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The Philippines ( ; Pilipinas or Filipinas ), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is an archipelagic country in . Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: , , and . The capital city of the Philippines is and the most populous city is , both part of . Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the on the east and the on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with to the north, to the west, to the east, and and to the south.

The Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but also endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of , according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million. , it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. Approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest . Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with , Indian, and nations occurred. Then, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of , , and .

The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in , in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas]] in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established. The Philippines became part of the for more than 300 years. This resulted in becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with in the Americas using .

(1996). 9780824818296, University of Hawaii Press.

As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution quickly followed, which then spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians.

(1998). 9780521472661, Cambridge University Press. .
(2019). 9781434361417, AuthorHouse. .
Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since then, the has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution.

The Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the East Asia Summit. It also hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. CIA World Factbook, Philippines , Retrieved May 15, 2009. Along with , the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations.


Etymology
The Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of and Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were also used by the Spanish to refer to the islands.
(1994). 9789715501354, Ateneo de Manila University Press. .
(1979). 9780709900498, Taylor & Francis. .
(1999). 9780521663700, Cambridge University Press. .

The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the period of the Spanish–American War (1898) and the Philippine–American War (1899–1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935–1946), American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has steadily gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article.


History

Prehistory
Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the of the , reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date. This distinction previously belonged to the of , carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. were also among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.

There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes that the ancestors of the Filipinos evolved locally. 's Island Origin Theory

(2019). 9789715425087, UP Press. .
postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the area around 48,000 to 5000 BC rather than by wide-scale migration. The Austronesian Expansion Theory explains that Malayo-Polynesians coming from began migrating to the Philippines around 4000 BC, displacing earlier arrivals.

The most widely accepted theory, based on linguistic and archeological evidence, is the "Out-of-Taiwan" model, which hypothesizes that Austronesians from , who were themselves descended from the neolithic civilizations of the Yangtze river such as the , began migrating to the Philippines around 4000 BC, displacing earlier arrivals. During the neolithic period, a "jade culture" is said to have existed as evidenced by tens of thousands of exquisitely crafted jade artifacts found in the Philippines dated to 2000 BC.

The jade is said to have originated nearby in Taiwan and is also found in many other areas in insular and mainland Southeast Asia. These artifacts are said to be evidence of long range communication between prehistoric Southeast Asian societies. By 1000 BC, the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior societies, highland , and port principalities.


Precolonial epoch
The current demarcation between the Prehistory and the Early history of the Philippines is 21 April 900, which is the equivalent on the Proleptic Gregorian calendar for the date indicated on the Laguna Copperplate Inscription—the earliest known surviving written record to come from the Philippines. This date came in the middle of what anthropologists refer to as the Philippines' "Emergent Phase" (1st–14th centuries ), which was characterized by newly emerging socio-cultural patterns, the initial development of large coastal settlements, greater social stratification and specialization, and the beginnings of local and international trade.
(2019). 9789716220063, Punlad Research House, Inc..
By the 1300s, a number of the large coastal settlements had become progressive trading centers, and became the focal point of societal changes, ushering complex lifeways which characterized what F. Landa Jocano called the "Barangic Phase" of early Philippine history, beginning from the 14th century through the arrival of Spanish colonizers and the beginning of the Philippines' colonial period.

The discovery of iron at around the 1st century AD created significant social and economic changes which allowed settlements to grow larger and develop new social patterns, characterized by social stratification and specialization.

Some of these polities, particularly the coastal settlements at or near the mouths of large rivers, eventually developed substantial trade contacts with the early trading powers of Southeast Asia, most importantly the Indianized kingdoms of Malaysia and Java, the various dynasties of China, Thailand,

(2019). 9789814260138, Editions Didier Millet.
and later, the Muslim Sultanate of Brunei. They also traded with Vietnam, Japan, and other Austronesian islands.

Based on archeological findings, trade with China is believed to have begun in the , but grew more extensive during the . By the 2nd millennium CE, some (but not all) Philippine polities were known to have sent trade delegations which participated in the Tributary system enforced by the Chinese imperial court. These "tributary states" nominally acknowledged the which saw China and the imperial court as the cultural center of the world. Among the early Philippine polities, this arrangement fulfilled the requirements for trade with China, but did not actually translate into political or military control. Regarding the relations of early Philippine polities with the various state-level polities of Indonesia and Malaysia, legendary accounts often mention the interaction of early Philippine polities with the empire, but there is not much archeological evidence to definitively support such a relationship. Considerable evidence exists, on the other hand, for extensive trade with the Majapahit empire.

(2012). 9781462907427, Tuttle Publishing.

The exact scope and mechanisms of Indian cultural influences on early Philippine polities are still the subject of some debate among Southeast Asian historiographers,

(2019). 9781741144482, Allen & Unwin.
but the current scholarly consensus is that there was probably little or no direct trade between India and the Philippines, and Indian cultural traits, such as linguistic terms and religious practices, filtered in during the 10th through the early 14th centuries, through early Philippine polities' relations with the Hindu empire. The Philippine archipelago is thus one of the countries, (others include Afghanistan and Southern Vietnam) just at the outer edge of what is considered the " cultural zone".

The early polities of the Philippine archipelago were typically characterized by a three-tier social structure. Although different cultures had different terms to describe them, this three-tier structure invariably consisted of an apex nobility class, a class of "freemen", and a class of dependent debtor-bondsmen called "alipin" or "oripun." Among the members of the nobility class were leaders who held the political office of "," which was responsible for leading autonomous social groups called "barangay" or "dulohan". Whenever these barangays banded together, either to form a larger settlement or a geographically looser alliance group, the more senior or respected among them would be recognized as a "paramount datu", variedly called a Lakan, Sultan, Rajah, or simply a more senior Datu.


Early historic coastal city-states and polities
The earliest historical record of these polities and kingdoms is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, which indirectly refers to the Tagalog polity of Tondo (–1589) and two to three other settlements believed to be located somewhere near Tondo, as well as a settlement near Mt. Diwata in Mindanao, and the temple complex of Medang in Java. Although the precise political relationships between these polities is unclear in the text of the inscription, the artifact is usually accepted as evidence of intra- and inter-regional political linkages as early as 900 CE. By the arrival of the earliest European ethnographers during the 1500s, Tondo was led by the paramount ruler called a "". It had grown into a major trading hub, sharing a monopoly with the Rajahnate of Maynila over the trade of Ming dynasty
(1996). 9781884964046, Taylor & Francis. .
products throughout the archipelago. This trade was significant enough that the appointed a Chinese governor named Ko Ch'a-lao to oversee it.
(2019). 9789812308566, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. .
(2019). 9780307775436 .

The next historical record referring to a location in the Philippines, is Volume 186 of the official history of the Song dynasty which describes the purportedly Buddhist "country" of (). Song dynasty traders visited Ma-i annually, and their accounts described Ma-i's geography, trade products, and the trade behaviors of its rulers. Chinese merchants noted that Ma-i's citizens were honest and trustworthy. Because the descriptions of Mai's location in these accounts are not clear, there is some dispute about Mai's possible location, with some scholars believing it was located in Bay, Laguna, and others believing it was on the island of . The official history of the Song dynasty next refers to the Rajahnate of Butuan () in northeastern Mindanao which is the first polity from the Philippine archipelago recorded as having sent a tribute mission to the Chinese empire—on March 17, 1001 CE. Butuan attained prominence under the rule of Rajah Sri Bata Shaja, who was from a Buddhist ruling-class governing a Hindu nation. This state became powerful due to the local goldsmith industry and it also had commercial ties and a diplomatic rivalry with the civilization.

Historian Efren Isorena has asserted that Visayan raiding parties conducted raids on the port cities of southern China between A.D. 1174 and 1190 which are attributed by other historians to raiders from Formosa (today's Taiwan). Jobers Bersales: Raiding China at Inquirer.net Retrieved June 13, 2013 The Visayan raiding parties were composed of people from the Kedatuan of Dapitan. History of the Kingdom of Dapitan. Retrieved February 3, 2017.

According to legend, the () was founded following a civil war in collapsing , wherein loyalists of the Malay of Srivijaya defied the invading and its puppet-Rajah, called Makatunao, and set up a in the islands of the . Its founding datu, Puti, had purchased land for his new realms from the aboriginal hero, Marikudo.G. Nye Steiger, H. Otley Beyer, Conrado Benitez, A History of the Orient, Oxford: 1929, Ginn and Company, p. 121. Madja-as was founded on island (named after the destroyed state of , a constituent state of Srivijaya which was located in ). The people of Madja-as conducted resistance movements against the Hindu and Islamic invaders that arrived from the west.

The Rajahnate of CebuZhang Xie. (1618) (in Chinese). Dong Xi Yang Kao A Volume 5'' (). . MID 00024687. Retrieved December 18, 2009. () was a neighbor of Madja-as in the Visayas led by Rajamuda Lumay, a monarch with partial descent. Sri Lumay was sent by the Chola Maharajah to invade Madja-as, but he rebelled and formed his own independent . This state grew wealthy by making use of the inter-island shipping within the archipelago. Cebu, a Port City in Prehistoric and in Present Times. Accessed September 5, 2008. Both the Rajahnates of Butuan and Cebu were allied to each other and they also maintained contact and had trade routes with , a Hindu country

(1968). 9780824803681, University of Hawaii Press.
in south established by Indian traders. The Tenggarong Kutai in the Joshua Project

The epic poem stated that the Java-based Hindu empire of had colonized Saludong (Manila) at and Solot (Sulu) at the . However, they failed to establish a foothold in the islands which was populated by loyalists who waged incessant guerrilla warfare against them. Eventually, Luzon regained independence from Majapahit after the Battle of Manila (1365) and then Sulu also reestablished independence and in vengeance, assaulted the Majapahit province of Poni () before a fleet from the capital drove them out. The Rajahnate of Maynila (c. 1258–1571) was established on the island of Luzon across the Pasig River from Tondo due to the naval victory of the Bruneian Rajah Ahmad over the Majapahit Rajah Avirjirkaya, who ruled a prior pre-Muslim settlement in the same location.

(1994). 9789715501354, Ateneo de Manila University Press.
The subsequent spread of Islam in Southeast Asia eventually caused the downfall of the empire as its provinces seceded and formed independent Sultanates upon becoming Muslim. Eventually, in the face of these Islamic conversions, the remnants of Hindu Majapahit fled to the island of .Barski, p. 46 The Chinese also mention a polity called "Luzon." This is believed to be a reference to Maynila since Portuguese and Spanish accounts from the 1520s explicitly state that "Luçon" and "Maynila" were "one and the same", although some historians argue that since none of these observers actually visited Maynila, "Luçon" may simply have referred to all the Tagalog and Kapampangan polities that rose up on the shores of Manila Bay.
(2019). 9789710546527, Holy Angel University Press.
Either way, from the early 1500s to as late as the 1560s, this seafaring people was referred to in Portuguese Malacca as Luções, and they set up many overseas communities across Southeast Asia where they participated in trading ventures and military campaigns in , Malacca and Lucoes warriors aided the Burmese king in his invasion of Siam in 1547 AD. At the same time, Lusung warriors fought alongside the Siamese king and faced the same elephant army of the Burmese king in the defence of the Siamese capital at Ayuthaya, p. 195.The former sultan of Malacca decided to retake his city from the Portuguese with a fleet of ships from Lusung in 1525 AD. Barros, Joao de, Decada terciera de Asia de Ioano de Barros dos feitos que os Portugueses fezarao no descubrimiento dos mares e terras de Oriente 1628, Lisbon, 1777, courtesy of William Henry Scott, Barangay: Sixteenth-Century Philippine Culture and Society, Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1994, page 194. as traders and mercenaries.
(1994). 9780226467320, University of Chicago Press.
One prominent Luções was Regimo de Raja, who was a spice magnate and a (: تمڠݢوڠ)
(1977). 9780195803549, Oxford University Press.
(Governor and Chief General) in Portuguese Malacca. He was also the head of an armada which traded and protected commerce between the Indian Ocean, the Strait of Malacca, the South China Sea,Antony, Robert J. Elusive Pirates, Pervasive Smugglers: Violence and Clandestine Trade in the Greater China Seas. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010. Print, 76. and the medieval maritime principalities of the Philippines.Junker, Laura L. Raiding, Trading, and Feasting: The Political Economy of Philippine Chiefdoms. Honolulu: University of Hawaiì Press, 1999.Wilkinson, R J. An Abridged Malay-English Dictionary (romanised). London: Macmillan and Co, 1948. Print, 291.

