Product Code Database
Example Keywords: house -belt $32
   » » Wiki: Philippines
Tag Wiki 'Philippines'.

The Philippines (; Pilipinas or Filipinas ), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is an archipelagic country in . Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: , and . The capital city of the Philippines is and the most populous city is , both within the single urban area of . Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the on the east and the on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with to the north, to the northeast, to the east, to the south, and to the southwest, to the west, and to the northwest.

The Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the country prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but also endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines is the world's fifth-largest island country with an area of . As of 2015, it had a population of at least 100 million. , it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 13th-most populated country in the world. Approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas as of 2013, comprising one of the world's largest . Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with , Indian, and nations occurred. Subsequently, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of , , and .

The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas]] in honor of Philip II of Spain. In 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established, and the Philippines became part of the for more than 300 years. During this time, became the dominant religion, and Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade. In 1896 the Philippine Revolution began, which then became entwined with the 1898 Spanish–American War. Spain ceded the territory to the United States, while declared the First Philippine Republic. The ensuing Philippine–American War ended with the United States establishing control over the territory, which they maintained until the Japanese invasion of the islands during World War II. Following liberation, the Philippines became an independent country in 1946. Since then, the has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a by the People Power Revolution.

The Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the East Asia Summit. It also hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to being based more on services and manufacturing.

The Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of and Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands, San Lázaro, were also used by the Spanish to refer to the islands.
(1979). 9780709900498, Taylor & Francis. .
(1999). 9780521663700, Cambridge University Press. .

The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the period of the Spanish–American War (1898) and the Philippine–American War (1899–1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935–1946), American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines, with or without the definite article, has steadily gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris.


Prehistory (pre–900)
There is evidence of early , such as , living in what is now the Philippines as early as 709,000 years ago. The oldest remains found on the islands is the of , carbon-dated to 47,000 ± 11–10,000 years ago. The Tabon man is presumably a , who were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, descendants of the first human migrations out of via the coastal route along southern Asia to the now sunken landmasses of and Sahul.
(2020). 9780817319397, University of Alabama Press. .

The first Austronesians reached the Philippines at around 2200 BC, settling the and . From there, they rapidly spread downwards to the rest of the islands of the Philippines and .

(2020). 9780470016176, John Wiley & Sons, Inc..
They assimilated earlier Australo-Melanesian groups (the ) which arrived during the , resulting in the modern Filipino ethnic groups which display various ratios of genetic admixture between Austronesian and Negrito groups. Jade artifacts have been found dated to 2000 BC, with the jade items crafted in Luzon from raw materials originating Taiwan. By 1000 BC, the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior societies, highland , and port principalities.

Early states (900–1521)
The earliest known surviving written record found in the Philippines is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. By the 1300s, a number of the large coastal settlements had emerged as trading centers, and became the focal point of societal changes.
(2020). 9789716220063, Punlad Research House, Inc..
Some polities developed substantial trade contacts with other polities in China and Southeast Asia.
(2020). 9789814260138, Editions Didier Millet.
(2012). 9781462907427, Tuttle Publishing.
Trade with China is believed to have begun during the , but grew more extensive during the . By the 2nd millennium CE, some Philippine polities were known to have sent trade delegations which participated in the Tributary system enforced by the Chinese imperial court, trading but without direct political or military control. Indian cultural traits, such as linguistic terms and religious practices, began to spread within the Philippines during the 10th century, likely via the Hindu empire.
(2020). 9781741144482, Allen & Unwin.
By the 15th century, Islam was established in the and by 1565 had reached , the , and .
(2020). 9780802849458, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. .

Polities founded in the Philippines from the 10th-16th centuries include Maynila,

(1996). 9781884964046, Taylor & Francis. .
Tondo, , , Cebu, Butuan, Maguindanao, Lanao, Sulu, and .Polities and Sultanates in the 10th and 16th Century Philippines, Historical Atlas of the Republic, Manila: The Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office, 2016. p. 64." The early polities of the Philippine archipelago were typically characterized by a three-tier social structure: a nobility class, a class of "freemen", and a class of dependent debtor-bondsmen. Among the members of the nobility class were leaders who held the political office of "," which was responsible for leading autonomous social groups called "barangay" or "dulohan". Whenever these barangays banded together, either to form a larger settlement or a geographically looser alliance group, the more senior or respected among them would be recognized as a "paramount datu".

Colonial rule (1565–1946)
In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the area, claimed the islands for Spain, and was then killed at the Battle of Mactan. Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565, establishing control of Cebu, Panay, and Luzon.
(2020). 9780874175905, University of Nevada Press. .
, The Spaniards established , at what is now , as the capital of the Spanish East Indies in 1571. The Spanish considered their war with the Muslims in Southeast Asia an extension of the .Reviving the Reconquista in Southeast Asia: Moros and the Making of the Philippines, 1565–1662 By: Ethan P. Hawkley

Spanish rule brought what is now the Philippines into a single unified administration. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as part of the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New Spain, and then was administered directly from following the Mexican War of Independence. "Dissolution of Manila-Mexico Architectural Connections Between 1785-1810" By: Pedro Lueango, Universidad de Sevilla Page 62. were constructed in and . Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade.

(1996). 9780824818296, University of Hawaii Press.

Under Spanish rule, missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to .Russell, S.D. (1999) They also founded schools, a university, hospitals, and churches. "The City of God: Churches, Convents and Monasteries". Discovering Philippines. Retrieved on July 6, 2011. To defend their settlements, the Spaniards constructed and manned a network of across the archipelago. The Spanish also decreed the introduction of free public schooling in 1863., Education. Slavery was also abolished. As a result of these policies the Philippine population increased exponentially.

During its rule, Spain quelled various indigenous revolts, as well as defending against external military challenges “The Center of a Circle”: Manila’s Trade with East and Southeast Asia at the Turn of the Sixteenth Century By Ubaldo IACCARINO The Philippines was expensive during Spanish rule. War against the from the West, in the 17th century, together with conflict with the Muslims in the South and combating Japanese-Chinese piracy from the North nearly bankrupted the colonial treasury., The Early Spanish Period. There was a high desertion rate among the Latino soldiers sent from Mexico"In Governor Anda y Salazar’s opinion, an important part of the problem of vagrancy was the fact that Mexicans and Spanish disbanded after finishing their military or prison terms "all over the islands, even the most distant, looking for subsistence."" ~CSIC riel 208 leg.14 and Peru,Garcıa de los Arcos, "Grupos etnicos," ´ 65–66CSIC ser. Consultas riel 301 leg.8 (1794) and also to Filipino warriors and laborers levied by Spain, this was due to repeated wars, lack of wages, dislocation and near starvation. Immigration blurred the racial caste system Spain maintained in towns and cities.

