a land most known for its monumental ancient Hindu temples and classical form of dance . Unique cultural features like (dance), , and Tamil architecture were developed and continue to be practised in Tamil Nadu.

Most early Tamil literary works are in verse form, with prose not becoming more common until later periods. Throughout its history, Tamil literature has sought to inform and inspire, educate and entertain. Notable examples of Tamil poetry include the , written during the period. The poem encompasses a universal outlook, as the author, , does not mention his religion, land, or the audience for his work. He is often portrayed as a holy saint of Tamil Nadu today. Ancient Tamil literature is predominantly secular and deals with everyday life in the Tamil Context.The only religious poems among the shorter poems occur in . The rest of the corpus of Sangam literature deals with human relationship and emotions.

The first Tamil printing press was established at Tarangambadi by the Danish missionaries. During the , many Tamil poets and writers sought to provoke national spirit, social equity and secularist thoughts among the common man, notably and .

Festivals and traditions
, also called as Tamizhar Thirunaal (festival of Tamils) or Makara Sankranti elsewhere in India, a four-day is one of the most widely celebrated festivals throughout Tamil Nadu. The Tamil language saying Thai Pirandhal Vazhi Pirakkum – literally meaning, the birth of the month of Thai will pave way for new opportunities – is often quoted with reference to this festival. The first day, Bhogi Pongal, is celebrated by throwing away and destroying old clothes and materials by setting them on fire to mark the end of the old and emergence of the new. The second day, Surya Pongal, is the main day which falls on the first day of the tenth Tamil month Thai (14 January or 15 January in western calendar). The third day, Maattu Pongal, is meant to offer thanks to the cattle, as they provide milk and are used to plough the lands., a bull taming contest, marks the main event of this day. is famous for its Jallikattu contest usually held on 3rd day of Pongal. During this final day, Kaanum Pongal – the word "kaanum", means 'to view' in Tamil. In 2011 the Bench ordered the cockfight at Santhapadi and Modakoor Melbegam villages permitted during the Pongal festival while disposing of a petition filed attempting to ban the cockfight. The first month in the Tamil calendar is Chittirai and the first day of this month in mid-April is celebrated as Tamil New Year. The Thiruvalluvar calendar is 31 years ahead of the Gregorian calendar, i.e. Gregorian 2000 is Thiruvalluvar 2031. Aadi Perukku is celebrated on the 18th day of the Tamil month Aadi, which celebrates the rising of the water level in the river . Apart from the major festivals, in every village and town of Tamil Nadu, the inhabitants celebrate festivals for the local gods once a year and the time varies from place to place. Most of these festivals are related to the goddess , the mother goddess of rain. Other major Hindu festivals including Deepavali (Death of Narakasura), Ayudha Poojai, Saraswathi Poojai (), Jayanthi and are also celebrated. , , , are celebrated by Muslims whereas Christmas, Good Friday, Easter are celebrated by Christians in the state. Mahamagam a bathing festival at Kumbakonam in Tamil Nadu is celebrated once in 12 years. People from all the corners of the country come to Kumbakonam for the festival. This festival is also called as Kumbamela of South.

The kings of ancient Thamizhagam created sangams for Iyal Isai Nadagam (Literature, Music and Drama). Music played a major role in sangams. Music in Tamil Nadu had different forms. In villages where farming was the primary occupation, women who worked in the fields used to sing kulavai songs. Odhuvars, Sthanikars or Kattalaiyars offer short musical programmes in the temples by singing the devotional songs. In sharp contrast with the restrained and intellectual nature of , Tamil folk music tends to be much more exuberant. Popular forms of Tamil folk music include the , a form of music performed with a bow,the urumee mellam or Naiyandi mellam which incorporates the use of the and the , that convey folklore and folk history.

Carnatic music is the classical music form of southern India. This is one of the world's oldest & richest musical traditions. The Trinity of Carnatic music , and were from Tamil Nadu. Thyagarajar Aaradhanai (worship) takes place every year in the month of Marghazhi in all carnatic musicians render their obesiance to Saint Thyagarajar by singing his compositions. The composers belonging to the , namely (?1560 – ?1640), (1712–1779) and (1717–1787) composed hundreds of devotional songs in Tamil and helped in the evolution of Carnatic music. Chennai hosts a large cultural event, the annual during December–January, which includes performances by hundreds of artists all over the city.