According to historian Paul Kekai Manansala, the famed admiral attacked Lusung but was repulsed in Manila and the conquest was limited to Pangasinan. Glossary: Luções By Paul Kekai Manansala in the "Quest of the Dragon and Bird Clan." In northern Luzon, (Pangasinan) () sent emissaries to China in 1406–1411 as a tributary-state, and it also traded with Japan.

(or ), sacred swords used by uncolonized Filipinos, that were wielded as standard weapons.

(1989). 9780195889062, Oxford University Press.
]]The 1300s saw the arrival and eventual spread of in the Philippine archipelago. In 1380, and Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr, an trader born in Johore, arrived in from and established the Sultanate of Sulu by converting Sulu's rajah, Ali and marrying his daughter.100 Events That Shaped The Philippines (Adarna Book Services Inc. 1999 Published by National Centennial Commission) Page 72 "The Founding of the Sulu Sultanate"Bascar, C.M. (n.d.). Sultanate of Sulu, "The Unconquered Kingdom" . Retrieved December 19, 2009 from The Royal Hashemite Sultanate of Sulu & Sabah Official Website. At the end of the 15th century, Shariff Mohammed Kabungsuwan of introduced Islam in the island of Mindanao and established the Sultanate of Maguindanao. The sultanate form of government extended further into Lanao. "The Maguindanao Sultanate", Moro National Liberation Front web site. "The Political and Religious History of the Bangsamoro People, condensed from the book Muslims in the Philippines by Dr. C.A. Majul." Retrieved January 9, 2008.

Islam then started to spread out of in the south and went into Luzon in the north. This was accomplished because the Sultanate of Brunei, which was previously known as Poni, had seceded from and had converted to Islam and then had invited an Arab Emir from Mecca, , to become Sultan and his descendant, Sultan set up in Luzon as an Islamic colony during his reign from 1485 to 1521. Thereby again subjugating rebellious Tondo by defeating in battle and thereafter installing the Muslim rajah, to the throne. Thus reestablishing the Bruneian vassal-state of the Muslim Rajahnate of Maynila as its enforcer in Luzon.

(2019). 9789814155670, Editions Didier Millet.
U.S. Department of State. Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. (June 2009). Background Note: Brunei. Retrieved December 18, 2009. Sultan Bolkiah also married Laila Mecana, who is the daughter of Sulu Sultan Amir Ul-Ombra of newly Islamized Sulu, to expand 's influence in both Luzon island and the Sulu archipelago.

The Muslims then proceeded to wage wars and conduct slave-raids against the Visayans. Participating in the Muslim raids, the Sultanate of Ternate, a Muslim state centered in the vicinity of , consequently destroyed the Animist Malayo-Polynesian Kedatuan of Dapitan in Bohol. This forced the people of Dapitan to reestablish their country in northern Mindanao and displace the citizens of the Sultanate of Lanao as they conquered their territory. The Hindu Rajahnates of Butuan and Cebu also endured slave raids from, and waged wars against the Sultanate of MaguindanaoMarivir Montebon, Retracing Our Roots – A Journey into Cebu's Pre-Colonial Past, p.15 while their southern Hindu ally, the Rajahnate of , struggled with the Sultanate of Brunei for hegemony over Borneo island. Simultaneous with these Muslim slave-raids against the Visayans, was the rebellion of Datu of against of Cebu.

(1967). 9789710829873, National Bookstore, Inc..
There was also a simmering territorial conflict between the Polity of Tondo and the Bruneian vassal-state, the Islamic Rajahnate of Maynila, to which the ruler of Maynila, , sought military assistance against Tondo from his relatives at the Sultanate of Brunei.

The rivalries between the Datus, Rajahs, Sultans, and Lakans eventually eased Spanish colonization. Furthermore, the islands were sparsely populated due to consistent natural disasters and inter-kingdom conflicts. Therefore, colonization was made easy and the small states of the archipelago quickly became incorporated into the Spanish Empire and were and Christianized.

(1990). 9789718711064, Garotech Publishing.


Colonial era
Journalist Alan Robles has opined, "Colonialism created the Philippines, shaped its political culture and continues to influence its mindset. The 333 years under Spain and nearly five decades under the USA decisively moulded the nation". Anthropologist Prospero Covar has observed, "Our thinking, culture, and psychology became virtually westernized, when we were, in fact, Asians."quoted in
(2019). 9780415931571, Psychology Press. .


Spanish rule
In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan's expedition arrived in the Philippines, claimed the islands for Spain and was then killed at the Battle of Mactan. Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first Hispanic settlements in Cebu. After relocating to island and consolidating an alliance of native Filipino () allies, Hispanic soldiers and Latin-American recruits, led by such as Mexico-born Juan de Salcedo
(2019). 9780874175905, University of Nevada Press. .
who was inspired by his love for the beautiful princess of Bruneian-besieged Tondo, Kandarapa, the Spanish-Mexican-Filipino coalition then invaded Islamic Manila, liberated and incorporated Tondo, and afterwards put down the Conspiracy of the Maharlikas and exiled the conspirators to and . Under Spanish rule, they established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies (1571).

They also defeated the Chinese warlord .Kurlansky, Mark. (1999). The Basque History of the World. New York: Walker & Company. p. 64. .. (1988). Culture and History: Occasional Notes on the Process of Philippine Becoming. Manila: Solar Publishing. To counteract the Islamization of the Philippines, the Spanish then conducted the which was aimed against the Sultanate of Brunei and war was also waged against the Sultanate of Ternate and (in response to Ternatean slaving and piracy against Spain's vassal states: Dapitan and Butuan).

(1993). 9780333576892, MacMillan.
The Spanish considered their war with the Muslims in Southeast Asia an extension of the ,Reviving the Reconquista in Southeast Asia: Moros and the Making of the Philippines, 1565–1662 By: Ethan P. Hawkley a centuries-long campaign to retake and rechristianize the Spanish homeland which was invaded by the Muslims of the Umayyad Caliphate. The Spanish expeditions into the Philippines were also part of a larger Ibero-Islamic world conflictCharles A. Truxillo (2012), Jain Publishing Company, "Crusaders in the Far East: The Moro Wars in the Philippines in the Context of the Ibero-Islamic World War". that included a against the Ottoman Caliphate which had just recently invaded former Christian lands in the Eastern Mediterranean and had a center of operations at its nearby vassal state, the Sultanate of AcehPeacock Gallop (2015) "From Anatolia to Aceh: Ottomans, Turks and Southeast Asia". which was the first missionary center of expanding Islam in Southeast Asia and had grew at the expense of older Animist, Hindu or Buddhist states that had remained loyal to their religions in the face of an encroaching Islam. These states were sought as allies by Christian newcomers. However, the Muslim Sultanates in the Philippines thought differently, to them, preserving and propagating Islam was a merely an act of against a Christian invader. War Speech by Sultan Muhammad Kudarat: "You men of the Lake! Forgetting your ancient liberty, have submitted to the Castilians. Such submission is sheer stupidity. You cannot realise to what your surrender binds you. You are selling yourselves into slavery to toil for the benefit of these foreigners. Look at the regions that have already submitted to them. Note how abject is the misery to which their peoples are now reduced. Behold the condition of the Tagalogs and of the Visayans whose chief men are trampled upon by the meanest Castilian. If you are of no better spirit than these, then you must expect similar treatment. You, like them, will be obliged to row in the galleys. Just as they do, you will have to toil at the shipbuilding and labor without ceasing on other public works. You can see for yourselves that you will experience the harshest treatment while thus employed. Be men. Let me aid you to resist. All the strength of my Sultanate, I promise you, shall be used in your defence! What matters it if the Castilians at first are successful? That means only the loss of a year's harvest. Do you think that too dear a price to pay for liberty?" Both sides had noble justifications in their wars against each other.Steven Shirley, Guided By God: The Legacy of the Catholic Church in Philippine Politics (Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Academic, 2004). In time, Spanish fortifications were also set up in and the . These were abandoned and the Spanish soldiers, along with the newly Christianized natives of the , withdrew back to the Philippines in order to re-concentrate their military forces because of a threatened invasion by the Japan-born -dynasty loyalist, , ruler of the Kingdom of Tungning.
(2019). 9789622090835, Hong Kong University Press.
However, the planned invasion was aborted. Meanwhile, settlers were sent to the Pacific islands of and the .

Spanish rule eventually contributed significantly to bringing political unity to the fragmented states of the archipelago. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as a territory of the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New Spain and then was administered directly from after the Mexican War of Independence. The , the largest wooden ships ever built, were constructed in and . The Manila galleons were accompanied with a large naval escort as it traveled to and from Manila and .

(1999). 9780670891979, Viking.
The galleons sailed once or twice a year, between the 16th and 19th centuries.Schurz, William Lytle. The Manila Galleon, 1939. p. 193. The Manila Galleons brought with them goods,1996. “Silk for Silver: Manila-Macao Trade in the 17th Century.” Philippine Studies 44, 1:52–68. settlers"Forced Migration in the Spanish Pacific World" By Eva Maria Mehl, page 235. and military reinforcements destined for the Philippines, from Latin America. Letter from Fajardo to Felipe III From Manila, August 15 1620.(From the Spanish Archives of the Indies)("The infantry does not amount to two hundred men, in three companies. If these men were that number, and Spaniards, it would not be so bad; but, although I have not seen them, because they have not yet arrived here, I am told that they are, as at other times, for the most part boys, mestizos, and mulattoes, with some Indians (Native Americans). There is no little cause for regret in the great sums that reënforcements of such men waste for, and cost, your Majesty. I cannot see what betterment there will be until your Majesty shall provide it, since I do not think, that more can be done in Nueva Spaña, although the viceroy must be endeavoring to do so, as he is ordered.") The reverse voyage also brought Asian commercial productsFish, Shirley. The Manila-Acapulco Galleons: The Treasure Ships of the Pacific, with an Annotated List of the Transpacific Galleons 1565–1815. Central Milton Keynes, England: Authorhouse 2011. and immigrants
(2019). 9781139952859, Cambridge University Press. .

to the western side of the Americas.

Trade introduced foodstuffs such as , , , , and from and . Within the Philippines, the Marquisate of Buglas was established and the rule of it was awarded to and his crew, the survivors of the first circumnavigation of the world, as well as his descendants. New towns were also created and missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to .Russell, S.D. (1999) They also founded schools, a university, hospitals and churches which were built along the Earthquake Baroque architectural style. "The City of God: Churches, Convents and Monasteries". Discovering Philippines. Retrieved on July 6, 2011. To defend their settlements, the Spaniards constructed and manned a network of military fortresses (called "") across the archipelago. The Spanish also decreed the introduction of free public schooling in 1863., Education. Slavery was also abolished. As a result of these policies the Philippine population increased exponentially.

During its rule, Spain quelled various indigenous revolts. There were also several external military challenges from Chinese and Japanese pirates, the Dutch, the English, the Portuguese and the Muslims of Southeast Asia. Those challengers were fought off despite the hostile forces having encircled the Philippine archipelago in a crescent formed from Japan to Indonesia. The Philippines was maintained at a considerable cost during Spanish rule. The long war against the from the West, in the 17th century, together with the intermittent conflict with the Muslims in the South and combating Japanese-Chinese piracy from the North nearly bankrupted the colonial treasury., The Early Spanish Period. Furthermore, the state of near constant wars caused a high death and desertion rate among the , and Indio (Native American) soldiers sent from Mexico and Peru that were stationed in the Philippines.Garcıa de los Arcos, “Grupos etnicos,” ´ 65–66 This left only the fittest and strongest to survive and serve out their military service. The high death and desertion rates also applied to the native Filipino warriors and laborers levied by Spain, to fight in battles all across the archipelago and elsewhere or build galleons and public works. The repeated wars, lack of wages, dislocation and near starvation were so intense, almost half of the soldiers sent from Latin America and the warriors and laborers recruited locally either died or fled to the lawless countryside to live as vagabonds among the rebellious natives, escaped enslaved Indians (From India)The Diversity and Reach of the Manila Slave Market Page 36 and Negrito nomads, where they race-mixed through rape or prostitution, which further blurred the racial caste system Spain tried so hard to maintain in the towns and cities.Tomás de Comyn, general manager of the Compañia Real de Filipinas, in 1810 estimated that out of a total population of 2,515,406, “the European Spaniards, and Spanish creoles and mestizos do not exceed 4,000 persons of both sexes and all ages, and the distinct castes or modifications known in America under the name of mulatto, quarteroons, etc., although found in the Philippine Islands, are generally confounded in the three classes of pure Indians, Chinese mestizos and Chinese.” In other words, the Mexicans who had arrived in the previous century had so intermingled with the local population that distinctions of origin had been forgotten by the 19th century. The Mexicans who came with Legázpi and aboard succeeding vessels had blended with the local residents so well that their country of origin had been erased from memory. These circumstances contributed to the increasing difficulty of governing the Philippines. Due to these, the Royal Fiscal of Manila wrote a letter to King Charles III of Spain, in which he advises to abandon the colony, but this was successfully opposed by the religious and missionary orders that argued that the Philippines was a launching pad for further conversions in the Far East.Blair, E., Robertson, J., & Bourne, E. (1903). The Philippine islands, 1493-1803 : explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the Catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century. Cleveland, Ohio. The non-profitable Philippine colony survived on an annual subsidy paid by the Spanish Crown and often procured from taxes and profits accrued by the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico), and the 200-year-old fortifications at Manila had not been improved much since first built by the early Spanish colonizers. This was one of the circumstances that made possible the brief British occupation of Manila.