(2020). 9781107063129 .
Page 36
"The descendants of Mexican mestizos and native Filipinos were numerous but unaccounted for because they were mostly the result of informal liasons." ~Garcia de los Arcos, Forzados, 238Tomás de Comyn, general manager of the Compañia Real de Filipinas, in 1810 estimated that out of a total population of 2,515,406, "the European Spaniards, and Spanish creoles and mestizos do not exceed 4,000 persons of both sexes and all ages, and the distinct castes or modifications known in America under the name of mulatto, quarteroons, etc., although found in the Philippine Islands, are generally confounded in the three classes of pure Indians, Chinese mestizos and Chinese." In other words, the Mexicans who had arrived in the previous century had so intermingled with the local population that distinctions of origin had been forgotten by the 19th century. The Mexicans who came with Legázpi and aboard succeeding vessels had blended with the local residents so well that their country of origin had been erased from memory. Increasing difficulty in governing the Philippines led to the Royal Fiscal of Manila writing to King Charles III of Spain, advising him to abandon the colony. However, this was successfully opposed by the religious and missionary orders that argued that the Philippines was a launching pad for further religious conversion in the Far East.Blair, E., Robertson, J., & Bourne, E. (1903). The Philippine islands, 1493–1803 : explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the Catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century. Cleveland, Ohio.

The Philippines survived on an annual subsidy provided by the Spanish Crown, usually paid through the provision of 75 tons of silver bullion being sent from the Americas.Bonialian, 2012

(1985). 9780804712569, Stanford University Press.
Financial constraints meant the 200-year-old fortifications in Manila did not see significant change after being first built by the early Spanish colonizers. British forces occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764 during the Seven Years' War, however they were unable to extend their conquest outside of Manila as the Filipinos stayed loyal to the remaining Spanish community outside Manila. Spanish rule was restored through the 1763 Treaty of Paris.
(1990). 9789718711064, Garotech Publishing. .
(2020). 9789712339349, Rex Bookstore. .
(2020). 9780874175905, University of Nevada Press. .
The Spanish–Moro conflict lasted for several hundred years. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Spain conquered portions of and the Muslims in the formally recognized Spanish sovereignty.

In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Filipino society. Many and were wealthy, and an influx of Hispanic American immigrants opened up government positions traditionally held by . However, ideas of rebellion and independence began to spread through the islands. Many Latin-Americans"Officers in the army of the Philippines were almost totally composed of Americans," observed the Spanish historian José Montero y Vidal. "They received in great disgust the arrival of peninsular officers as reinforcements, partly because they supposed they would be shoved aside in the promotions and partly because of racial antagonisms." and Criollos staffed the Spanish army in the Philippines. However, the onset of the Latin American wars of independence led to doubts about their loyalty. This was compounded by a Mexican of Filipino descent, Isidoro Montes de Oca, becoming captain-general to the revolutionary leader during the Mexican War of Independence.Delgado de Cantú, Gloria M. (2006). Historia de México. México, D. F.: Pearson Educación. .González Davíla Amado. Geografía del Estado de Guerrero y síntesis histórica 1959. México D.F.; ed. Quetzalcóatl. To prevent the union of both Latinos and Filipinos in rebellion against the empire, the Latino and Criollo officers stationed in the Philippines were soon replaced by Peninsular officers born in Spain. These Peninsular officers were less committed to the people they were assigned to protect and were often predatory, enriching themselves before returning to Spain, putting the interests of the metropolis over the interest of the natives. "Interactive Vernacular, National Literature: Magdalena G. Jalandoni's Juanita Cruz as Constituent of Filipino National Literature" Page 9.

Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after were accused of and executed.Nuguid, Nati. (1972). "The Cavite Mutiny". in Mary R. Tagle. 12 Events that Have Influenced Philippine History. Manila: National Media Production Center. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from StuartXchange Website.. A Question of Heroes. This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, and , lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal was eventually executed on December 30, 1896, on charges of rebellion. This radicalized many who had previously been loyal to Spain.

(1999). 9789712709203, Anvil Publishing, Inc..
As attempts at reform met with resistance, Andrés Bonifacio in 1892 established the militant secret society called the , who sought independence from Spain through armed revolt.

The Katipunan started the Philippine Revolution in 1896. Katipunan chapters in Cavite Province, primarily the Magdiwang and the Magdalo had an internal dispute that led to the Tejeros Convention and an election in which Bonifacio lost his position and was elected as the new leader of the revolution. In 1898, the Spanish–American War began, and this war reached Spanish forces in the Philippines. Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite, on June 12, 1898, and the First Philippine Republic was declared in the in the following year.

The islands were ceded by Spain to the United States alongside and as a result of the latter's victory in the Spanish–American War. As it became increasingly clear the United States would not recognize the First Philippine Republic, the Philippine–American War broke out.

(2020). 9780700612253, University Press of Kansas. .
War resulted in the deaths of at least 200,000 and at most, 1 million Filipino civilians, mostly due to famine and disease.
(2020). 9781434361417, AuthorHouse. .
After the defeat of the First Philippine Republic, the archipelago was administered under an American Insular Government. The Americans then suppressed other rebellious proto-states: mainly, the waning Sultanate of Sulu, as well as the insurgent Tagalog Republic and the Republic of Zamboanga.

During this era, a renaissance in Philippine culture occurred, including an expansion of Philippine cinema and literature.Armes, Roy. "Third World Film Making and the West", p.152. University of California Press, 1987. Retrieved on January 9, 2011. "The Role of José Nepomuceno in the Philippine Society: What language did his silent film speaks?". Stockholm University Publications. Retrieved on January 28, 2014. built an architectural plan for Manila which would have transformed it into a modern city.Moore, Charles (1921). "Daniel H. Burnham: Planner of Cities". Houghton Mifflin and Co., Boston and New York. In 1935, the Philippines was granted Commonwealth status with as president and Sergio Osmeña as vice president. He designated a national language and introduced women's suffrage and land reform.Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print.Manapat, Carlos, et al. Economics, Taxation, and Agrarian Reform. Quezon City: C&E Pub., 2010.Print.

Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by World War II when the Japanese Empire invaded and the Second Philippine Republic, under Jose P. Laurel, was established as a puppet state.

In a report by Karl L. Rankin, from mid-1942 through mid-1944, the Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by large-scale underground guerrilla activity. The largest naval battle in history, according to gross tonnage sunk, the Battle of Leyte Gulf, occurred when Allied forces began liberating the Philippines from the Japanese Empire."Lieutenant Ramsey's War" by Edwin Price Ramsey and Stephen J. Rivele.Published by Knightsbride publishing Co, Los Angeles, California Many atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war, including the Bataan Death March and the .

9781412826839 .
Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. By the end of the war it is estimated that over a million Filipinos had died.Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). World War 2 Pacific Island Guide – A Geo-Military Study. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 318. .
(1994). 9789716420715, All-Nations Publishing Co..
On October 11, 1945, the Philippines became one of the founding members of the .

Independence (1946–present)
On July 4, 1946, the Philippines was officially recognized by the as an independent nation through the Treaty of Manila, during the presidency of .

Efforts to end the Hukbalahap Rebellion began during 's term,Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print. however, it was only during 's presidency was the movement decimated.Jeff Goodwin, No Other Way Out, Cambridge University Press, 2001, p.119, , Magsaysay's successor, Carlos P. Garcia, initiated the Filipino First Policy, which was continued by Diosdado Macapagal, with celebration of Independence Day moved from July 4 to June 12, the date of 's declaration, and pursuit of a claim on the eastern part of .