In terms of modern cine-music, was a prominent composer of film music in Tamil cinema during the late 1970s and 1980s. His work highlighted Tamil folk lyricism and introduced broader western musical sensibilities to the south Indian musical mainstream. Tamil Nadu is also the home of the double Oscar Winner who has composed film music in , , , English and Chinese films, was once referred to by as "The of ".

Arts and dance
have a large number of folk dances. These are performed for every possible occasion, to celebrate the arrival of seasons, birth of a child, weddings and festivals. Tamil dance is closely intertwined with the Tamil theatrical tradition.

The most celebrated of these dances is the . In its religious form, the dance is performed in front of an image of the goddess . The dancer bears on his or her head a brass pot filled with uncooked rice, decorated with flowers and surrounded by a bamboo frame, and tumbles and leaps to the rhythm of a song without spilling a grain. Karakattam is usually performed to a special type of song known as temmanguppāṭṭu a in the mode of a lover speaking to his beloved, to the accompaniment of a and .

Other Tamil folk dances include , where the dancers tie a string of peacock feathers around their waist; , danced in a circle while waving small pieces of cloth of various colours; poikkal kuthiraiyaaṭṭam, where the dancers use dummy horses; manattam, where the dancers imitate the graceful leaping of deer; paraiyāṭṭam, a dance to the sound of rhythmical drumbeats, and thīppandāṭṭam, a dance involving playing with burning wooden torches.

is a classical dance form originating from Tamil Nadu. Prior to the colonial period, it used to be performed in Hindu temples by . In this form, it as also been called sadir or chinna melam. Many of the ancient sculptures in Hindu temples are based on Bharata Natyam dance postures. Bharatanatyam is a traditional dance-form known for its grace, purity, tenderness, and sculpturesque poses. It continues to be a popular dance style at present times and is practised by male and female dancers all over India. or is a traditional form of folk dance/drama.

Film industry
Tamil Nadu is also home to the Tamil film industry also known as "Kollywood", which released the most number of films in India in 2013. The term Kollywood is a of and . ξ5 Tamil cinema is one of the largest centres of film production in . In Tamil Nadu, cinema ticket prices are regulated by the government. Single screen theaters may charge a maximum of 50, while theaters with more than three screens may charge a maximum of 120 per ticket. The first silent film in Tamil , was made in 1916. The first talkie was a multi-lingual, , which released on 31 October 1931, barely 7 months after India's first talking picture , who had built the first cinema of in , introduced the concept of "Tent Cinema" in which a tent was erected on a stretch of open land close to a town or village to screen the films. The first of its kind was established in , called "Edison's Grand Cinemamegaphone". This was due to the fact that electric carbons were used for motion picture projectors.

Television industry
There are more than 30 television channels of various genre in . , 's Tamil language regional channel was launched on April 14, 1993. The first private Tamil channel, was founded in 1993 by . In Tamil Nadu, the television industry is influenced by politics and majority of the channels are owned by politicians or people with political links. The government of Tamil Nadu distributed free televisions to families in 2006 at an estimated cost of which has led to high penetration of TV services. Cable used to be the preferred mode of reaching homes controlled by government run operator . From the early 2010s, has become increasingly popular replacing cable television services. serials form a major prime time source of entertainment and are directed usually by one unlike American television series, where often several and work together.

Tamil cuisine is typical of south Indian cuisine, in that rice and rice-derived dishes form the major portion of a diet (see ). There are regional sub-varieties namely , Kongunadu, Madurai, Tirunelveli varieties etc. Traditionally, food is served on a instead of a and eaten with the right hand.

Rice is the staple food of Tamils and is typically eaten mixed with (with or without ), vegetarian or non-vegetarian kulambu, , and . This is accompanied with various vegetarian and/or non-vegetarian dishes like , , poriyal, , varuval, peratal, kothsu, varieties of and chicken, mutton, or fish fry.

Breakfast and snack items include , , , , , , , , , , and . These items are eaten along with , varieties of or podi (spice powder). Traditionally prepared filter is unique in taste and popular all over the state. The region is famous for its spicy non-vegetarian cuisine, while and are known for their . Sweet items that are native to Tamil Nadu are , and Kuli Paniyaram. is renowned for its unique , is the place of origin of milk dessert while is known for its Panchamirtham.