British forces occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764 in an extension of the fighting of the Seven Years' War. Spanish rule was restored following the 1763 Treaty of Paris.

(2019). 9789712339349, Rex Bookstore. .
(2019). 9780874175905, University of Nevada Press. .
The Spanish–Moro conflict lasted for several hundred years. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Spain conquered portions of and the Muslims in the formally recognized Spanish sovereignty. In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Filipino society. Many Spaniards born in the Philippines ( criollo people]]) and those of mixed ancestry ( ) became wealthy and an influx of Hispanic American immigrants opened up government positions traditionally held by Spaniards born in the Iberian Peninsula ( ). Hispanic-Philippines reached its zenith when the Philippine-born Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero became Prime Minister of the Spanish Empire. However, ideas of rebellion and independence began to spread through the islands. Many Latin-Americans“Officers in the army of the Philippines were almost totally composed of Americans,” observed the Spanish historian José Montero y Vidal. “They received in great disgust the arrival of peninsular officers as reinforcements, partly because they supposed they would be shoved aside in the promotions and partly because of racial antagonisms.” and Criollos were mostly officers in the army of Spanish Philippines. However, the onset of the Latin American wars of independence led to serious doubts of their loyalty, so they were soon replaced by Peninsular officers born in Spain. Criollo and Latino dissatisfaction against the resulted in the uprising of which was supported by local soldiers as well as former officers in the Spanish army of the Philippines who were from the now independent nations of , , , , , and . The uprising was brutally suppressed but it foreshadowed the 1872 that was a precursor to the Philippine Revolution.Nuguid, Nati. (1972). "The Cavite Mutiny". in Mary R. Tagle. 12 Events that Have Influenced Philippine History. Manila: National Media Production Center. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from StuartXchange Website.. A Question of Heroes.

Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after three martyred priests—Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, and (collectively known as )—were accused of by colonial authorities and executed. This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, and , lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal was eventually executed on December 30, 1896, on charges of rebellion.

(1999). 9789712709203, Anvil Publishing, Inc..
As attempts at reform met with resistance, Andrés Bonifacio in 1892 established the militant secret society called the , who sought independence from Spain through armed revolt.

Bonifacio and the Katipunan started the Philippine Revolution in 1896. A faction of the Katipunan, the Magdalo of province, eventually came to challenge Bonifacio's position as the leader of the revolution and took over. In 1898, the Spanish–American War began in and reached the Philippines. Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898, and the First Philippine Republic was established in the in the following year.


American rule
The islands were ceded by Spain to the United States alongside and as a result of the latter's victory in the Spanish–American War. A compensation of US$20 million was paid to Spain according to the terms of the 1898 Treaty of Paris.Price, Michael G. (2002). Foreword. In A.B. Feuer, America at War: the Philippines, 1898–1913 (pp. xiii–xvi). Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood. . As it became increasingly clear the United States would not recognize the nascent First Philippine Republic, the Philippine–American War broke out. Brigadier General James F. Smith arrived at Bacolod on March 4, 1899, as the Military Governor of the Sub-district of Negros, after receiving an invitation from , president of the breakaway Cantonal Republic of Negros.
(2019). 9780700612253, University Press of Kansas. .

After the defeat of the First Philippine Republic, the archipelago was administered under an American Insular Government. The Americans then suppressed other rebellious sub-states: mainly, the waning Sultanate of Sulu, as well as the insurgent and the Republic of Zamboanga in Mindanao. During this era, a renaissance in Philippine culture occurred, with the expansion of Philippine cinema and literature.Armes, Roy. "Third World Film Making and the West", p.152. University of California Press, 1987. Retrieved on January 9, 2011. "The Role of José Nepomuceno in the Philippine Society: What language did his silent film speaks?". Stockholm University Publications. Retrieved on January 28, 2014. built an architectural plan for Manila which would have transformed it into a modern city.Moore, Charles (1921). "Daniel H. Burnham: Planner of Cities". Houghton Mifflin and Co., Boston and New York. In 1935, the Philippines was granted Commonwealth status with as president. He designated a national language and introduced women's suffrage and land reform.Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print.Manapat, Carlos, et al. Economics, Taxation, and Agrarian Reform. Quezon City: C&E Pub., 2010.Print.


Japanese rule
Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by World War II when the Japanese Empire invaded and the Second Philippine Republic of José P. Laurel was established as a collaborator state. Many atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war such as the Bataan Death March and the that culminated with the Battle of Manila.White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century". Retrieved August 1, 2007. In 1944, Quezon died in exile in the United States and Sergio Osmeña succeeded him. The Allied Forces then employed a strategy of island hopping towards the Philippine , in the process, retaking territory conquered by Imperial Japan.

From mid-1942 through mid-1944, the Filipino guerrilla resistance had been supplied and encouraged by U.S. Navy submarines and a few parachute drops, so that the guerrillas could harass the Japanese Army and take control of the rural areas, jungles and mountains—thus, the Japanese Empire only controlled 12 out of 48 provinces.

(2019). 9780811732482, Stackpole Books. .
While remaining loyal to the United States, many Filipinos hoped and believed that liberation from the Japanese would bring them freedom and their already-promised independence.

Eventually, the largest naval battle in history, according to gross tonnage sunk, the Battle of Leyte Gulf, occurred when Allied forces started the liberation of the Philippines from the Japanese Empire."Lieutenant Ramsey's War" by Edwin Price Ramsey and Stephen J. Rivele.Published by Knightsbride publishing Co, Los Angeles, California Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. By the end of the war it is estimated that over a million Filipinos had died.Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). World War 2 Pacific Island Guide – A Geo-Military Study. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 318. .

(1994). 9789716420715, All-Nations Publishing Co..


Postcolonial period
On October 11, 1945, the Philippines became one of the founding members of the . The following year, on July 4, 1946, the Philippines was officially recognized by the as an independent nation through the Treaty of Manila, during the presidency of . Disgruntled remnants of the communist
(2001). 9780521629485, Cambridge University Press. .
continued to roam the countryside but were put down by President 's successor .Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the Centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print.Carlos P. Romulo and Marvin M. Gray, The Magsaysay Story (1956), is a full-length biography Magsaysay's successor, Carlos P. Garcia, initiated the Filipino First Policy, which was continued by Diosdado Macapagal, with celebration of Independence Day moved from July 4 to June 12, the date of 's declaration, while furthering the claim on the eastern part of .
(2019). 9780742528420, Rowman & Littlefield. .

In 1965, Macapagal lost the presidential election to . Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated numerous infrastructure projects but was accused of massive corruption and embezzling billions of dollars in public funds. What happened to the Marcos fortune?. BBC News. January 24, 2013. Nearing the end of his term, Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972. This period of his rule was characterized by political repression, censorship, and human rights violations but the US were steadfast in their support.

On August 21, 1983, Marcos' chief rival, opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr., was assassinated on the tarmac at Manila International Airport. Marcos eventually called snap presidential elections in 1986. Marcos was proclaimed the winner, but the results were widely regarded as fraudulent. then roused the people to rebel, Stowe, Judy. "Cardinal Jaime Sin: Archbishop of Manila who saw his duty as being 'to put Christ in politics'", (obit), , June 22, 2005 leading to the People Power Revolution. Marcos and his allies fled to , and Aquino's widow, , was recognized as president.

(1987). 9780824811105, University of Hawaii Press. .


Contemporary history
The return of democracy and government reforms beginning in 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, disasters, a persistent communist insurgency, and a military conflict with Moro separatists. During 's administration, U.S. forces withdrew from the Philippines, due to the rejection of the U.S. Bases Extension Treaty, and leading to the official transfer of Clark Air Base in November 1991 and to the government in December 1992. The administration also faced a series of natural disasters, including the eruption of in June 1991. "Tarlac map". University of Texas in Austin Library. Retrieved on August 2, 2011. "Report of the Philippine Commission to the President, 1901 Vol. III", p. 141. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1901. After introducing a constitution that limited presidents to a single term, Aquino did not stand for re-election.

Aquino was succeeded by Fidel V. Ramos, who won the Philippine presidential election held in May 1992. During this period the country's economic performance remained modest, with a 3.6% percent GDP growth rate.

(1999). 9780801486340, Cornell University Press. .
However, the political stability and economic improvements, such as the peace agreement with the Moro National Liberation Front in 1996, were overshadowed by the onset of the 1997 Asian financial crisis. On his Presidency the death penalty was revived in the light of the Rape-slay case of Eileen Sarmienta and Allan Gomez in 1993 and the first person to be executed was in 1999.

Ramos' successor, assumed office in June 1998 and managed to regain the economy from −0.6% growth to 3.4% by 1999 amidst the 1997 Asian financial crisis. The government had announced a war against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in March 2000 and neutralized the camps including the headquarters of the insurgents. In the middle of ongoing conflict with the , and
and
and
accusations of alleged corruption, and a stalled impeachment process, 's administration was overthrown by the 2001 EDSA Revolution and succeeded by his Vice President, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on January 20, 2001.

(2019). 9780595184378, iUniverse. .

In Arroyo's 9-year administration, the economy experienced a phenomenal growth of 4-7% averaging at 5.33% from 2002 to 2007 with the completion of infrastructure projects like Line 2 in 2004 and managed to avoid the .

(2019). 9780857289391, Anthem Press. .
By comparison, the Philippines has been growing an average of 3.6% from 1965 to 2001 or 3.5% (1986-2001) if we include only those years when democracy was already achievement in the Philippines on 1986. The improvement of the Philippine annual growth rate from her predecessors (since Marcos Regime to Estrada Administration) was around 1.7–1.87%. And this jumpstart from a sluggish economy for almost 5 decades that left it behind by its neighbors in the 1960s would prove to be the Philippines rise from being the sick man of Asia to become one of the "Tiger Cub Economy" for the next decade after her administration. Nevertheless, it was tied with graft and political scandals like the Hello Garci scandal pertaining to the alleged manipulation of votes in the 2004 presidential elections. "Arroyo claims hollow victory" by Leslie Davis, Asia Times Online, September 27, 2005. On November 23, 2009, 34 journalists and several civilians were massacred in Maguindanao.

Benigno Aquino III won the 2010 national elections and served as the 15th President of the Philippines. The first major issue he dealt with was the 2010 Manila hostage crisis that caused deeply strained relations between and Hong Kong for a time. The Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro was signed on October 15, 2012, as the first step of the creation of an autonomous political entity named Bangsamoro. However, a that took place in Mamasapano, killed 44 members of the Philippine National Police-Special Action Force and put the efforts to pass the Bangsamoro Basic Law into law in an impasse. Tensions regarding the Philippines' territorial disputes in eastern Sabah and the South China Sea escalated.

On May 15, 2013, the Philippines implemented the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, commonly known as K–12 program. It added two more years to the country's ten-year schooling system for primary and secondary education. The country was then hit by on November 8, 2013, which heavily devastated the . When the United States President visited the Philippines on April 28, 2014, the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement, was signed, paving the way for the return of United States Armed Forces bases into the country.

Former mayor of PDP–Laban won the 2016 presidential election becoming the first president from . On July 12, 2016, the Permanent Court of Arbitration ruled in favor of the Philippines in its case against China's claims in the South China Sea. After winning the Presidency, Duterte launched an intensified anti-drug campaign to fulfill a campaign promise of wiping out criminality in six months. By March 2017, the death toll for the Philippine Drug War passed 8,000 people, with 2,679 killed in legitimate police operations and the rest the government claims to be homicide cases.