(2020). 9780742528420, Rowman & Littlefield. .

In 1965, Macapagal lost the presidential election to . Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated numerous infrastructure projects but, together with his wife , was accused of massive corruption and embezzling billions of dollars in public funds. What happened to the Marcos fortune?. BBC News. January 24, 2013. Nearing the end of his term, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972. This period of his rule was characterized by political repression, censorship, and human rights violations.

On August 21, 1983, Marcos' chief rival, opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr., was assassinated on the tarmac at Manila International Airport. Marcos eventually called snap presidential elections in 1986. Marcos was proclaimed the winner, but the results were widely regarded as fraudulent. The resulting protests led to the People Power Revolution, which forced Marcos and his allies to flee to and Aquino's widow, , was installed as president.

(1987). 9780824811105, University of Hawaii Press. .

The return of democracy and government reforms beginning in 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, disasters, a persistent communist insurgency, and a military conflict with , during 's administration. The administration also faced a series of natural disasters, including the eruption of in June 1991. "Tarlac map". University of Texas in Austin Library. Retrieved on August 2, 2011. "Report of the Philippine Commission to the President, 1901 Vol. III", p. 141. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1901. Aquino was succeeded by Fidel V. Ramos whose modest economic performance, at 3.6% growth rate,

(1999). 9780801486340, Cornell University Press. .
was overshadowed by the onset of the 1997 Asian financial crisis.

Ramos' successor, was overthrown by the 2001 EDSA Revolution and he was succeeded by his Vice President, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on January 20, 2001.

(2020). 9780595184378, iUniverse. .
Arroyo's 9-year administration was tainted by graft and political scandals. "Arroyo claims hollow victory" by Leslie Davis, Asia Times Online, September 27, 2005. On November 23, 2009, 34 journalists and several civilians were massacred in Maguindanao.

During Benigno Aquino III's administration, a which took place in Mamasapano, Maguindanao killed 44 members of the Philippine National Police-Special Action Force that put the efforts to pass the Bangsamoro Basic Law into law in an impasse.

Former mayor won the 2016 presidential election, becoming the first president from . Duterte launched an intensified anti-drug campaign. The implementation of the Bangsamoro Organic Law led to the creation of the autonomous region in Mindanao.

Geography and environment
The Philippines is an composed of about 7,641 islands with a total land area, including inland bodies of water, of . This makes it the 5th largest island country in the world. The of coastline makes it the country with the fifth longest coastline in the world.Central Intelligence Agency. (2009). "Field Listing : Coastline". Washington, DC. The Exclusive economic zone of the Philippines covers . Exclusive Economic Zones – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization. It is located between 116° 40', and 126° 34' E longitude and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N latitude and is bordered by the Philippine Sea, (archived from the original on August 20, 2009). to the east, the South China Sea "U.S. report details rich resources in South China Sea." (archived from the original on 2013-02-133) to the west, and the C.Michael Hogan. 2011. "Celebes Sea". Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. P. Saundry & C.J. Cleveland. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington, DC to the south. The island of is located a few hundred kilometers southwest and Taiwan is located directly to the north. The and are located to the south-southwest and is located to the east of the islands.. (older version – as it existed in 2009 – during the presidency of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo), The Official Government Portal of the Republic of the Philippines .

Most of the mountainous islands are covered in tropical rainforest and volcanic in origin. The highest mountain is . It measures up to above sea level and is located on the island of Mindanao.(2011-04-06). "The World Factbook – Philippines" . Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved on March 14, 2011. The Galathea Depth in the Philippine Trench is the deepest point in the country and the third deepest in the world. The trench is located in the Philippine Sea.

The longest river is the in northern Luzon. , upon the shore of which the capital city of Manila lies, is connected to Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the Philippines, by the . , the , and the are other important bays. The San Juanico Strait separates the islands of Samar and Leyte but it is traversed by the San Juanico Bridge.Republic of the Philippines. Department of Tourism. c.. (archived from the original on April 27, 2012). Retrieved March 21, 2010 from

Situated on the western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity. The to the east in the Philippine Sea is an undersea region active in . Around 20 are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt. The last major earthquake was the 1990 Luzon earthquake.La Putt, Juny P. c.. The 1990 Baguio City Earthquake. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from The City of Baguio Website.

There are many active volcanoes such as the , , and . The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century. Not all notable geographic features are so violent or destructive. A more serene legacy of the geological disturbances is the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River, the area represents a habitat for biodiversity conservation, the site also contains a full mountain-to-the-sea ecosystem and has some of the most important forests in Asia.

Due to the nature of the islands, mineral deposits are abundant. The country is estimated to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa giving credence to the talk that the Philippines was the Biblical and the country also has one of the largest copper deposits in the world. , originally discovered in , was found to have the world's largest deposits in the Philippines too.

(2020). 9781512736977, WestBow Press. . island also possesses the most diversified, high quality and hardest marble in the world and is available in at least 7 colors mainly: brown, grey, rust, white, green, black and orange. The country is also rich in nickel, chromite, and zinc. Despite this, poor management, high population density, a desire to protect indigenous communities from exploitation, and an extremely ardent environmental consciousness have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped. The unstable seismology that created these minerals, such as frequent volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and landslides, continue to affect the country. Geothermal energy is a product of volcanic activity that the Philippines has harnessed more successfully. The Philippines is the world's second-biggest geothermal producer behind the United States, with 18% of the country's electricity needs being met by geothermal power.

The Philippines is a megadiverse country. "Natural Resources and Environment in the Philippines" . (n.d.). eTravel Pilipinas. Retrieved January 22, 2009. Retrieved February 15, 2010 from
(2020). 9780643067493, CSIRO on behalf of the Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage. .
Around 1,100 land vertebrate species can be found in the Philippines including over 100 mammal species and 170 bird species not thought to exist elsewhere.
(2020). 9781741042894, . .
The Philippines has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, the rate of endemism for the Philippines has risen and likely will continue to rise. Native mammals include the palm civet cat, the , the and the Philippine tarsier associated with .

Although the Philippines lacks large mammalian predators, it does have some very large such as and , together with gigantic saltwater crocodiles. The largest crocodile in captivity, known locally as , was captured in the southern island of Mindanao. The , known as the , has the longest body of any ; it generally measures 86 to 102 cm (2.82 to 3.35 ft) in length and weighs 4.7 to 8.0 kg (10.4 to 17.6 lb).

(2020). 9780713680263, Christopher Helm.
The Philippine eagle is part of the family and is endemic to the rainforests of , , and .