Tamil Nadu is the second largest contributor to India's GDP. For the year 2014-15 Tamil Nadu's was , and growth was 14.86. It ranks third in (FDI) approvals (cumulative 1991–2002) of 225,826 million ($5,000 million), next only to Maharashtra and Delhi constituting 9.12 per cent of the total FDI in the country. The per capita income in 2007–2008 for the state was 72,993 ranking third among states with a population over 10 million and has steadily been above the national average.
Gross State Domestic Product in Crores at Constant Prices

According to the 2011 Census, Tamil Nadu is the most urbanised state in India (49 per cent), accounting for 9.6 per cent of the urban population while only comprising 6 per cent of India's total population, and is the most urbanised state in India. Services contributes to 45 per cent of the economic activity in the state, followed by manufacturing at 34 per cent and agriculture at 21 per cent. Government is the major investor in the state with 51 per cent of total investments, followed by private Indian investors at 29.9 per cent and foreign private investors at 14.9 per cent. Tamil Nadu has a network of about 113 industrial parks and estates offering developed plots with supporting infrastructure. According to the publications of the Tamil Nadu government the Gross State Domestic Product at Constant Prices (Base year 2004–2005) for the year 2011–2012 is 428,109 crores, an increase of 9.39 per cent over the previous year. The per capita income at current price is 72,993.

Tamil Nadu has historically been an agricultural state and is a leading producer of agricultural products in India. In 2008, Tamil Nadu was India's fifth biggest producer of rice. The total cultivated area in the State was 5.60 million hectares in 2009–10. The Cauvery delta region is known as the Rice Bowl of Tamil Nadu. In terms of production, Tamil Nadu accounts for 10 per cent in fruits and 6 per cent in vegetables, in India. Annual food grains production in the year 2007–08 was 10035,000 mt. and banana are the leading fruit crops in Tamil Nadu accounting for over 87 per cent of the total fruit production. The main vegetables grown are , tomato, onion, brinjal (), and . Tamil Nadu is also a leading state in the production of flowers with the total production of standing at 9947,000 during 2003–04. The main flowers grown in Tamil Nadu are , , and .

The state is the largest producer of bananas, , flowers, tapioca, the second largest producer of , , , and the third largest producer of coffee, , Tea and . Tamil Nadu's sugarcane yield per hectare is the highest in India. The state has 17,000 hectares of land under oil palm cultivation, the second highest in India.

, known as the "father of the Indian " was from Tamil Nadu. with its seven colleges and thirty two research stations spread over the entire state contributes to evolving new crop varieties and technologies and disseminating through various extension agencies. Among states in India, Tamil Nadu is one of the leaders in livestock, poultry and production. Tamil Nadu had the second largest number of poultry amongst all the states and accounted for 17.7 per cent of the total poultry population in India. In 2003–2004, Tamil Nadu had produced 3783.6 million of , which was the second highest in India representing 9.37 per cent of the total egg production in the country. With the third longest coastline in India, Tamil Nadu represented 27.54 per cent of the total value of fish and fishery products exported by India in 2006.

Textiles and leather
Tamil Nadu is one of the leading States in the textile sector and it houses the country’s largest spinning industry accounting for almost 80 per cent of the total installed capacity in India. When it comes to yarn production, the State contributes 40 per cent of the total production in the country. There are 2,614 Hand Processing Units (25 per cent of total units in the country) and 985 Power Processing Units (40 per cent of total units in the country) in Tamil Nadu. According to official data, the textile industry in Tamil Nadu accounts for 17 per cent of the total invested capital in all the industries. New textile policy on the anvil - TAMIL NADU - The Hindu is often referred to as the " of " due to its cotton production and textile industries. is the country's largest exporter of knitwear. Nick Names of India Places Manchester of India Ahmedabad Cochin Queen of Arabian Sea – General Knowledge in India for its cotton production. The region around Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode is referred to as the "Textile Valley of India" with the export from the Tirupur 50,000 million ($1,000 million) and generates around 35,500 million ($750 million) a year in foreign exchange. , , , and are known for its cotton mills. Gobichettipalayam is a prominent producer of white silk with the country's first automated silk reeling unit present here. and are world famous for their pure silk sarees and hand loom silk weaving industries. , , and are also famous for art-silk sarees. , , , , , are major handloom centres. , Negamam, Cinnalapatti, Woraiyur, Pochampalli are famous for its soft cotton saree weaving. is known for its Chungidi cotton sarees and for its cotton carpets.