Duterte initiated the "Build, Build, Build" program, which aims to usher the Philippines into a new "golden age" of infrastructure. It will create more jobs and business opportunities, which, in turn, would sustain the country's economic growth and accelerate poverty reduction. The construction industry needs two million more workers to sustain the program.

The Build, Build, Build program is made up of 75 projects, which includes six air transport projects, 12 rail transport projects, and four water transport projects. It also includes four major flood management projects, 11 water supply and irrigation projects, four power projects, and three other public infrastructure projects. The country is expected to spend $160 billion to $180 billion up to 2022 for the public investments in infrastructure.

In 2017, Duterte signed the Universal Access to Quality Tertiary Education Act, which provides for free tuition and exemption from other fees in public universities and colleges for Filipino students, as well as subsidies for those enrolled in private higher education institutions. He also signed 20 new laws, including the Universal Health Care Act, the creation of the Department of Human Settlements and Urban Development, establishing a national cancer control program, and allowing subscribers to keep their mobile numbers for life.


Politics
The Philippines has a democratic government in the form of a constitutional republic with a presidential system. It is governed as a with the exception of the (BARMM), which is largely free from the national government. There have been attempts to change the government to a federal, , or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration.

The President functions as both head of state and head of government and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president is elected by popular vote for a single six-year term, during which he or she appoints and presides over the cabinet. The Congress is composed of the Senate, serving as the , with members elected to a six-year term, and the House of Representatives, serving as the , with members elected to a three-year term.

Senators are elected at large while the representatives are elected from both legislative districts and through sectoral representation. The power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen associate justices, all of whom are appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council.


Foreign relations
The Philippines' international relations are based on trade with other nations and the well-being of the 10 million overseas Filipinos living outside the country. As a founding and active member of the United Nations, the Philippines has been elected several times into the Security Council. Carlos P. Romulo was a former President of the United Nations General Assembly. The country is an active participant in the Human Rights Council as well as in missions, particularly in East Timor.Permanent Mission of the Republic of the Philippines to the United Nations. c.. About Us. Retrieved August 13, 2010.Permanent Mission of the Republic of the Philippines to the United Nations. c.. The Philippines and the UN Security Council. Retrieved January 12, 2008. (archived from the original on January 23, 2008)United Nations Security Council. (October 25, 1999). Resolution 1272 S-RES-1272(1999). Retrieved March 21, 2010.

In addition to membership in the United Nations, the Philippines is also a founding and active member of (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), an organization designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among states in the Southeast Asian region.. (August 8, 1967). Retrieved December 20, 2009 from Wikisource. It has hosted several and is an active contributor to the direction and policies of the bloc.. (1999). 3 ASEAN Informal Summit. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved December 13, 2009.

The Philippines attaches great importance in its relations with China, and has established significant cooperation with the country. It supported the United States during the and the War on Terror and was a major non-NATO ally, before the major fallback of relationship between the Philippines and United States in favor of China and Russia. In addition, controversies related to the presence of the now former U.S. military bases in and Clark and the current Visiting Forces Agreement have flared up from time to time. Japan, the biggest contributor of official development assistance to the country, is thought of as a friend. Although historical tensions still exist on issues such as the plight of , much of the animosity inspired by memories of World War II has faded.Dolan, Ronald E. (Ed.). (1991). "Relations with Asian Neighbors". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved January 5, 2010 from Country Studies US Website.

Relations with other nations are generally positive. Shared democratic values ease relations with Western and European countries while similar economic concerns help in relations with other developing countries. Historical ties and cultural similarities also serve as a bridge in relations with Spain. Despite issues such as and war affecting overseas Filipino workers, relations with Middle Eastern countries are friendly as seen in the continuous employment of more than two million overseas Filipinos living there.

With communism no longer the threat it once was, once hostile relations in the 1950s between the Philippines and China have improved greatly. Issues involving Taiwan, the Spratly Islands, and concerns of expanding Chinese influence, however, still encourage a degree of caution. Recent foreign policy has been mostly about economic relations with its Southeast Asian and Asia-Pacific neighbors.

The Philippines is an active member of the East Asia Summit (EAS), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the , the Group of 24, and the Non-Aligned Movement. It is also seeking to strengthen relations with Islamic countries by campaigning for observer status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "DFA: 'Technicalities' blocking RP bid for OIC observer status". (May 26, 2009). GMA News. Retrieved July 10, 2009.


Military
The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) are responsible for national security and consist of three branches: the Philippine Air Force, the , and the (includes the Marine Corps). The Armed Forces of the Philippines are a volunteer force. Civilian security is handled by the Philippine National Police under the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG). "Department of the Interior and Local Government Act of 1990". Lawphil.net. Retrieved January 30, 2014.

In the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, the largest separatist organization, the Moro National Liberation Front, is now engaging the government politically. Other more militant groups like the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, the communist New People's Army, and the have previously kidnapped foreigners for ransom, particularly on the southern island of .Florante S. Solmerin, December 7, 2013, Manila Standard, Abu Sayyaf keeping 17 foreigners hostage , Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...17 foreigners, mostly birdwatchers, were being held hostage by the Abu Sayyaf Group..."Roel Pareño, The Philippine Star, March 24, 2013, Sayyaf releases Aussie hostage, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...Australian Warren Rodwell emerged early yesterday withered after being held for 15 months by Abu Sayyaf bandits in southern Mindanao..."Sun Star, April 25, 2014, Abducted tourist, hotel staff now in Sulu, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...Abu Sayyaf bandits have brought a Chinese tourist and a Filipino hotel receptionist to their jungle stronghold in southern Philippines after kidnapping the women from a dive resort in eastern Malaysia ..." Their presence decreased due to successful security provided by the Philippine government. "Guide to the Philippines conflict". (August 10, 2007). . Retrieved December 16, 2009.World Bank. Conflict Prevention & Reconstruction Unit. (February 2005). The Mindanao Conflict in the Philippines: Roots, Costs, and Potential Peace Dividend by Salvatore Schiavo-Campo and Mary Judd. Washington, DC: World Bank. (Social Development Paper No. 24). Retrieved December 16, 2009. At 1.1 percent of GDP, the Philippines spent less on its military forces than the regional average. Malaysia and Thailand were estimated to spend 1.5%, China 2.1%, Vietnam 2.2% and South Korea 2.6%.

The Philippines was an ally of the United States from the World War II with a mutual defense treaty between the two countries signed in 1951. The Philippines once supported American policies during the and participated in the and wars. However, the fallback of relationship between the two countries in favor of China and Russia resulted in the Philippines establishing deep defence ties and cooperation with the latter two, abandoning its military ties with the United States while affirming that the country will no longer participates in any US-led war.


Administrative divisions
The Philippines is divided into three island groups: , , and . These are further divided into 17 regions, 81 provinces, 145 cities, 1,489 municipalities, and 42,036 . In addition, Section 2 of Republic Act No. 5446 asserts that the definition of the territorial sea around the Philippine archipelago does not affect the claim over the eastern part of .


Administrative regions
Regions in the Philippines are administrative divisions that serve primarily to organize the provinces of the country for administrative convenience. The Philippines is divided into 17 regions (16 administrative and 1 ). Most government offices are established by region instead of individual provincial offices, usually (but not always) in the city designated as the regional center. , was the most populated region while the (NCR) the most densely populated.

+ 10 Most Populous Regions of the Philippines (2015)
1stRegion IV
2ndNCR
3rdRegion III
4thRegion VII
5thRegion V
6thRegion I
7thRegion XI
8thRegion XNorthern Mindanao
9thRegion XII
10thRegion VI


Geography
The Philippines is an composed of about 7,641 islands with a total land area, including inland bodies of water, of . The of coastline makes it the country with the fifth longest coastline in the world.Central Intelligence Agency. (2009). "Field Listing : Coastline". Washington, DC. The Exclusive economic zone of the Philippines covers . Exclusive Economic Zones – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization. It is located between 116° 40', and 126° 34' E longitude and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N latitude and is bordered by the Philippine Sea, encarta.msn.com (archived from the original on August 20, 2009). to the east, the South China Sea "U.S. report details rich resources in South China Sea." (archived from the original on 2013-02-133) to the west, and the C.Michael Hogan. 2011. "Celebes Sea". Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. P. Saundry & C.J. Cleveland. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington, DC to the south. The island of is located a few hundred kilometers southwest and Taiwan is located directly to the north. The and are located to the south-southwest and is located to the east of the islands.. (older version – as it existed in 2009 – during the presidency of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo), The Official Government Portal of the Republic of the Philippines .

Most of the mountainous islands are covered in tropical rainforest and volcanic in origin. The highest mountain is . It measures up to above sea level and is located on the island of Mindanao.(2011-04-06). "The World Factbook – Philippines" . Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved on March 14, 2011. The Galathea Depth in the Philippine Trench is the deepest point in the country and the third deepest in the world. The trench is located in the Philippine Sea.

The longest river is the in northern Luzon. , upon the shore of which the capital city of Manila lies, is connected to Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the Philippines, by the . , the , and the are other important bays. The San Juanico Strait separates the islands of Samar and Leyte but it is traversed by the San Juanico Bridge.Republic of the Philippines. Department of Tourism. c.. (archived from the original on April 27, 2012). Retrieved March 21, 2010 from www.travelmart.net.

Situated on the western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity. The to the east in the Philippine Sea is an undersea region active in . Around 20 are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt. The last major earthquake was the 1990 Luzon earthquake.La Putt, Juny P. c.. The 1990 Baguio City Earthquake. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from The City of Baguio Website. There are many active volcanoes such as the , , and . The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century. Not all notable geographic features are so violent or destructive. A more serene legacy of the geological disturbances is the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River, the area represents a habitat for biodiversity conservation, the site also contains a full mountain-to-the-sea ecosystem and has some of the most important forests in Asia.

Due to the nature of the islands, mineral deposits are abundant. The country is estimated to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa and one of the largest copper deposits in the world. It is also rich in nickel, chromite, and zinc. Despite this, poor management, high population density, and environmental consciousness have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped. Geothermal energy is a product of volcanic activity that the Philippines has harnessed more successfully. The Philippines is the world's second-biggest geothermal producer behind the United States, with 18% of the country's electricity needs being met by geothermal power.


Biodiversity
The Philippines' rainforests and its extensive coastlines make it home to a diverse range of birds, plants, animals, and sea creatures. "Natural Resources and Environment in the Philippines". (n.d.). eTravel Pilipinas. Retrieved January 22, 2009. It is one of the ten most biologically megadiverse countries. Retrieved February 15, 2010 from gbgm-umc.org.
(2019). 9780643067493, CSIRO on behalf of the Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage. .
Around 1,100 land vertebrate species can be found in the Philippines including over 100 mammal species and 170 bird species not thought to exist elsewhere.
(2019). 9781741042894, . .
The Philippines has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, the rate of endemism for the Philippines has risen and likely will continue to rise. Native mammals include the palm civet cat, the , the and the Philippine tarsier associated with .

Although the Philippines lacks large mammalian predators, it does have some very large such as and , together with gigantic saltwater crocodiles. The largest crocodile in captivity, known locally as , was captured in the southern island of Mindanao. The , known as the , has the longest body of any ; it generally measures 86 to 102 cm (2.82 to 3.35 ft) in length and weighs 4.7 to 8.0 kg (10.4 to 17.6 lb).

(2019). 9780713680263, Christopher Helm.
The Philippine eagle is part of the family and is endemic to the rainforests of , , and .

Philippine maritime waters encompass as much as producing unique and diverse marine life, an important part of the . The total number of corals and marine fish species was estimated at 500 and 2,400 respectively. New records and species discoveries continuously increase these numbers, underlining the uniqueness of the marine resources in the Philippines. The in the Sulu Sea was declared a World Heritage Site in 1993. Philippine waters also sustain the cultivation of pearls, crabs, and seaweeds. "About the Philippines" (October 17, 2009). Retrieved December 20, 2009 from the Philippine History Website.