Philippine maritime waters encompass as much as producing unique and diverse marine life, an important part of the , a territory shared with other countries. The total number of corals and marine fish species was estimated at 500 and 2,400 respectively. New records and species discoveries continuously increase these numbers, underlining the uniqueness of the marine resources in the Philippines. The in the Sulu Sea was declared a World Heritage Site in 1993. Philippine waters also sustain the cultivation of pearls, crabs, and seaweeds. "About the Philippines" (October 17, 2009). Retrieved December 20, 2009 from the Philippine History Website. One rare species of oyster, which is indigenous to the Philippines, is unique since its pearls are naturally golden in color. The golden pearl from the Pinctada maxima is considered the national gem of the Philippines.

With an estimated 13,500 plant species in the country, 3,200 of which are unique to the islands, Philippine boast an array of flora, including many rare types of orchids and .Taguinod, Fioro. (November 20, 2008). "Rare flower species found only in northern Philippines". GMA News. Retrieved December 14, 2009. , often the result of , is an acute problem in the Philippines. Forest cover declined from 70% of the Philippines's total land area in 1900 to about 18.3% in 1999.Peralta, Eleno O. (2005). " 21. Forests for poverty alleviation: the response of academic institutions in the Philippines". In Sim, Appanah, and Hooda (Eds.). Proceedings of the workshop on forests for poverty reduction: changing role for research, development and training institutions (RAP Publication). Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Retrieved December 20, 2009. Many species are endangered and scientists say that Southeast Asia, which the Philippines is part of, faces a catastrophic extinction rate of 20% by the end of the 21st century.Kirby, Alex. (July 23, 2003). "SE Asia faces 'catastrophic' extinction rate". BBC News. Retrieved December 20, 2009. According to Conservation International, "the country is one of the few nations that is, in its entirety, both a hotspot and a megadiversity country, placing it among the top priority hotspots for global conservation."

The Philippines has a tropical maritime climate that is usually hot and humid. There are three seasons: tag-init or tag-araw, the hot dry season or summer from March to May; tag-ulan, the rainy season from June to November; and tag-lamig, the cool dry season from December to February. The southwest (from May to October) is known as the Habagat, and the dry winds of the northeast monsoon (from November to April), the Amihan. Temperatures usually range from to although it can get cooler or hotter depending on the season. The coolest month is January; the warmest is May.. (n.d.). Philippines: When to go & weather. Retrieved January 23, 2009.

The average yearly temperature is around . In considering temperature, location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor. Whether in the extreme north, south, east, or west of the country, temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range. Altitude usually has more of an impact. The average annual temperature of at an elevation of above sea level is , making it a popular destination during hot summers.

Sitting astride the typhoon belt, most of the islands experience annual torrential rains and thunderstorms from July to October,Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. (March 2006). Country Profile: Philippines. Retrieved December 17, 2009. with around nineteen typhoons entering the Philippine area of responsibility in a typical year and eight or nine making landfall.

(1982). 9789280803464, The United Nations University. .
Monthly Typhoon Tracking Charts. (2010). Retrieved April 24, 2010 from the National Institute of Informatics, Kitamoto Laboratory, Digital Typhoon Website. Annual rainfall measures as much as in the mountainous east coast section but less than in some of the sheltered valleys. The wettest known tropical cyclone to impact the was the July 1911 , which dropped over of rainfall within a 24-hour period in Baguio. Bagyo is the local term for a in the Philippines.Glossary of Meteorology. Https://" target="_blank" rel="nofollow"> Baguio. (archived from the original on August 30, 2014). The Philippines is highly exposed to climate change and is among the world's ten countries that are most vulnerable to climate change risks.Overland, Indra et al. (2017) Impact of Climate Change on ASEAN International Affairs: Risk and Opportunity Multiplier, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) and Myanmar Institute of International and Strategic Studies (MISIS).

The Commission on Population estimated the country's population to be 107,190,081 as of December 31, 2018, based on the latest population census of 2015 conducted by the Philippine Statistics Authority. The population increased from 1990 to 2008 by approximately 28 million, a 45% growth in that time frame. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971–2008 ( pdf page 86); page 86 of the pdf, IEA (OECD/ World Bank) (original population ref OECD/ World Bank e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57) (archived from the original
on October 12, 2009) The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685.Republic of the Philippines. National Statistical Coordination Board. [ Population of the Philippines Census Years 1799 to 2007] . Retrieved December 11, 2009.

It is estimated that half of the population resides on the island of Luzon. The 3.21% population growth rate between 1995 and 2000 decreased to an estimated 1.95% for the 2005–2010 period, but remains a contentious issue. The population's median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old. Life expectancy at birth is 69.4 years, 73.1 years for females and 65.9 years for males. Poverty incidence also significantly dropped to 21.6% in 2015 from 25.2% in 2012.Republic of the Philippines. National Statistics Office. Poverty Incidence Since the liberalization of United States immigration laws in 1965, the number of people in the United States having Filipino ancestry has grown substantially. In 2007 there were an estimated 12 million Filipinos living overseas.Asis, Maruja M.B. (January 2006). " The Philippines' Culture of Migration". Migration Information Source. Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved December 14, 2009. The U.S. Census Bureau 2007 American Community Survey counted 3,053,179 Filipinos; 2,445,126 native and naturalized citizens, 608,053 of whom were not U.S. citizens. Global Pinoys to rally at Chinese consulates – The Philippine Star » News » Headlines . The Philippine Star (April 27, 2012). Retrieved on July 4, 2012.

is the most populous of the 3 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines and the 8th most populous in the world in 2018. Census data from 2015 showed it had a population of 12,877,253 comprising almost 13% of the national population. Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces (, , Laguna, and ) of Greater Manila, the population is around 24,650,000.Demographia. (July 2010). Demographia World Urban Areas (World Agglomerations) Population & Projections (Edition 6.1). Retrieved March 29, 2011.Urban agglomeration only: Across the country, the Philippines has a total urbanization rate of 51.2 percent. Metro Manila's gross regional product was estimated to be 468.4 billion (at constant 1985 prices) and accounts for 33% of the nation's GDP.Republic of the Philippines. National Statistical Coordination Board. (July 2009). 2008 Gross Regional Domestic Product – Levels of GRDP . Retrieved April 4, 2010. In 2011 Manila ranked as the 28th wealthiest urban agglomeration in the world and the 2nd in .

Ethnic groups
According to the 2010 census, 24.4% of Filipinos are Tagalog, 11.4% Visayans/Bisaya , 9.9% Cebuano, 8.8% Ilocano, 8.4% Hiligaynon, 6.8% Bikol, 4% Waray, and 26.2% as "others", which can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the , the Kapampangan, the Pangasinense, the , and the ." Philippines". (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 18, 2009 from Encyclopædia Britannica Online. There are also indigenous peoples like the , the , the , the , and the tribes of Palawan.