The state accounts for 70 per cent of leather tanning capacity in India and 38 per cent of leather footwear and components. The exports from Tamil Nadu are valued at about US $762 million, which accounts for 42 per cent of Indian leather exports. Hundreds of leather and industries are located around , and its nearby towns such as , , and .

Tamil Nadu has seen major investments in the automobile industry over many decades manufacturing cars, railway coaches, battle-tanks, tractors, motorcycles, automobile spare parts and accessories, tyres and heavy vehicles. is known as the Detroit of India. Major global automobile companies including , , , -, , , , and as well as Indian automobile majors like , , , , -, , , , , Company also invested () 4 billion for establishing new plant in Tamil Nadu. is a hub for Bus body building industries.

Heavy industries and engineering
Tamil Nadu is one of the highly industrialized states in India. Over 11% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Tamil Nadu. Many heavy engineering and manufacturing companies are located in and around the suburbs of . , one of India's largest electrical equipment manufacturing companies, has manufacturing plants at and . India's leading steel producer, the state-owned has a steel plant in . has a copper smelter at and an aluminium plant in . The is a state-owned oil and gas corporation headquartered in Chennai, and owns refineries at and . The state government owns the , in . Jointly with the , the state owns the world's sixth largest manufacturer of watches, under the brand name of , at . A number of large cement manufacturers, including the , Ramco Cements, Tancem, the , UltraTech Cements and are present across the state.

is also referred to as the "the Pump City" as it supplies two thirds of India's requirements of motors and pumps. The city is one of the largest exporters of and and the term "Coimbatore Wet Grinder" has been given a .

Electronics and software
Electronics manufacturing is a growing industry in Tamil Nadu, with many international companies like , , , , , , , and having chosen Chennai as their south Asian manufacturing hub. Products manufactured include circuit boards and cellular phone handsets.

Tamil Nadu is the second largest software exporter by value in India. Software exports from Tamil Nadu grew from 76 billion ($1.6 billion) in 2003–04 to 207 billion {$5 billion} by 2006–07 according to and to 366 billion in 2008–09 which shows 29 per cent growth in software exports according to . Major national and global IT Companies such as , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and many others have offices in Tamil Nadu. Coimbatore is the second largest software producer in the state, next to Chennai.

Namakkal is also one of the major centers of production in India. is one of the major centers of and . is also the major manufacturer of Nylon nets (HDPE) filaments. is a major centre of fireworks and safety match production and offset printing in India with over 60 per cent of firework production in India. is famous for rubber production. (AVADI) which manufactures armored vehicles for Indian military is located about 23 km northwest of Chennai. in is the largest producer of railway coaches in Asia.



Tamil Nadu has a transportation system that connects all parts of the state. Tamil Nadu is served by an extensive road network, providing links between urban centres, agricultural market-places and rural areas. There are 29 national highways in the state, covering a total distance of . The state is also a terminus for the project, that connects four major metropolitan cities in India (, , , ). The state has a total road length of , of which are maintained by Highways Department. This is nearly 2.5 times higher than the density of all-India road network. The major road junctions are Chennai, Madurai, Trichy, Coimbatore, Tirunelveli, Tuticorin, Karur, Krishnagiri, Dindigul, Kanniyakumari. Road transport is provided by state owned and . Almost every part of state is well connected by buses 24 hours a day. In 2013, the state recorded 15,563 fatalities in the 14,504 , the highest for any state in India.

Tamil Nadu has a well-developed rail network as part of . Headquartered at , the Southern Railway network extends over a large area of India's southern peninsula, covering the states of Tamil Nadu, , Puducherry, a small portion of and a small portion of . Express trains connect the state capital Chennai with Mumbai, Delhi, and Kolkatta. is gateway for train towards north whereas serves as gateway for south. Tamil Nadu has a total railway track length of and there are 532 railway stations in the state. The network connects the state with most major cities in India. The is one of the UNESCO World Heritage Site connecting on the hills and in the foot hills which is in turn connected to city. The centenary old over sea connecting in to mainland is an engineering marvel. It is one of the oldest cantilever bridges still in operation, the double-leaf bascule bridge section can be raised to let boats and small ships pass through Palk Strait in Indian Ocean. Chennai has a well-established network and is constructing a . Major railway junctions( 4 & above lines ) in the state are Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Salem, Erode, Dindigul, Karur, Nagercoil, Tiruchirapalli and Tirunelveli. , , , , , are upgraded to A1 grade level. Loco sheds are located at , , Royapuram in and Tondaiyarpet in , Ponmalai (GOC) in as Diesel Loco Shed. The loco shed at is a huge composite Electric and Diesel Loco shed. MRTS which covers from Chennai Beach to Velachery