With an estimated 13,500 plant species in the country, 3,200 of which are unique to the islands, Philippine boast an array of flora, including many rare types of orchids and .Taguinod, Fioro. (November 20, 2008). "Rare flower species found only in northern Philippines". GMA News. Retrieved December 14, 2009. , often the result of , is an acute problem in the Philippines. Forest cover declined from 70% of the Philippines's total land area in 1900 to about 18.3% in 1999.Peralta, Eleno O. (2005). " 21. Forests for poverty alleviation: the response of academic institutions in the Philippines". In Sim, Appanah, and Hooda (Eds.). Proceedings of the workshop on forests for poverty reduction: changing role for research, development and training institutions (RAP Publication). Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Retrieved December 20, 2009. Many species are endangered and scientists say that Southeast Asia, which the Philippines is part of, faces a catastrophic extinction rate of 20% by the end of the 21st century.Kirby, Alex. (July 23, 2003). "SE Asia faces 'catastrophic' extinction rate". BBC News. Retrieved December 20, 2009. According to Conservation International, "the country is one of the few nations that is, in its entirety, both a hotspot and a megadiversity country, placing it among the top priority hotspots for global conservation."


Climate
The Philippines has a tropical maritime climate that is usually hot and humid. There are three seasons: tag-init or tag-araw, the hot dry season or summer from March to May; tag-ulan, the rainy season from June to November; and tag-lamig, the cool dry season from December to February. The southwest (from May to October) is known as the Habagat, and the dry winds of the northeast monsoon (from November to April), the Amihan. Temperatures usually range from to although it can get cooler or hotter depending on the season. The coolest month is January; the warmest is May.. (n.d.). Philippines: When to go & weather. Retrieved January 23, 2009.

The average yearly temperature is around . In considering temperature, location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor. Whether in the extreme north, south, east, or west of the country, temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range. Altitude usually has more of an impact. The average annual temperature of at an elevation of above sea level is , making it a popular destination during hot summers.

Sitting astride the typhoon belt, most of the islands experience annual torrential rains and thunderstorms from July to October,Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. (March 2006). Country Profile: Philippines. Retrieved December 17, 2009. with around nineteen typhoons entering the Philippine area of responsibility in a typical year and eight or nine making landfall.

(1982). 9789280803464, The United Nations University. .
Monthly Typhoon Tracking Charts. (2010). Retrieved April 24, 2010 from the National Institute of Informatics, Kitamoto Laboratory, Digital Typhoon Website. Annual rainfall measures as much as in the mountainous east coast section but less than in some of the sheltered valleys. The wettest known tropical cyclone to impact the was the July 1911 , which dropped over of rainfall within a 24-hour period in Baguio. Bagyo is the local term for a in the Philippines.Glossary of Meteorology. Https://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-08-28/philippine-second-quarter-gdp-growth-quickens-beating-estimates.html" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"> Baguio. (archived from the original on August 30, 2014). Natural hazards often cause lots of casualties in the Philippines. However, the government has lately been trying to manage and reduce disaster risks through innovative legislation.


Economy
The Philippine economy is the 34th largest in the world, with an estimated 2018 gross domestic product (nominal) of $371.8 billion. Primary exports include and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, products, products, , and fruits. Major trading partners include the United States, Japan, China, Singapore, South Korea, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Germany, Taiwan, and Thailand. Its unit of is the (₱ or PHP). A newly industrialized country, the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one based upon agriculture to an economy with more emphasis upon services and manufacturing. Of the country's total labor force of around 40.813 Million, the agricultural sector employs 30% of the labor force, and accounts for 14% of GDP. The industrial sector employs around 14% of the workforce and accounts for 30% of GDP. Meanwhile, the 47% of workers involved in the services sector are responsible for 56% of GDP.

The unemployment rate , stands at 6.0%. Meanwhile, due to lower charges in basic necessities, the inflation rate eases to 3.7% in November. Gross international reserves as of October 2013 are $83.201 billion.Denis Somoso. (September 30, 2013). "$83.201 Billion – Philippines GIR now Rank 26th World's highest International Reserves" . Philippines, ASIA and the Global Economy Site. Retrieved September 30, 2013. The Debt-to-GDP ratio continues to decline to 38.1% as of March 2014 from a record high of 78% in 2004. The country is a net importer but it is also a creditor nation.

After World War II, the Philippines was for a time regarded as the second wealthiest in East Asia, next only to Japan. The Filipina sisterhood. (December 20, 2001). . Retrieved November 9, 2009.

(2019). 9789622099036, Hong Kong University Press. .
In the 1960s its economic performance started being overtaken. The economy stagnated under the dictatorship of President as the regime spawned economic mismanagement and political volatility. The country suffered from slow economic growth and bouts of economic . Only in the 1990s with a program of economic liberalization did the economy begin to recover.

The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis affected the economy, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the and falls in the stock market. The extent it was affected initially was not as severe as that of some of its Asian neighbors. This was largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the government, partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth. There have been signs of progress since. In 2004, the economy experienced 6.4% GDP growth and 7.1% in 2007, its fastest pace of growth in three decades.Felix, Rocel. (January 25, 2008). 2007 GDP seen growing at fastest rate in 30 years. The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 29, 2010. (archived from the original on February 22, 2015) Average annual GDP growth per capita for the period 1966–2007 still stands at 1.45% in comparison to an average of 5.96% for the East Asia and the Pacific region as a whole. The daily income for 45% of the population of the Philippines remains less than $2.

(2019). 9780230239043, United Nations Development Programme.
Reddel, Paul (May 27, 2009). Infrastructure & Public-Private Partnerships in East Asia and the Philippines PowerPoint. Presentation in Manila to the American Foreign Chambers of Commerce of the Philippines. Retrieved February 13, 2010 from the Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF) Website.

The economy is heavily reliant upon from overseas Filipinos, which surpass foreign direct investment as a source of foreign currency. peaked in 2010 at 10.4% of the national GDP, and were 8.6% in 2012 and in 2014, Philippines total worth of foreign exchange remittances was US$28 billion. Regional development is uneven, with Luzon – Metro Manila in particular – gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions, although the government has taken steps to distribute economic growth by promoting investment in other areas of the country. Despite constraints, service industries such as and business process outsourcing have been identified as areas with some of the best opportunities for growth for the country.

includes the country in its list of the "Next Eleven" economies but China and India have emerged as major economic competitors.Olchondra, Riza T. (October 2, 2006). As India gets too costly, BPOs turn to Philippines. The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved December 16, 2009. (archived from the original on February 12, 2007) estimates that by the year 2050, it will be the 20th largest economy in the world. also projects the Philippine economy to become the 16th largest economy in the world, 5th largest economy in Asia and the largest economy in the South East Asian region by 2050.Kevin Voigt (January 12, 2012). World's top economies in 2050 will be... CNN. (archived from the original on August 14, 2012) The Philippines is a member of the , the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Asian Development Bank which is headquartered in , the , the G-77 and the G-24 among other groups and institutions.


Transportation
Transportation infrastructure in the Philippines is relatively underdeveloped. This is partly due to mountainous terrain and the scattered geography of the islands, but also the result of consistently low investment in infrastructure by successive governments. In 2013, about 3% of national GDP went towards infrastructure development—much lower than many of its neighbors. There are of roads in the Philippines, with only of roads paved.

Buses, , taxis, and motorized tricycles are commonly available in major cities and towns. In 2007, there were about 5.53 million registered motor vehicles with registrations increasing at an average annual rate of 4.55%.Republic of the Philippines. Land Transportation Office. Number of Motor Vehicles Registered. (January 29, 2008). Retrieved January 22, 2009.

The Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines manages airports and implementation of policies regarding safe air travel with 85 public airports operational . Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) serves the Greater Manila Area together with Clark International Airport. Philippine Airlines, Asia's oldest commercial airline still operating under its original name, and , the leading low-cost airline, are the major airlines serving most domestic and international destinations.State of Hawaii. Department of Transportation. Airports Division. c.. " Philippine Air Lines". Hawaii Aviation. Retrieved January 9, 2010.

(2019). 9781902339122, Oxford Business Group. .

Expressways and highways are mostly located on the island of Luzon including the Pan-Philippine Highway, connecting the islands of , , , and , the North Luzon Expressway, South Luzon Expressway, and the Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway. The North Luzon Expressway Project (NLEX) is for the rehabilitation, expansion, operation and maintenance of the existing NLEX that connects Metro Manila to the northern provinces of Bulacan and Pampanga. SCTEx delay worsens as Japan firm seeks new extension – INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos BCDA, Japanese contractor asked to explain SCTEx delay – INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos Arroyo adviser says SCTEx extension OKd – INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos Arroyo order: Open SCTEx, interchanges on time – INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos The Cebu–Cordova Link Expressway in will be the first expressway outside Luzon, to be finished by 2021. Rail transport in the Philippines only plays a role in transporting passengers within , the province of Laguna, and some parts of the . Freight transport was almost non-existent. , the country had a railway footprint of only 77 kilometers, which it had plans to expand to more than 320 kilometers by 2022. Metro Manila is served by three rapid transit lines: Line 1, Line 2 and Line 3United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. (1993). Provision of Travelway Space for Urban Public Transport in Developing Countries. UN–HABITAT. pp. 15, 26–70, 160–179. . The PNR South Commuter Line transports passengers between and Laguna. Railway lines that are under-construction include the 4 km Line 2 East Extension Project (2020), the 22.8 km Line 7 (2020), the 25 km Line 9 (Metro Manila Subway) (2025), and the 109 km PNR North-South Commuter Railway which is divided into several phases, with partial operations to begin in 2022. A multitude of other railway lines are planned.

In the past, railways served major parts of Luzon, and railroad services were available on the islands of Cebu and Negros. Railways were also used for agricultural purposes, especially in tobacco and sugar cane production. A few transportation systems are under development: DOST-MIRDC and UP are implementing pre-feasibility studies on Automated Guideway Transit.

As an archipelago, inter-island travel using watercraft is often necessary. PH firm takes on challenge to improve sea travel. Published by Philippine Daily Inquirer (Written By: Ira P. Pedrasa) The busiest seaports are Manila, Batangas, Subic, Cebu, Iloilo, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, and Zamboanga. The Philippine Transportation System. (August 30, 2008). Asian Info. Retrieved January 22, 2009. 2GO Travel and serve Manila, with links to various cities and towns through passenger vessels. The Strong Republic Nautical Highway (SRNH), an integrated set of highway segments and ferry routes covering 17 cities was established in 2003. Strong Republic Nautical Highway. (n.d.). Official Website of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. Retrieved January 22, 2009. The Pasig River Ferry Service serves the major rivers in Metro Manila, including the and having numerous stops in Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig and Marikina. Gov't revives Pasig River ferry service. (February 14, 2007). GMA News. Retrieved December 18, 2009.


Science and technology
The Philippines has pursued efforts to improve the field of science and technology. The Department of Science and Technology is the governing agency responsible for the development of coordination of science- and technology-related projects in the Philippines. The National Scientist of the Philippines award is given to individuals who have contributed to different fields of science in the country.

Notable Filipino scientists include , a food technologist famous for her formulated food products like calamansi nip, soyalac and the , and , a horticulturist known for his method to induce more flowers in mango trees.

At least 51 World Intellectual Property Organization medals have been awarded to Filipino inventors. For example, inventor Magdalena Villaruz's agricultural invention, the turtle power tiller, won her the 1986 WIPO Inventor of the Year award and its use became widespread across the Philippines, Southeast Asia and Africa.

(1999). 9789718822012, Goodwill Trading Co., Inc.. .

In the field of medicine, notable figures include Fe del Mundo, a pediatrician whose pioneering work in pediatrics as an active medical practice spanned 8 decades, and , a physician who was dubbed as " The Father of Nuclear Medicine in the Philippines" for his contributions in the field of .

Research organizations include the International Rice Research Institute, an international independent research and training organization established in 1960 with headquarters in Los Baños, Laguna, focusing on the development of new rice varieties and rice crop management techniques to help farmers in the country improve their lives.


Communications
The Philippines bought its first satellite in 1996. In 2016, the Philippines first micro-satellite, Diwata-1 was launched aboard the US Cygnus spacecraft.

The Philippines has a sophisticated cellular phone industry and a high concentration of users. is a popular form of communication and, in 2007, the nation sent an average of one billion SMS messages per day. Over five million mobile phone users also use their phones as virtual wallets, making it a leader among developing nations in providing financial transactions over cellular networks.Francisco, Rosemarie. (March 4, 2008). Filipinos sent 1 billion text messages daily in 2007. The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Reuters. Retrieved December 18, 2009.Teves, Oliver. (October 29, 2007). Cell phones double as electronic wallets in Philippines. USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved December 11, 2009. The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company commonly known as PLDT is the leading telecommunications provider. It is also the largest company in the country. "Asia's Fab 50 Companies: PLDT-Philippine Long Distance Telephone". Forbes. September 3, 2008. Retrieved 2009-13-14. Special Report: The Global 2000. (April 2, 2008). Forbes. p.10. Retrieved December 14, 2009.