Filipinos generally belong to several ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian speaking people. It is believed that thousands of years ago Austronesian-speaking Taiwanese aborigines migrated to the Philippines from Taiwan, bringing with them knowledge of agriculture and ocean-sailing, eventually displacing the earlier groups of the islands. Negritos, such as the and the , are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands.Dolan, Ronald E. (Ed.). (1991). "Ethnicity, Regionalism, and Language". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved April 8, 2010 from Country Studies US Website. These minority aboriginal settlers () are an group and are a left-over from the first human migration out of Africa to Australia. However, the aboriginal people of the Philippines along with , and Australian Aboriginals also hold sizable shared admixture in their genomes. Extinct humanoid species may have lived in PHL,, Published August 31, 2012 3:48pm

Being at the crossroads of the West and East, the Philippines is also home to migrants from places as diverse as , , , , , , and . The Chinese are mostly the descendants of immigrants from in China after 1898, numbering around 2 million, although there are an estimated 27 percent of Filipinos who have partial Chinese ancestry, The final component (dark blue in Fig. 3b) has a high frequency in South China (Fig. 2b) and is also seen in Taiwan at ~25–30 %, in the Philippines at ~20–30 % (except in one location which is almost zero) and across Indonesia/Malaysia at 1–10 %, declining overall from Taiwan within Austronesian-speaking populations. stemming from precolonial and colonial Chinese migrants." Chinese lunar new year might become national holiday in Philippines too". Xinhua News (August 23, 2009). (archived from the original on August 26, 2009)

Furthermore, at least one-third of the population of , where Spaniards mixed with natives, as well as old settlements in the (founded by Mexicans) and (colonized by Peruvians) "Second Book of the Second Part of the Conquests of the Filipinas Islands, and Chronicle of the Religious of Our Father, St. Augustine" (Zamboanga City History) "He (Governor Don Sebastían Hurtado de Corcuera) brought a great reënforcements of soldiers, many of them from , as he made his voyage to from that kingdom." or around 13.33% of the Philippine population, have partial Hispanic ancestry (from varying points of origin and ranging from "In 1637 the military force maintained in the islands consisted of one thousand seven hundred and two Spaniards and one hundred and forty Indians." ~ Memorial de D. Juan Grau y Monfalcon, Procurador General de las Islas Filipinas, Docs. Inéditos del Archivo de Indias, vi, p. 425. "In 1787 the garrison at Manila consisted of one regiment of Mexicans comprising one thousand three hundred men, two artillery companies of eighty men each, three cavalry companies of fifty men each." La Pérouse, ii, p. 368. to Spain).Jagor, Fëdor, et al. (1870). The Former Philippines thru Foreign Eyes Recent genetic studies confirm this partial European and Hispanic-American ancestry. The migrants from Peru and Mexico were not even homogeneous since they themselves were already racially admixed or but there were also a few Native-Americans too. "The diversity here is immense such that I could go on forever trying to differentiate lands and peoples. There are Castilians from all provinces. There are Portuguese and Italians; Dutch, Greeks and Canary Islanders, and Mexican Indians. There are slaves from Africa brought by the Spaniards [Through America, and others brought by the Portuguese Through. There is an African Moor with his turban here. There are Javanese from Java, Japanese and Bengalese from Bengal. Among all these people are the Chinese whose numbers here are untold and who outnumber everyone else. From China there are peoples so different from each other, and from provinces as distant, as Italy is from Spain. Finally, of the mestizos, the mixed-race people here, I cannot even write because in Manila there is no limit to combinations of peoples with peoples. This is in the city where all the buzz is." (Remesal, 1629: 680–1)

-Connecting the Indies, the Hispano-Asian Pacific World in early Modern Global History-]

As of 2015, there were 220,000 to 600,000 American citizens living in the country. There are also 250,000 scattered across the cities of Angeles, Manila, Clark and .
Other important non-indigenous minorities include . There are also , mostly escaped Christians () who fled the persecutions of Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu which the Spanish empire in the Philippines had offered asylum from. The descendants of mixed-race couples are known as ." The Impact of Spanish Rule in the Philippines". (2009). Tagalog at NIU. Retrieved December 19, 2009 from the Northern Illinois University, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, SEAsite Project. (archived from the original on October 1, 2007)Nicholas Trajano Molnar (2017), University of Missouri Press, "American Mestizos, The Philippines, and the Malleability of Race: 1898–1961"

Population by (2010)
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

lists 186 individual languages in the Philippines, 182 of which are living languages, while 4 no longer have any known speakers. Most native languages are part of the Philippine branch of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is itself a branch of the Austronesian language family.Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). (2015) Ethnologue: Languages of the World (18th ed.). Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Retrieved April 13, 2015. In addition, various Spanish-based creole varieties collectively called exist.Spanish creole: There are also many Philippine Negrito languages that have unique vocabularies that survived Austronesian acculturation.Reid, Lawrence A. 1994. "Possible Non-Austronesian Lexical Elements in Philippine Negrito Languages." In Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Jun. 1994), pp. 37–72.

Filipino and English are the official languages of the country. Filipino is a standardized version of , spoken mainly in Metro Manila and other urban regions. Both Filipino and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business. Due to the Philippines' history of complex interactions with cultures across the world, the Filipino language has a rich repertoire of incorporated foreign vocabulary used in everyday speech. Filipino has borrowings from, among other languages, English, Latin, Greek, Spanish, Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit,

(2020). 9783110218435, De Gruyter Mouton.
Malay, Chinese,
(1980). 9780858832251, Dept. of Linguistics, School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. .
(2020). 9789712714269, Pasig City.
(2020). 9781326615796, Lulu Press, Inc.. .
and . Furthermore, in most towns, the local indigenous language are also spoken. The Philippine constitution provides for the promotion of Spanish and on a voluntary and optional basis, although neither are used on as wide a scale as in the past. Spanish, which was widely used as a lingua franca in the late nineteenth century, has since declined greatly in use, although Spanish loanwords are still present today in many of the indigenous Philippine languages, while Arabic is mainly used in Islamic schools in Mindanao. A theory that the indigenous scripts of Sumatra, Sulawesi and the Philippines are descended from an early form of the was presented at the 2010 meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society.

Nineteen regional languages act as auxiliary official languages used as media of instruction: , , , , Hiligaynon, , , , Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, , Pangasinan, , Surigaonon, Tagalog, , , and . DepEd adds 7 languages to mother tongue-based education for Kinder to Grade 3. . July 13, 2013. Other indigenous languages such as, , , , , , Kankanaey, Masbateño, Romblomanon, , and several Visayan languages are prevalent in their respective provinces. Article 3 of Republic Act No. 11106 declared the Filipino Sign Language as the national sign language of the Philippines, specifying that it shall be recognized, supported and promoted as the medium of official communication in all transactions involving the deaf, and as the language of instruction of deaf education.

Languages not indigenous to the islands are also taught in select schools. is taught in catering to the community. Islamic schools in teach Modern Standard Arabic in their curriculum. Muslim education program gets P252-M funding. Philippine Daily Inquirer. July 13, 2011. , , Japanese, , , and Spanish are taught with the help of foreign linguistic institutions. DepEd to continue teaching French in select public schools in 2013. Philippine Daily Inquirer. December 6, 2012. The Department of Education began teaching the of Indonesian and Malaysian in 2013. Philippines: Students to take foreign language. . March 22, 2013.