The first flight in the country was from to . Tamil Nadu has 4 international airports at Chennai, Coimbatore, Tiruchirapalli and Madurai and a domestic terminal in Chennai called "Kamaraj Terminal" while other two domestic airports are at Tuticorin and Salem. Chennai's is a major international airport that is connected with 19 countries with more than 169 direct flights every week. This is the third largest airport in India after and and has a passenger growth of 18 per cent. Other international and customs airports present in the state are , and . and are domestic airports with daily flights. Increased industrial activity has given rise to an increase in passenger traffic as well as freight movement which has been growing at over 18 per cent per year. Besides civilian airports, Tamil Nadu also hosts four air bases for the Indian Air Force at , , and Madurai; and two naval air stations and for Indian Navy.

Tamil Nadu has three major located at , and , as well as seven other minor ports including and . Chennai Port is an artificial harbour situated on the Coromandel Coast and is the second principal port in the country for handling containers. Ennore Port handles all the coal and ore traffic in Tamil Nadu. The volume of cargo in the ports grew by 13 per cent during 2005.

Tamil Nadu has the third largest established power generation capacity in the country. The , Ennore Thermal Plant, Lignite Power Plant, many hydroelectric plants including , hundreds of windmills and the Narimanam Natural Gas Plants are major sources of Tamil Nadu's electricity. Tamil Nadu generates a significant proportion of its power needs from renewable sources with wind power installed capacity at over 7154 MW, Tamilnadu Renewable Energy Source accounting for 38 per cent of total installed wind power in India . It is presently adding the to its energy grid, which on completion would be the largest atomic power plant in the country with 2000MW installed capacity. The total installed capacity of electricity in the State by January 2014 was 20,716 MW. Tamil Nadu ranks in diesel-based thermal electricity generation with a national market share of over 34 per cent. From a power surplus state in 2005–06, Tamil Nadu has become a state facing severe power shortage over the recent years due to lack of new power generation projects and delay in the commercial power generation at . The Tuticorin Thermal Power Station has five 210 megawatt generators. The first generator was commissioned in July 1979. The thermal power plants under construction include the coal-based 1000 MW NLC TNEB Power Plant. From the current 17MW installed Solar power, Tamil Nadu government's new policy aims to increase the installed capacity to 3000MW by 2016. Solar Energy Policy 2012.pdf

, a team contact sport originated in Tamil Nadu and is recognised as the state game. The traditional sport of Tamil Nadu include , a Tamil martial arts played with a long bamboo staff, , , a bull taming sport famous on festival occasions, racing known as Rekkala, flying also known as Pattam viduthal, Goli, the game with marbles, Aadu Puli, the "goat and tiger" game and Kabaddi also known as Sadugudu. Most of these traditional sports are associated with festivals of land like and mostly played in rural areas. In urban areas of Tamil Nadu, modern sports like bat and ball games are played.

The most popular game in Tamil Nadu like rest of India is . The in Chennai is an international cricketing arena with a capacity of 50,000 and houses the . , , , , , and are someprominent cricketers from Tamil Nadu. The in Chennai, headed by Australian bowler is a popular fast bowling academy for pace bowlers all over the world. Cricket contests between local clubs, franchises and teams are popular in the state. represents Chennai among the eight Indian cities featuring in the , a popular . Chennai super kings captained by is the most successful Franchise with two IPL titles and two champions league T20 title. Chennai super kings is the only team to make entry into the finals of the prestigious Indian premier league for six times.

Tamil Nadu has a long-standing motor sports culture. The sport was pioneered by (1954–95) in its early days. Motor racing between the 1960s and 1980s was conducted at , a track used as a World War II air strip. Modern motor racing events are held at the owned and operated by near and in Coimbatore. The only two people to represent India in are both from Tamil Nadu, namely , the first Indian to participate in racing, and .

Tennis is also a popular sport in Tamil Nadu with notable international players including , , and . , the first Indian women to play in a grandslam tournament also hails from the state. The tournament is held in Chennai every January. The Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu (SDAT) owns which hosts Chennai Open and Davis Cup play-off tournaments.