The National Telecommunications Commission is the agency responsible for the supervision, adjudication and control over all telecommunications services throughout the country. There are approximately 383 AM and 659 FM radio stations and 297 television and 873 cable television stations. On March 29, 1994, the country went live on the Internet via a 64 kbit/s connection from a router serviced by PLDT to a Sprint router in California. Estimates for Internet penetration in the Philippines vary widely ranging from a low of 2.5 million to a high of 24 million people.Internet World Stats. (2009). Philippines: Internet Usage Stats and Marketing Report . Miniwatts Marketing Group. Retrieved January 22, 2009. Social networking and watching videos are among the most frequent Internet activities. The Philippine population is the world's top internet user.Kate Lamb, "Philippines tops world internet usage index with an average 10 hours a day","",1 February 2019


Tourism
The travel and tourism sector is a major contributor to the economy, contributing 7.1% to the Philippine GDP in 2013 and providing 1,226,500 jobs or 3.2 percent of total employment. 2,433,428 international visitors arrived from January to June 2014 up by 2.22% in the same period in 2013. South Korea, China, and Japan accounted for 58.78% while the Americas accounted for 19.28% and Europe 10.64%. The Department of Tourism has responsibility for the management and promotion of the tourism sector.

The country's rich biodiversity is one of the main tourist attractions with its beaches, mountains, rainforests, islands and diving spots among the most popular tourist destinations. As an archipelago consisting of about 7,500 islands, the Philippines has numerous beaches, caves and other rock formations. has glaring white sand beaches and was named as the best island in the world by Travel + Leisure in 2012. The Banaue Rice Terraces in Ifugao, the historic town of in , the in Bohol, Magellan's Cross in and the in Visayas are other highlights.

The Philippines is also one of the favorite destinations for foreigners due to its warm climate all year round, beaches and low cost of living. Best Place to Retire, Wall Street Journal


Water supply and sanitation
Among the achievements of the government in the Philippines are a high access to an improved water source of 92% in 2010; the creation of financially sustainable water service providers ("Water Districts") in small and medium towns with the continuous long-term support of a national agency (the "Local Water Utilities Administration" LWUA); and the improvement of access, service quality and efficiency in Manila through two high-profile water concessions awarded in 1997., p. 12

The challenges include limited access to sanitation services, high pollution of water resources, often poor drinking water quality and poor service quality, a fragmentation of executive functions at the national level among numerous agencies, and a fragmentation of service provision at the local level into many small service providers.

In 2015 it was reported by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation by WHO and UNICEF that 74% of the population had access to improved sanitation and that "good progress" had been made.Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) (2015). 25 years Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water – 2015 Update and MDG Assessment. UNICEF and World Health Organization Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP), New York, Geneva, p. 68 () The access to improved sanitation was reported to be similar for the urban and rural population.


Demographics
18.6
78.0
The population of the Philippines increased from 1990 to 2008 by approximately 28 million, a 45% growth in that time frame. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971–2008 ( pdf page 86); page 86 of the pdf, IEA (OECD/ World Bank) (original population ref OECD/ World Bank e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57) (archived from the original
on October 12, 2009) The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685.Republic of the Philippines. National Statistical Coordination Board. [http://www.nscb.gov.ph/secstat/d_popn.asp Population of the Philippines Census Years 1799 to 2007] . Retrieved December 11, 2009.
     

It is estimated that half of the population resides on the island of Luzon. The 3.21% population growth rate between 1995 and 2000 decreased to an estimated 1.95% for the 2005–2010 period, but remains a contentious issue. The population's median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old. Life expectancy at birth is 69.4 years, 73.1 years for females and 65.9 years for males. Poverty incidence also significantly dropped to 21.6% in 2015 from 25.2% in 2012.Republic of the Philippines. National Statistics Office. Poverty Incidence

Since the liberalization of United States immigration laws in 1965, the number of people in the United States having Filipino ancestry has grown substantially. In 2007 there were an estimatedAsis, Maruja M.B. (January 2006). " The Philippines' Culture of Migration". Migration Information Source. Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved December 14, 2009. The U.S. Census Bureau 2007 American Community Survey counted 3,053,179 Filipinos; 2,445,126 native and naturalized citizens, 608,053 of whom were not U.S. citizens. 12 million Filipinos living overseas. Global Pinoys to rally at Chinese consulates – The Philippine Star » News » Headlines . The Philippine Star (April 27, 2012). Retrieved on July 4, 2012.

According to the official count the population of the Philippines hit 100 million at the time of midnight on July 27, 2014, making it the 12th country to reach this number.

The Philippine population will continue to increase throughout 2018 and is projected to reach around 107,190,081 by December 31, 2018, based on projections made by the Commission on Population using the latest population census of 2015 (Philippine Statistics Authority).


Cities
is the most populous of the 3 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines and the 11th most populous in the world. , census data showed it had a population of 11,553,427, comprising 13% of the national population. Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces (, , Laguna, and ) of Greater Manila, the population is around 21 million.Demographia. (July 2010). Demographia World Urban Areas (World Agglomerations) Population & Projections (Edition 6.1). Retrieved March 29, 2011.

Metro Manila's gross regional product was estimated to be 468.4 billion (at constant 1985 prices) and accounts for 33% of the nation's GDP.Republic of the Philippines. National Statistical Coordination Board. (July 2009). 2008 Gross Regional Domestic Product – Levels of GRDP . Retrieved April 4, 2010. In 2011 Manila ranked as the 28th wealthiest urban agglomeration in the world and the 2nd in .


Ethnic groups
According to the 2000 census, 28.1% of Filipinos are Tagalog, 13.1% Cebuano, 9% Ilocano, 7.6% Visayans/Bisaya , 7.5% Hiligaynon, 6% Bikol, 3.4% Waray, and 25.3% as "others", which can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the , the Kapampangan, the Pangasinense, the , and the ." Philippines". (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 18, 2009 from Encyclopædia Britannica Online. There are also indigenous peoples like the , the , the , the , and the tribes of Palawan.

Filipinos generally belong to several ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian speaking people. It is believed that thousands of years ago Austronesian-speaking Taiwanese aborigines migrated to the Philippines from Taiwan, bringing with them knowledge of agriculture and ocean-sailing, eventually displacing the earlier groups of the islands. Negritos, such as the and the , are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands.Dolan, Ronald E. (Ed.). (1991). "Ethnicity, Regionalism, and Language". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved April 8, 2010 from Country Studies US Website. These minority aboriginal settlers () are an group and are a left-over from the first human migration out of Africa to Australia. However, the aboriginal people of the Philippines along with , and Australian Aboriginals also hold sizable shared admixture in their genomes.https://www.gmanetwork.com/news/scitech/science/272046/extinct-humanoid-species-may-have-lived-in-phl/story/ Extinct humanoid species may have lived in PHL, Published August 31, 2012 3:48pm

Being at the crossroads of the West and East, the Philippines is also home to migrants from places as diverse as China, Spain, Mexico, Peru, United States, India, South Korea, and Japan.

The Chinese are mostly the descendants of immigrants from in China after 1898, numbering around 2 million, although there are an estimated 27 percent of Filipinos who have partial Chinese ancestry, The final component (dark blue in Fig. 3b) has a high frequency in South China (Fig. 2b) and is also seen in Taiwan at ~25–30 %, in the Philippines at ~20–30 % (except in one location which is almost zero) and across Indonesia/Malaysia at 1–10 %, declining overall from Taiwan within Austronesian-speaking populations. stemming from precolonial and colonial Chinese migrants." Chinese lunar new year might become national holiday in Philippines too". Xinhua News (August 23, 2009). (archived from the original on August 26, 2009) Intermarriage between the groups is evident in the major cities and urban areas. Filipino Food and Culture. Food-links.com. Retrieved on July 4, 2012.

Mexican descendants in the Philippines numbered 1.7 Million in 2010. Forum du Mexique. Furthermore, at least one-third of the population of , where Spaniards mixed with natives, as well as old settlements in the (founded by Mexicans) and (colonized by Peruvians) "Second Book of the Second Part of the Conquests of the Filipinas Islands, and Chronicle of the Religious of Our Father, St. Augustine" (Zamboanga City History) "He (Governor Don Sebastían Hurtado de Corcuera) brought a great reënforcements of soldiers, many of them from , as he made his voyage to from that kingdom." or around 13.33% of the Philippine population, have partial Hispanic ancestry (from varying points of origin and ranging from "In 1637 the military force maintained in the islands consisted of one thousand seven hundred and two Spaniards and one hundred and forty Indians." ~ Memorial de D. Juan Grau y Monfalcon, Procurador General de las Islas Filipinas, Docs. Inéditos del Archivo de Indias, vi, p. 425. "In 1787 the garrison at Manila consisted of one regiment of Mexicans comprising one thousand three hundred men, two artillery companies of eighty men each, three cavalry companies of fifty men each." La Pérouse, ii, p. 368. to Spain).Jagor, Fëdor, et al. (1870). The Former Philippines thru Foreign Eyes Recent genetic studies confirm this partial European With a sample population of 105 Filipinos, the company of Applied Biosystems, analysed the Y-DNA of average Filipinos and it is discovered that about 13.33% of the samples have the Y-DNA Haplotype "R1b", which is most common in Western Europe and had spread to the Philippines via Spanish colonists. and Hispanic-American ancestry. The migrants from Peru and Mexico weren't even homogeneous since they themselves were already racially admixed or but there were also a few Native-Americans too. "The diversity here is immense such that I could go on forever trying to differentiate lands and peoples. There are Castilians from all provinces. There are Portuguese and Italians; Dutch, Greeks and Canary Islanders, and Mexican Indians. There are slaves from Africa brought by the Spaniards [Through America, and others brought by the Portuguese Through. There is an African Moor with his turban here. There are Javanese from Java, Japanese and Bengalese from Bengal. Among all these people are the Chinese whose numbers here are untold and who outnumber everyone else. From China there are peoples so different from each other, and from provinces as distant, as Italy is from Spain. Finally, of the mestizos, the mixed-race people here, I cannot even write because in Manila there is no limit to combinations of peoples with peoples. This is in the city where all the buzz is." (Remesal, 1629: 680-1)

-Connecting the Indies, the Hispano-Asian Pacific World in early Modern Global History-]

According to a Y-DNA compilation by the DNA company Applied Biosystems, they calculated an estimated 1% frequency of the South Asian Y-DNA "H1a" in the Philippines. Thus translating to about 1,011,864 Filipinos having full or partial descent. These Indian-Filipinos were either descended from precolonial Indian adventurers who established Hindu kingdoms in the vicinity: the Rajahnates of Cebu and Butuan as well as Kutai in Borneo, they may also come from colonial era mercenaries and modern traders. With a sample population of 105 Filipinos, the company of Applied Biosystems, analysed the Y-DNA of average Filipinos and it is discovered that about 0.95% of the samples have the Y-DNA Haplotype "H1a", which is most common in South Asia and had spread to the Philippines via precolonial Indian missionaries who spread Hinduism and established Indic Rajahnates like Cebu and Butuan.

The Philippines was a former American colony and during the American colonial era, there were over 800,000 Americans who were born in the Philippines. As of 2015, there are now 220,000 to 600,000 American citizens currently living in the country. There are also 250,000 scattered across the cities of Angeles, Manila, Clark and .