The Philippines is an officially , although Christianity is the dominant faith. Census data from 2010 found that about % of the population professed Catholicism. Around 37% regularly attend and 29% identify as very religious. Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths, . July 19, 2012. The Philippine Independent Church is a notable independent Catholic denomination. Table: Christian Population in Numbers by Country, . December 19, 2011.

Protestants were 10.8% of the total population, mostly endorsing evangelical Protestant denominations that were introduced by American missionaries at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, they are heavily concentrated in Northern Luzon and Southern Mindanao. Iglesia ni Cristo is a notable and denomination in the Philippines and is mostly concentrated in Central Luzon.

Islam is the second largest religion. The population of the Philippines was reported as % of the total population according to census returns in 2010. Conversely, a 2012 report by the National Commission of Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) stated that about 10,700,000 or 11% of the Filipinos are Muslims. Some Muslim scholars argue that the census taken in 2000 significantly undercounted the number of Muslims because of security concerns and hostility of the inhabitants to government personnel in Muslim-majority areas, leading to difficulty in getting accurate data for the Muslim population in the country. The majority of Muslims live in Mindanao and nearby islands. RP closer to becoming observer-state in Organization of Islamic Conference . (May 29, 2009). The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2009-07-10, "Eight million Muslim Filipinos, representing 10 percent of the total Philippine population, ...". Most practice under the Shafi'i school.U.S. Department of State. (2010). Philippines: International Religious Freedom Report 2010. Retrieved 2011-05-20, "Islam is the largest minority religion, and Muslims constitute between 5 and 9 percent of the total population."

(2020). 9789812309235 .

The percentage of people in the Philippines was measured to be about 11% of the population in a 2006 survey by Dentsu Research Institute, while a 2014 survey by Gallup International Association measured it as 21%. Communication Institute 電通総研・日本リサーチセンター編「世界60カ国価値観データブック The Philippine Atheists and Agnostics Society (PATAS) is a nonprofit organization for the public understanding of atheism and agnosticism in the Philippines which educates society, and eliminates myths and misconceptions about atheism and agnosticism. The 2010 Philippine Census reported the religion of about % of the population as "none".

Buddhism is practiced by around 2% of the population, concentrated among Filipinos of Chinese descent. An estimated 2% of the total population practice Philippine traditional religions, whose practices and folk beliefs are often syncretized with Christianity and Islam. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project: Philippines. Pew Research Center. 2010. The remaining population is divided between a number of religious groups, including Hindus, Jews, and Baha'is. The Largest Baha'i Communities. (September 30, 2005). Retrieved April 26, 2010 from

There are an increasing number of private health providers and, , 67.1% of healthcare came from private expenditures while 32.9% was from government. In 2013, total expenditures on the health sector was 3.8% of GDP, below the target of 5%. Health expenditure represented about 6.1% of total government spending. Per capita total expenditure at average exchange rate was US$52.
(2020). 9789241563819, World Health Organization. .
The budget allocation for Healthcare in 2010 was ₱28 billion (about US$597 million) or ₱310 ($7) per personPhilippine News Agency. (December 14, 2009). "Senate approves proposed 2010 national budget". (archived from the original on February 6, 2010). but had an increase in budget in 2014 with a record high in the collection of taxes from the House Bill 5727 (commonly known as Bill).

There are an estimated 90,370 physicians or 1 per every 833 people, 480,910 nurses, 43,220 dentists, and 1 hospital bed per every 769 people. Retention of skilled practitioners is a problem. Seventy percent of nursing graduates go overseas to work. The Philippines is the biggest supplier of nurses for export.World Health Organization. (April 2006). Philippines. Country Cooperation Strategy at a Glance. Retrieved December 23, 2009.

In 2001 there were about 1,700 , of which about 40% were government-run and 60% private. Cardiovascular diseases account for more than 25% of all deaths. According to official estimates, 1,965 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were reported in 2003, of which 636 had developed acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Despite the increase of HIV/AIDS cases from 12,000 in 2005United States Agency for International Development. (May 2008). USAID Country Health Statistical Report – Philippines. Retrieved April 8, 2010. to 17,450 as of April 2014 with 5,965 people who were under anti-retroviral therapy, the country is still a low-HIV-prevalence country with less than 0.1% of the adult population estimated to be HIV-positive.

While the country's universal healthcare implementation is underway as spearheaded by the state-owned Philippine Health Insurance Corporation, most healthcare-related expenses are either borne out of pocket or through health maintenance organization (HMO)-provided health plans as part of compensation on an employer-employee type of professional engagement. As of April 2020, there are only about 7 million individuals covered by these plans, against the resident population of around a hundred million.

the Philippines had a simple [[literacy rate]] of 95.6%, with 95.1% for males and 96.1% for females. The Philippines had a functional literacy rate of 86.45%, with 84.2% for males and 88.7% for females in 2008. (Results from the 2008 Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey) Spending on education accounted for 16.11% in the national budget proposed for 2015.

The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) lists 2,180 higher education institutions, 607 of which are public and 1,573 private.Republic of the Philippines. Commission on Higher Education. (August 2010). . Official Website of the Commission on Higher Education. Retrieved April 17, 2011. Classes start in June and end in March. The majority of colleges and universities follow a semester calendar from June to October and November to March. There are a number of foreign schools with study programs. A 6-year elementary, a 4-year junior high school and a 2-year senior high school education is mandatoryRepublic of the Philippines. (Approved: August 11, 2001). Republic Act No. 9155 – Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001. Retrieved December 11, 2009 from the Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. of the K–12 educational program in 2013.

Several government agencies are involved with education. The Department of Education covers elementary, secondary, and non-formal education. The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) administers post-secondary, middle-level education training and development. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) supervises college and graduate academic programs and degrees as well as regulates standards in higher education. Commission on Higher Education The Commission on Higher Education is the governing body covering both public and private higher education institutions as well as degree-granting programs in all tertiary educational institutions in the Philippines. The CHED was established on May 18, 1994 through Republic Act 7722 or the Higher Education Act.

In 2004, were mainstreamed in 16 regions nationwide, mainly in Muslim areas in Mindanao under the auspices and program of the Department of Education. Public universities are all non-sectarian entities, and are further classified as State Universities and Colleges (SUC) or Local Colleges and Universities (LCU). The University of the Philippines, a system of eight (8) constituent universities, is the national university system of the Philippines.Republic of the Philippines. (Approved: April 29, 2008). Republic Act 9500 – An Act to Strengthen the University of the Philippines as the National University. Chan Robles Law Library. The country's top ranked universities are widely known to be as follows, University of the Philippines, Ateneo de Manila University, De La Salle University, University of Santo Tomas, University of San Carlos, Mapúa University, and Silliman University. The University of Santo Tomas, established in 1611, has the oldest extant university charter in the Philippines and Asia.

Government and politics
The Philippines has a democratic government in the form of a constitutional republic with a presidential system. It is governed as a with the exception of the (BARMM), which is largely free from the national government. There have been attempts to change the government to a federal, , or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration.

The President functions as both head of state and head of government and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president is elected by popular vote for a single six-year term, during which he or she appoints and presides over the cabinet. The Congress is composed of the Senate, serving as the , with members elected to a six-year term, and the House of Representatives, serving as the , with members elected to a three-year term.