Five time World Chess champion hails from Tamil Nadu. The state boasts a total of eight and numerous International Masters. Other notable chess players from the state include , the first Indian International Master,G.Akash, the youngest Indian to win a national tournament, , Grandmaster, , Six time Women's national champion of India and the First Women Grandmaster from India, , Women Grandmaster and former under-18 girls' World Chess champion. , the former World Carrom Champion and Ilavazhagi, the defending Women's World Carrom Champion are from Tamil Nadu.

The Tamil Nadu Hockey Association is the governing body of in the state. was the captain of the Indian team that won gold medal in 1980 Olympics at Moscow. The in Chennai hosts international hockey events and is regarded by the as one of the best in the world for its infrastructure.

The Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu (SDAT), a government body, is vested with the responsibility of developing sports and related infrastructure in the state. The SDAT owns and operates world class stadiums and organises sporting events. It also accommodates sporting events, both at domestic and international level, organised by other sports associations at its venues. The College of Physical Education at Nandanam in Chennai was established in 1920 and was the first college for physical education in Asia. The in Chennai is a multi-purpose stadium hosting and track & field events. The Indian Triathlon Federation and the Volleyball Federation of India are headquartered in Chennai. Chennai hosted India's first ever International Beach Volleyball Championship in 2008. The SDAT – TNSRA Academy in Chennai is one of the very few academies in south Asia hosting international squash events.

was invented by General Sir Frederick Roberts at the Ooty Club in , a hill station in the state. Tamil Nadu has six 18-hole golf courses, the most popular of which are , established in 1895, , established in 1896, and . The , set up in 1867, hosts regular rowing races on the . The Guindy race course in Chennai, set up in 1777, is the oldest horse racing venue in India. Adventure sports have gained popularity, especially amongst the tourists visiting the state.

The tourism industry of Tamil Nadu is the largest in India, with an annual growth rate of 16 per cent. Tourism in Tamil Nadu is promoted by (TTDC), a Government of Tamil Nadu undertaking. Travel News - Tamil Nadu receives highest number of domestic & foreign tourists in 2014 | TravelBiz Monitor According to statistics, 4.66 million foreign and 327.6 million domestic tourists visited the state in 2014 making it the most visited state in India both domestic and foreign tourists. Tamil Nadu Records Highest Tourist Footfalls in 2014 - The New Indian Express The state boasts some of the grand built in . The in and built by the , the Airavateswara temple in and the , along with the collection of other monuments in (also called Mamallapuram) have been declared as .

, , is the largest functioning temple in the Tamil Nadu, whose temple walk-ways corridors are the longest of all Indian temples, , , and are amongst the important pilgrimage sites for Hindus. Other popular temples in Tamil Nadu include those in , , , , , , , , , , , , and .

Tamil Nadu is also home to hill stations like (Ooty), , , , , and . The , , , and are all abodes of thick forests and wildlife. Tamil Nadu has many national parks, biosphere reserves, wildlife sanctuaries, elephant and bird sanctuaries, reserved forests, zoos and crocodile farms. Prominent among them are , , , Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary and . The forests at are also eco-tourism spots of importance. The prominent waterfalls in the state are , , Papanasam, Manimuthar, Thirparappu, and Silver Cascade. The Chettinad region of the state is renowned for its palatial houses and cuisine. With cheap and quality tertiary medical care available in Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai and Vellore, Tamil Nadu has the largest numbers in in India. , the southernmost tip of peninsular India, is famous for its beautiful sunrise, and 's statue built off the coastline. in Chennai is one of the longest beaches in the world. The stretch of beaches from Chennai to Mahabalipuram are home to many resorts, theme parks and eateries.

and statue]]

See also


External links


    ^ (1988). 9780231066518, Columbia University Press. .
    ^ (2023). 817764548X, Allied Publishers. . 817764548X
    ^ (1977). 9782826300236, Nagel Publishers.
    ^ (1997). 9780195115048, Helicon publishing Ltd.. .
    ^ (2023). 9781568584270 .
    ^ (2023). 9780313316104, Greewood Press. .
    ^ (2023). 9780736082730, Ming Li, Eric W. MacIntosh, Gonzalo A. Bravo. .
    ^ (2023). 9788121901536, Chand Publications.
    ^ (2023). 9780802137975, Grove Publications.
    ^ (2023). 9780195606867, Indian Branch, Oxford University Press.
    ^ (2023). 9780470829585, Scarecrow Press, INC.. .

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