Other important non-indigenous minorities include who established precolonial Muslim sultanates such as Lanao, Maguindanao, Sulu and Brunei. There are also , mostly escaped Christians () who fled the persecutions of Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu which the Spanish empire in the Philippines had offered asylum from. The descendants of mixed-race couples are known as ." The Impact of Spanish Rule in the Philippines". (2009). Tagalog at NIU. Retrieved December 19, 2009 from the Northern Illinois University, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, SEAsite Project. (archived from the original on October 1, 2007)Nicholas Trajano Molnar (2017), University of Missouri Press, "American Mestizos, The Philippines, and the Malleability of Race: 1898–1961"


Languages
Population by (2010)
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

lists 186 individual languages in the Philippines, 182 of which are living languages, while 4 no longer have any known speakers. Most native languages are part of the Philippine branch of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is itself a branch of the Austronesian language family.Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). (2015). [125]. Ethnologue: Languages of the World (18th ed.). Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Retrieved April 13, 2015. The only language not classified as an Austronesian language are the various Spanish-based creole varieties collectively called .Spanish creole:

Filipino and are the official languages of the country. Filipino is a standardized version of , spoken mainly in Metro Manila and other urban regions. Both Filipino and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business. Due to the Philippines' history of complex interactions with many cultures all across the span of the whole world, as well as local influences, the Filipino language has the richest repertoire of incorporated foreign vocabulary used in everyday speech among the world's many dialects because Filipino has been enriched by languages as diverse as English, Latin, Greek, Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit,

(2019). 9783110218435, De Gruyter Mouton.
Tamil, Malay, Chinese,
(1980). 9780858832251, Dept. of Linguistics, School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. .
(2019). 9789712714269, Pasig City.
Japanese,
(2019). 9781326615796, Lulu Press, Inc.. .
and (Aztec). Furthermore, in most towns, the local indigenous language are also spoken. The Philippine constitution provides for the promotion of Spanish and on a voluntary and optional basis, although neither are used on as wide a scale as in the past. Spanish, which was widely used as a lingua franca in the late nineteenth century, has since declined greatly in use, although Spanish loanwords are still present today in many of the indigenous Philippine languages, while Arabic is mainly used in Islamic schools in Mindanao. A theory that the indigenous scripts of Sumatra, Sulawesi and the Philippines are descended from an early form of the was presented at the 2010 meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society.

Nineteen regional languages act as auxiliary official languages used as media of instruction: , , , , Hiligaynon, , , , Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, , Pangasinan, , Surigaonon, Tagalog, , , and . DepEd adds 7 languages to mother tongue-based education for Kinder to Grade 3. . July 13, 2013. Other indigenous languages such as, , , , , , Kankanaey, Masbateño, Romblomanon, , and several Visayan languages are prevalent in their respective provinces.

Languages not indigenous to the islands are also taught in select schools. is used in Chinese schools catering to the community. Islamic schools in teach Modern Standard Arabic in their curriculum. Muslim education program gets P252-M funding. Philippine Daily Inquirer. July 13, 2011. , , Japanese, , , and Spanish are taught with the help of foreign linguistic institutions. DepEd to continue teaching French in select public schools in 2013. Philippine Daily Inquirer. December 6, 2012. The Department of Education began teaching the of Indonesian and Malaysian in 2013. Philippines: Students to take foreign language. . March 22, 2013.


Religion
The Philippines is an officially , although Christianity is the dominant faith. Census data from 2010 found that about % of the population professed Catholicism. Around 37% regularly attend and 29% identify as very religious. Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths, . July 19, 2012. Protestants are 10.8% of the total population, mostly endorsing evangelical Protestant denominations that were introduced by American missionaries at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, they are heavily concentrated in Northern Luzon and Southern Mindanao. The Philippine Independent Church is a notable independent Catholic denomination. Table: Christian Population in Numbers by Country, . December 19, 2011. Iglesia ni Cristo is a notable and denomination in the country and are mostly concentrated at Central Luzon.

Islam is the second largest religion. The population of the Philippines was reported as % of the total population according to census returns in 2010. A recent statistic shown by the National Commission of Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) on 2012 which stated that about 10,700,000 or 11% of the Filipinos are Muslims. Some Muslim scholars argue that the census taken in 2000 significantly undercounted the number of Muslims because of security concerns and hostility of the inhabitants to government personnel in Muslim-majority areas, leading to difficulty in getting accurate data for the Muslim population in the country. The majority of Muslims live in Mindanao and nearby islands. RP closer to becoming observer-state in Organization of Islamic Conference . (May 29, 2009). The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2009-07-10, "Eight million Muslim Filipinos, representing 10 percent of the total Philippine population, ...". Most practice under the Shafi'i school.U.S. Department of State. (2010). Philippines: International Religious Freedom Report 2010. Retrieved 2011-05-20, "Islam is the largest minority religion, and Muslims constitute between 5 and 9 percent of the total population."

(2019). 9789812309235 .

The percentage of people in the Philippines is unknown because there is no official statistic of it. However, it may be form as high as 21% of the population. Communication Institute 電通総研・日本リサーチセンター編「世界60カ国価値観データブック The Philippine Atheists and Agnostics Society (PATAS) is a nonprofit organization for the public understanding of atheism and agnosticism in the Philippines which educate society, and eliminate myths and misconceptions about atheism and agnosticism.

An estimated 2% of the total population practice Philippine traditional religions, whose practices and folk beliefs are often syncretized with Christianity and Islam. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project: Philippines. Pew Research Center. 2010. Buddhism is practiced by around 2% of the population, and is concentrated among Filipinos of Chinese descent. The remaining population is divided between a number of religious groups, including Hindus, Jews, and Baha'is. The Largest Baha'i Communities. (September 30, 2005). Retrieved April 26, 2010 from www.adherents.com.


Health
There are an increasing number of private health providers and, , 67.1% of healthcare came from private expenditures while 32.9% was from government. In 2013, total expenditures on the health sector was 3.8% of GDP, below the target of 5%. Health expenditure represented about 6.1% of total government spending. Per capita total expenditure at average exchange rate was US$52.
(2019). 9789241563819, World Health Organization. .
The budget allocation for Healthcare in 2010 was ₱28 billion (about US$597 million) or ₱310 ($7) per personPhilippine News Agency. (December 14, 2009). "Senate approves proposed 2010 national budget". (archived from the original on February 6, 2010). but had an increase in budget in 2014 with a record high in the collection of taxes from the House Bill 5727 (commonly known as Bill).

There are an estimated 90,370 physicians or 1 per every 833 people, 480,910 nurses, 43,220 dentists, and 1 hospital bed per every 769 people. Retention of skilled practitioners is a problem. Seventy percent of nursing graduates go overseas to work. The Philippines is the biggest supplier of nurses for export.World Health Organization. (April 2006). Philippines. Country Cooperation Strategy at a Glance. Retrieved December 23, 2009.

In 2001 there were about 1,700 , of which about 40% were government-run and 60% private. Cardiovascular diseases account for more than 25% of all deaths. According to official estimates, 1,965 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were reported in 2003, of which 636 had developed acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Despite the increase of HIV/AIDS cases from 12,000 in 2005United States Agency for International Development. (May 2008). USAID Country Health Statistical Report – Philippines. Retrieved April 8, 2010. to 17,450 as of April 2014 with 5,965 people who were under anti-retroviral therapy, the country is still a low-HIV-prevalence country with less than 0.1% of the adult population estimated to be HIV-positive.


Education
The Philippines has a simple of 95.6%, with 95.1% for males and 96.1% for females. The Philippines had a functional literacy rate of 86.45%, with 84.2% for males and 88.7% for females in 2008. Spending on education accounted for 16.11% in the national budget proposed for 2015.

The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) lists 2,180 higher education institutions, 607 of which are public and 1,573 private.Republic of the Philippines. Commission on Higher Education. (August 2010). . Official Website of the Commission on Higher Education. Retrieved April 17, 2011. Classes start in June and end in March. The majority of colleges and universities follow a semester calendar from June to October and November to March. There are a number of foreign schools with study programs. A 6-year elementary, a 4-year junior high school and a 2-year senior high school education is mandatoryRepublic of the Philippines. (Approved: August 11, 2001). Republic Act No. 9155 – Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001. Retrieved December 11, 2009 from the Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. of the K–12 educational program in 2013.

Several government agencies are involved with education. The Department of Education covers elementary, secondary, and non-formal education. The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) administers post-secondary, middle-level education training and development. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) supervises college and graduate academic programs and degrees as well as regulates standards in higher education. Commission on Higher Education The Commission on Higher Education is the governing body covering both public and private higher education institutions as well as degree-granting programs in all tertiary educational institutions in the Philippines. The CHED was established on May 18, 1994 through Republic Act 7722 or the Higher Education Act.

In 2004, were mainstreamed in 16 regions nationwide, mainly in Muslim areas in Mindanao under the auspices and program of the Department of Education. Public universities are all non-sectarian entities, and are further classified as State Universities and Colleges (SUC) or Local Colleges and Universities (LCU). The University of the Philippines, a system of eight (8) constituent universities, is the national university system of the Philippines.Republic of the Philippines. (Approved: April 29, 2008). Republic Act 9500 – An Act to Strengthen the University of the Philippines as the National University. Chan Robles Law Library.


Culture
Philippine culture is a combination of and . The Philippines exhibits aspects found in other Asian countries with a Baringer, Sally E. c.. "The Philippines". In Countries and Their Cultures. Advameg Inc. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from www.everyculture.com. heritage, yet its culture also displays a significant number of Spanish and American influences. Traditional festivities known as barrio fiestas (district festivals) to commemorate the feast days of patron saints are common, these community celebrations are times for feasting, music, and dancing. The Ati-Atihan, Moriones and festivals are a couple of the most well-known.

Some traditions, however, are changing or gradually being forgotten due to modernization. The Bayanihan Philippine National Folk Dance Company has been lauded for preserving many of the various traditional folk dances found throughout the Philippines. They are famed for their iconic performances of Philippine dances such as the and that both feature clashing bamboo poles.

(2019). 9781741042894, Lonely Planet. .

One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of Spanish names and surnames among Filipinos; a Spanish name and surname, however, does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial edict by Governor-General Narciso Clavería y Zaldua, which ordered the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of Hispanic nomenclature on the population.

(1992). 9780226169545, University of Chicago Press. .
The names of many streets, towns, and provinces are also in Spanish. The common use of the English language is an example of the American impact on Philippine society. It has contributed to the ready acceptance and influence of American pop cultural trends. This affinity is seen in Filipinos' love of and American film and music. Fast food outlets are found on many street corners. American global fast food chain stalwarts have entered the market, but local fast food chains like Goldilocks and most notably , the leading fast food chain in the country, have emerged and compete successfully against their foreign rivals.


Architecture
Spanish architecture has left an imprint in the Philippines in the way many towns were designed around a central square or plaza mayor, but many of the buildings bearing its influence were demolished during World War II. Some examples remain, mainly among the country's churches, government buildings, and universities. Four Philippine churches are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the San Agustín Church in Manila, in , Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Santa María) Church in , and in . in Ilocos Sur is also known for the many Hispanic-style houses and buildings preserved there.
(2019). 9781741042894, Lonely Planet. .

The American occupation in 1898 introduced a new breed of architectural structures in the Philippines. This led to the construction of government buildings and theaters. During the American period, some semblance of city planning using the architectural designs and master plans by was done on the portions of the city of . Part of the Burnham plan was the construction of government buildings that resembled Greek or Neoclassical architecture. In , a lot of the colonial edifices constructed during the American occupation in the country can still be seen. Commercial buildings, houses and churches in that era are abundant in the city and especially in Calle Real.

However, certain areas of the country like have slight differences as both Spanish and Filipino ways of architecture assimilated differently due to the climate. Limestones and coral were used as building materials. or castles were the primary shelter of the people prior to the Spanish conquest of the whole Philippines.


Music
Philippine music has evolved rapidly due to the different influences stemming from colonialism under other countries. Before the Spanish conquest of the islands, most music was reminiscent of, or heavily influenced by, nature. Some examples of this tribal music is Koyu No Tebulul of the and Ambo Hato of the . This genre is often accompanied by gong music and one well known instrument is the .

During the Spanish era music, where traditional string orchestra type instruments were used, was widespread. In the Philippines, Rondalya refers to any group of stringed instruments that are played using a plectrum or pick. Filipino instruments are made from indigenous Philippine wood; plectrums, or picks, are made from tortoise-shell. Other stringed instruments composing the standard Filipino rondalla are the 14-string bandurria found only in the Philippines, the laúd, the octavina, the Twelve-string guitar, the Ukulele, the bajo de uñas or double bass, the Guitarrón mexicano, and other Filipino-made instruments modeled and developed after the guitar. Harana and are prevalent during this time wherein these songs are often used in courtship rituals.

Marcelo Adonay (organist), Simplicio Solis (organist), Diego C. Perez (pianist), Jose Conseco (pianist) and (composer) were some of the recognized musicians in this era. Nowadays, American pop culture has a heavy hold on the Filipinos that evolved from the Spanish times when the American occupation happened. Along with Korean pop, these two are dominating the recent music scene in media. However, the revival of Spanish-influence folk music has been possible thanks to the different choir groups coming in and going out of the country, such as the Philippine Madrigal Singers.