Senators are elected at large while the representatives are elected from both legislative districts and through sectoral representation. The power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen associate justices, all of whom are appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council.

Foreign relations
The Philippines' international relations are based on trade with other nations and the well-being of the 10 million overseas Filipinos living outside the country. As a founding and active member of the United Nations, the Philippines has been elected several times into the Security Council. Carlos P. Romulo was a former President of the United Nations General Assembly. The country is an active participant in the Human Rights Council as well as in missions, particularly in East Timor.Permanent Mission of the Republic of the Philippines to the United Nations. c.. About Us. Retrieved August 13, 2010.Permanent Mission of the Republic of the Philippines to the United Nations. c.. The Philippines and the UN Security Council. Retrieved January 12, 2008. (archived from the original on January 23, 2008)United Nations Security Council. (October 25, 1999). Resolution 1272 S-RES-1272(1999). Retrieved March 21, 2010.

The Philippines is a founding and active member of (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), an organization designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among states in the Southeast Asian region.. (August 8, 1967). Retrieved December 20, 2009 from Wikisource. It has hosted several and is an active contributor to the direction and policies of the bloc.. (1999). 3 ASEAN Informal Summit. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved December 13, 2009. It is also a member of the East Asia Summit (EAS), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the , the Group of 24, and the Non-Aligned Movement. The country is also seeking to strengthen relations with Islamic countries by campaigning for observer status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "DFA: 'Technicalities' blocking RP bid for OIC observer status". (May 26, 2009). GMA News. Retrieved July 10, 2009.

The Philippines attaches great importance in its relations with China, and has established significant cooperation with the country. It supported the United States during the and the War on Terror and was a major non-NATO ally, before the major fallback of relationship between the Philippines and United States in favor of China and Russia. In addition, controversies related to the presence of the now former U.S. military bases in and Clark and the current Visiting Forces Agreement have flared up from time to time. Japan, the biggest contributor of official development assistance to the country, is thought of as a friend. Although historical tensions still exist on issues such as the plight of , much of the animosity inspired by memories of World War II has faded.Dolan, Ronald E. (Ed.). (1991). "Relations with Asian Neighbors". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved January 5, 2010 from Country Studies US Website.

Relations with other nations are generally positive. Shared democratic values ease relations with Western and European countries while similar economic concerns help in relations with other developing countries. Historical ties and cultural similarities also serve as a bridge in relations with Spain. Despite issues such as and war affecting overseas Filipino workers, relations with Middle Eastern countries are friendly as seen in the continuous employment of more than two million overseas Filipinos living there.

The Philippines has an ongoing territorial dispute with Spratly Islands with China, Taiwan, Malaysia and Vietnam. The Scarborough Shoal standoff in 2012 deteriorated the country's relation with China when the shoal, which had been in Philippine possession until the standoff, was grabbed by the Chinese. Issues involving Taiwan, the Spratly Islands, and concerns of expanding Chinese influence are taken with a degree of caution. Foreign policy has been mostly about economic relations with its Southeast Asian and Asia-Pacific neighbors.

The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) are responsible for national security and consist of three branches: the Philippine Air Force, the , and the (includes the Marine Corps). The Armed Forces of the Philippines are a volunteer force. Civilian security is handled by the Philippine National Police under the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG). "Department of the Interior and Local Government Act of 1990". Retrieved January 30, 2014.

In the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, the largest separatist organization, the Moro National Liberation Front, is now engaging the government politically. Other more militant groups like the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, the communist New People's Army, and the have previously kidnapped foreigners for ransom, particularly on the southern island of .Florante S. Solmerin, December 7, 2013, Manila Standard, Abu Sayyaf keeping 17 foreigners hostage , Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...17 foreigners, mostly birdwatchers, were being held hostage by the Abu Sayyaf Group..."Roel Pareño, The Philippine Star, March 24, 2013, Sayyaf releases Aussie hostage, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...Australian Warren Rodwell emerged early yesterday withered after being held for 15 months by Abu Sayyaf bandits in southern Mindanao..."Sun Star, April 25, 2014, Abducted tourist, hotel staff now in Sulu, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...Abu Sayyaf bandits have brought a Chinese tourist and a Filipino hotel receptionist to their jungle stronghold in southern Philippines after kidnapping the women from a dive resort in eastern Malaysia ..." Their presence decreased due to successful security provided by the Philippine government. "Guide to the Philippines conflict". (August 10, 2007). . Retrieved December 16, 2009.World Bank. Conflict Prevention & Reconstruction Unit. (February 2005). The Mindanao Conflict in the Philippines: Roots, Costs, and Potential Peace Dividend by Salvatore Schiavo-Campo and Mary Judd. Washington, DC: World Bank. (Social Development Paper No. 24). Retrieved December 16, 2009. At 1.1 percent of GDP, the Philippines spent less on its military forces than the regional average. Malaysia and Thailand were estimated to spend 1.5%, China 2.1%, Vietnam 2.2% and South Korea 2.6%.

The Philippines was an ally of the United States from the World War II with a mutual defense treaty between the two countries signed in 1951. The Philippines once supported American policies during the and participated in the and wars. However, the fallback of relationship between the two countries in favor of China and Russia resulted in the Philippines establishing deep defence ties and cooperation with the latter two, abandoning some military ties with the United States while affirming that the country will no longer participate in any US-led war.

Administrative divisions
The Philippines is divided into three island groups: , the , and . These are further divided into 17 regions, 81 provinces, 146 cities, 1,488 municipalities, and 42,036 . In addition, Section 2 of Republic Act No. 5446 asserts that the definition of the territorial sea around the Philippine archipelago does not affect the claim over the eastern part of . Regions in the Philippines are administrative divisions that serve primarily to organize the provinces of the country for administrative convenience. The Philippines is divided into 17 regions (16 administrative and 1 ). Most government offices are established by region instead of individual provincial offices, usually (but not always) in the city designated as the regional center. , was the most populated region while the (NCR) the most densely populated.

The Philippine economy is the 34th largest in the world, with an estimated 2018 gross domestic product (nominal) of $371.8 billion. Primary exports include and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, products, products, , and fruits. Major trading partners include the United States, Japan, China, Singapore, South Korea, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Germany, Taiwan, and Thailand. Its unit of is the (₱ or PHP).

A newly industrialized country, the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one based upon agriculture to an economy with more emphasis upon services and manufacturing. CIA World Factbook, Philippines , Retrieved May 15, 2009. Of the country's total labor force of around 40.813 million, the agricultural sector employs 30% of the labor force, and accounts for 14% of GDP. The industrial sector employs around 14% of the workforce and accounts for 30% of GDP. Meanwhile, the 47% of workers involved in the services sector are responsible for 56% of GDP.