Dance
Just like the evolution of Philippine music, dance as well has been in constant change. Prior to colonial rule, the Philippines had a wide array of ethnic dances from different tribal groups. This was due mainly to the fact that Philippines is an archipelago thus the different varieties of dance developed. Both Luzon and Visayas, at first, were more akin to tribal movements until the Spanish came. Mindanao represents more of an array of Muslim inspired dances and Spanish influence was limited to the region of .

Universal dances in the Philippines are found at societal functions such as rituals, mimicry, life cycle and parties. During the Spanish era, most dances were accompanied by Rondalya music usually with 14-string bandurrias that the Filipinos invented or by other type of stringed instruments that locally evolved in to the culture as well.

One famous dance that is well known is called the , where a band of Rondalya musicians play along with the percussive beat of the two bamboo poles. It usually starts with men and women acting a scene about "How rural townsfolk mingle". The dancers then graze thru the clashing of the bamboo poles held on opposite sides. The end displays the paired bamboo poles crossing each other. The Muslim version of this where bamboo poles are also used is called the .

Cariñosa is a Hispanic Filipino dance, unofficially considered as the "National Dance of the Philippines". It's a courtship dance which involves a woman holding a fan or a handkerchief, where it plays an instrumental role as it places the couple in romance scenario.

Nowadays, in the Modern and Post-Modern time periods, dances may vary from the delicate ballet up to the more street-oriented styles of breakdancing to name a few.


Visual art
Pottery and weaving are among the very first art forms showcasing Filipino artistic design and are evident from cave dwellings all over the country. Among these are mostly anthropomorphic earthenware jars dating from c. 5 BC to 225 AD. Weaving was mostly done by women, using fibers from abaca, pineapple, cotton, and bark to make clothes, rugs and hats. Baskets were mostly utilized to carry grain and other foods.

Early Philippine sculpture is characterized by frontal nudity. One of the earliest forms is the by the people which serve as an assurance for bountiful harvests. The original functions of these sculptures are related to the ceremonies and beliefs of the tribes who created them. Arab and Russian missionaries also brought beveled type of carvings in the form of . The beginnings of this sculpture type started with the Islamization of . The Spanish colonization of the country did not hinder Filipinos creating sculptures for objects of adoration. During this time, sculptures of deities and saints were used to teach Filipinos Christian doctrines. During the American colonialism, worshippers of faith were not discouraged to sculpt in order to adorn churches. Filipinos' first exposure to painting happened when Spain conquered the Philippines and these were used as religious propaganda often displayed in churches. However, as education progressed and wealth increased, more and more artists started to shift from the traditional religious motifs to a more secular pattern of imagery.

Paintings of early painters such as Damián Domingo often still had a religious association but the art of and Félix Hidalgo showed a trend towards political statement. The first Philippine national artist Fernando Amorsolo used post-modernism to produce paintings that illustrated aspects of Philippine culture, while other artists such as Fernando Zóbel used both realistic and techniques.

In the modern period, statuary was integrated with architecture in the Art Deco style. Examples can be seen in statues throughout the country especially in public parks and spaces.

(2019). 9789712346286 .


Values
As a general description, the distinct of Filipinos is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly ), and commercial relationships. Social Values and Organization, Philippines, Country Studies US. Online version of print book Ronald E. Dolan, ed. Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1991.

Filipino values are, for the most part, centered around maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group. The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of " Hiya", roughly translated as 'a sense of shame', and " Amor propio" or 'self-esteem'.

(2019). 9781741042894, Lonely Planet. .
Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think, say or do, are strong influences on social behavior among Filipinos.Hallig, Jason V. Communicating Holiness to the Filipinos: Challenges and Needs , The Path to a Filipino Theology of Holiness, pp. 2, 10.

Other elements of the Filipino value system are optimism about the future, pessimism about present situations and events, concern and care for other people, the existence of friendship and friendliness, the habit of being hospitable, religious nature, respectfulness to self and others, respect for the female members of society, the fear of God, and abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery. File dated April 8, 2000. In

(1994). 9781565180406, Council for Research in Values and Philosophy.


Cuisine
Filipino cuisine has evolved over several centuries from its Malayo-Polynesian origins to become a mixed cuisine with many , , American, and other influences that have been adapted to local ingredients and the Filipino palate to create distinctively Filipino dishes. Dishes range from the very simple, like a meal of fried salted fish and rice, to the elaborate, such as the and created for fiestas.

Popular dishes include , adobo, , , tapa, , , , and . Some common local ingredients used in cooking are , coconuts, (a kind of short wide plantain), , , , and . Filipino taste buds tend to favor robust flavors, but the cuisine is not as spicy as those of its neighbors.

(2019). 9789715504799, Ateneo de Manila University Press. .

Unlike many Asians, most Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks; they use Western cutlery. However, possibly due to rice being the primary staple food and the popularity of a large number of stews and main dishes with broth in Filipino cuisine, the main pairing of utensils seen at the Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork, not knife and fork.

(2019). 9781741042894, Lonely Planet. .

The traditional way of eating with the hands known as kamayan (using the washed right hand for bringing food to the mouth) was previously more often seen in the less urbanized areas.

(2019). 9780897323727, Menasha Ridge Press. .
However, due to the various Filipino restaurants that introduced Filipino food to people of other nationalities as well as to Filipino urbanites, kamayan fast became popular. This recent trend also sometimes incorporates the "Boodle Fight" concept (as popularized and coined by the Philippine Army), wherein banana leaves are used as giant plates on top of which rice portions and Filipino viands are placed all together for a filial, friendly and/or communal kamayan feasting. Captain A's Seafood Grill In Philippine usage, the boodle fight is a military academy terminology for "eating combat" or "attack the food."


Literature
Philippine mythology has been handed down primarily through the traditional oral folk literature of the Filipino people. While each unique ethnic group has its own stories and myths to tell, Hindu and Spanish influences can nonetheless be detected in many cases. Philippine mythology mostly consists of creation stories or stories about supernatural creatures, such as the , the , the /, and nature. Some popular figures from Philippine mythologies are , Lam-Ang, and the .
(2019). 9789715425148, University of the Philippines Press. .

Philippine literature comprises works usually written in Filipino, Spanish, or English. Some of the most known were created from the 17th to 19th century. , for example, is a famous epic about an eponymous magical bird allegedly written by José de la Cruz or "Huseng Sisiw". Francisco Balagtas, the poet and playwright who wrote Florante at Laura, is recognized as a preeminent writer in the Filipino language. José Rizal wrote the novels Noli Me Tángere ( Touch Me Not) and El Filibusterismo ( The Filibustering, also known as The Reign of Greed). He is considered a national hero.

(1999). 9789716420708, All Nations publishing Co. Inc.. .
His depiction of the injustices of Spanish rule, and his death by firing squad, inspired other Filipino revolutionaries to seek independence.Republic of the Philippines. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. The National Artists of the Philippines. Retrieved December 26, 2009 from the National Commission for Culture and the Arts Website. Several Filipino writers were awarded National Artist of the Philippines such as N. V. M. Gonzalez, Amado V. Hernandez, Francisco Arcellana, Nick Joaquín, F. Sionil José and many more.


Media
Philippine media uses mainly Filipino and English. Other Philippine languages, including various Visayan languages are also used, especially in radio due to its ability to reach remote rural locations that might otherwise not be serviced by other kinds of media. The dominant television networks ABS-CBN, and 5 also have extensive radio presence. Country profile: The Philippines. (December 8, 2009). BBC News. Retrieved December 20, 2009.

The entertainment industry is vibrant and feeds broadsheets and tabloids with an unending supply of details about celebrities and sensationalist daily scandals. and are anticipated as are Latin , , and . Daytime television is dominated by game shows, variety shows, and talk shows such as and It's Showtime.Santiago, Erwin (April 12, 2010). . Retrieved May 23, 2010 from the Philippine Entertainment Portal Website. Philippine cinema has a long history and is popular domestically, but has faced increasing competition from American, Asian and European films. Critically acclaimed directors and actors include and for films like ( Manila: In the Claws of Light) and ( Miracle). In recent years it has become common to see celebrities flitting between television and movies and then moving into politics provoking concerns. "The Philippines' celebrity-obsessed elections". (April 26, 2007). . Retrieved January 15, 2010.


Cinema
Salón de Pertierra was the first introduced moving picture on January 1, 1897 in the Philippines. All films were all in Spanish since Philippine cinema was first introduced during the final years of the Spanish era of the country. was the first known movie producer. He used the Lumiere Cinematograph when he filmed Panorama de Manila (Manila landscape), Fiesta de Quiapo (Quiapo Fiesta), Puente de España (Bridge of Spain), and Escenas Callejeras (Street scenes). Meanwhile, was dubbed as the "Father of Philippine Cinema". "The Role of José Nepomuceno in the Philippine Society: What language did his silent film speaks?". Stockholm University Publications. Retrieved on January 6, 2011. Dubbed as the "Father of Philippine Cinema", his work marked the start of cinema as an art form in the Philippines. His first film produced was entitled (Country Maiden) in 1919.

Film showing resumed in 1900 during the American period. Walgrah, a British entrepreneur, opened the Cine Walgrah at No. 60 Calle Santa Rosa in . It was also during this time that a movie market was formally created in the country along with the arrival of . These silent films were always accompanied by , a piano, a , or a 200-man choir. During the Japanese occupation, filmmaking was put on hold. Nonetheless, it was continued on 1930s up until 1945 replacing the Hollywood market with Japanese films but met with little success. Postwar 1940s and the 1950s were known as the first golden age of Philippine cinema with the resurgence of mostly Visayan films through Lapu-Lapu Pictures.

During the 1960s, movies, bomba (soft porn) pictures and an era of musical films, produced mostly by Sampaguita Pictures, dominated the cinema. The second golden age occurred from 1970s to early 1980s. It was during this era that filmmakers ceased to produce pictures in black and white. A rise in films dominated theater sales during the late 1980s until the 2000s. A bleak storyline for the Filipino film industry. Conde, Carlos H. International Herald Tribune. February 11, 2007. (archived from the original on April 1, 2007) The dawn of this era saw a dramatic decline of the mainstream Philippine movie industry. RP Movie Industry Dying . Vanzi, Sol Jose. Newsflash. January 15, 2006. In the year 2009, however, presence of box-office films in the Philippine Box Office has surged. The mid 2010s also saw broader commercial success of films produced by independent studios.


Sports
Various sports and pastimes are popular in the Philippines including basketball, , , football (soccer), American football, both codes of , , , , , , , and . , , and are also becoming popular. Basketball is played at both amateur and professional levels and is considered to be the most popular sport in the Philippines. "Billiard Congress of America: Hall of Fame Inductees". (2009). Retrieved December 20, 2009 from the Billiard Congress of America Website. Mga Kilalang Pilipino Known. (n.d.) (in Filipino). Tagalog at NIU. Retrieved April 25, 2010 from the Northern Illinois University, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, SEAsite Project. In 2010, was named "Fighter of the Decade" for the 2000s (decade) by the Boxing Writers Association of America (BWAA), World Boxing Council (WBC), and World Boxing Organization (WBO). The national martial art and sport of the country is Arnis, or in some regionsRepublic of the Philippines. (Approved: December 11, 2009). An Act Declaring Arnis as the National Martial Art and Sport of the Philippines. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from the Senate of the Philippines Website.

The Philippines has participated in the Summer Olympic Games since 1924 and was the first country in to compete and win a medal. The country had competed in every Summer Olympic Games since then, except when they participated in the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics. The Philippines is also the first tropical nation to compete at the Winter Olympic Games debuting in the 1972 edition.


Games
Traditional Philippine games such as luksung baka, patintero, piko, and tumbang preso are still played primarily as children's games among the youth. Games. Hagonoy.com. (archived from the original on November 6, 2007) Mga Larong Pilipino Philippine. (2009). Tagalog at NIU. Retrieved December 19, 2009 from the Northern Illinois University, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, SEAsite Project. (archived from the original on June 28, 2014) is a traditional native Philippine board game. are popular during festivities, with some, including pusoy and tong-its, being used as a form of . is played in some Philippine communities.

or cockfighting is another popular entertainment especially among Filipino men, and existed prior to the arrival of the Spanish. Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan's chronicler, first documented this pastime in the kingdom of Taytay.

(1994). 9780299140540, Univ of Wisconsin Press. .

The , a popular toy in the Philippines, was introduced in its modern form by Pedro Flores with its name coming from the . Yo-yo. (2010). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved January 10, 2010.


See also
  • Outline of the Philippines
  • Culture of the Philippines


Notes

Citations

Bibliography


External links

Government


Trade


General information


Books and articles


Wikimedia


Other

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