The unemployment rate , stands at 6.0%. Meanwhile, due to lower charges in basic necessities, the inflation rate eases to 3.7% in November. Gross international reserves as of October 2013 are $83.201 billion.Denis Somoso. (September 30, 2013). "$83.201 Billion – Philippines GIR now Rank 26th World's highest International Reserves" . Philippines, ASIA and the Global Economy Site. Retrieved September 30, 2013. The Debt-to-GDP ratio continues to decline to 38.1% as of March 2014 from a record high of 78% in 2004. The country is a net importer but it is also a creditor nation. Manila hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank.

The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis affected the economy, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the and falls in the stock market. The extent it was affected initially was not as severe as that of some of its Asian neighbors. This was largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the government, partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth. There have been signs of progress since. In 2004, the economy experienced 6.4% GDP growth and 7.1% in 2007, its fastest pace of growth in three decades.Felix, Rocel. (January 25, 2008). 2007 GDP seen growing at fastest rate in 30 years. The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 29, 2010. (archived from the original on February 22, 2015) Average annual GDP growth per capita for the period 1966–2007 still stands at 1.45% in comparison to an average of 5.96% for the East Asia and the Pacific region as a whole. The daily income for 45% of the population of the Philippines remains less than $2.

(2020). 9780230239043, United Nations Development Programme. .
Reddel, Paul (May 27, 2009). Infrastructure & Public-Private Partnerships in East Asia and the Philippines PowerPoint. Presentation in Manila to the American Foreign Chambers of Commerce of the Philippines. Retrieved February 13, 2010 from the Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF) Website.

The economy is heavily reliant upon from overseas Filipinos, which surpass foreign direct investment as a source of foreign currency. peaked in 2010 at 10.4% of the national GDP, and were 8.6% in 2012 and in 2014, Philippines total worth of foreign exchange remittances was US$28 billion. Regional development is uneven, with Luzon – Metro Manila in particular – gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions, although the government has taken steps to distribute economic growth by promoting investment in other areas of the country. Despite constraints, service industries such as and business process outsourcing have been identified as areas with some of the best opportunities for growth for the country. The Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry is composed of eight sub-sectors, namely, knowledge process outsourcing and back offices, animation, call centers, software development, game development, engineering design, and medical transcription. The IT-BPO industry plays a major role in the country's growth and development. , the Philippines was reported as having eclipsed India as the main center of BPO services in the world.IBM Global Business Services. (October 2008).

The Department of Science and Technology is the governing agency responsible for the development of coordination of science and technology-related projects in the Philippines. Research organizations in the country include the International Rice Research Institute, an international independent research and training organization established in 1960 with headquarters in Los Baños, Laguna, which focuses on the development of new rice varieties and rice crop management techniques.

The Philippines bought its first satellite in 1996. In 2016, the Philippines first micro-satellite, Diwata-1 was launched aboard the US Cygnus spacecraft. The Philippines has a sophisticated cellular phone industry and a high concentration of users. is a popular form of communication and, in 2007, the nation sent an average of one billion SMS messages per day. Over five million mobile phone users also use their phones as virtual wallets, making it a leader among developing nations in providing financial transactions over cellular networks.Francisco, Rosemarie. (March 4, 2008). Filipinos sent 1 billion text messages daily in 2007. The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Reuters. Retrieved December 18, 2009.Teves, Oliver. (October 29, 2007). Cell phones double as electronic wallets in Philippines. USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved December 11, 2009. The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company commonly known as PLDT is the leading telecommunications provider. It is also the largest company in the country. "Asia's Fab 50 Companies: PLDT-Philippine Long Distance Telephone". Forbes. September 3, 2008. Retrieved 2009-13-14. Special Report: The Global 2000. (April 2, 2008). Forbes. p.10. Retrieved December 14, 2009. The National Telecommunications Commission is the agency responsible for the supervision, adjudication and control over all telecommunications services throughout the country. There are approximately 383 AM and 659 FM radio stations and 297 television and 873 cable television stations. On March 29, 1994, the country was connected to the Internet via a 64 kbit/s connection from a router serviced by PLDT to a Sprint router in California. Estimates for Internet penetration in the Philippines vary widely ranging from a low of 2.5 million to a high of 24 million people.Internet World Stats. (2009). Philippines: Internet Usage Stats and Marketing Report . Miniwatts Marketing Group. Retrieved January 22, 2009. Social networking and watching videos are among the most frequent Internet activities. The Philippine population is the world's top internet user.Kate Lamb, "Philippines tops world internet usage index with an average 10 hours a day","",February 1, 2019

The travel and tourism sector is a major contributor to the economy, contributing 7.1% to the Philippine GDP in 2013 and providing 1,226,500 jobs or 3.2 percent of total employment. 2,433,428 international visitors arrived from January to June 2014 up by 2.22% in the same period in 2013. South Korea, China, and Japan accounted for 58.78% while the Americas accounted for 19.28% and Europe 10.64%. The island of , popular for its beaches, was named as the best island in the world by Travel + Leisure in 2012. The Philippines is also one of the favorite destinations for foreigners due to its warm climate all year round, beaches and low cost of living. Best Place to Retire, Wall Street Journal


Transportation in the Philippines is facilitated by road, air, rail and waterways. As of 2014, there are of roads in the Philippines, with only of roads paved. The Strong Republic Nautical Highway (SRNH), an integrated set of highway segments and ferry routes covering 17 cities was established in 2003. Strong Republic Nautical Highway . (n.d.). Official Website of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. Retrieved January 22, 2009. The Pan-Philippine Highway connects the islands of , , , and , forming the backbone of land-based transportation in the country. Most expressways in the country are located in Luzon such as the North Luzon Expressway, South Luzon Expressway, and the Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway. The Cebu–Cordova Link Expressway in will be the first expressway outside Luzon, to be finished by 2021.

Buses, , , taxis, and motorized tricycles are commonly available in major cities and towns. are a popular and iconic public utility vehicle. They have become a symbol of the Philippine culture. Jeepneys and other Public Utility Vehicles which are older than 15 years are being phased out gradually in favor of a more efficient and environmentally friendly Euro 4 compliant vehicles.

Rail transport in the Philippines only plays a role in transporting passengers within , the province of Laguna, and some parts of the . Freight transport was almost non-existent. , the country had a railway footprint of only 79 kilometers, which it had plans to expand up to 244 kilometers. Metro Manila is served by three rapid transit lines: Line 1, Line 2 and Line 3United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. (1993). Provision of Travelway Space for Urban Public Transport in Developing Countries. UN–HABITAT. pp. 15, 26–70, 160–179. . The PNR South Commuter Line transports passengers between and Laguna. Railway lines that are under-construction include the 4 km Line 2 East Extension Project (2020), the 22.8 km Line 7 (2020), the 25 km Line 9 (Metro Manila Subway) (2025), and the 109 km PNR North-South Commuter Railway which is divided into several phases, with partial operations to begin in 2022. A multitude of other railway lines are planned. "6 new railways to look out for" By Loreben Tuquero, Published on September 10, 2019, RAPPLER The civil airline industry is regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines. The Philippine Airlines is Asia's oldest commercial airline still operating under its original name, and , the leading low-cost airline, are the major airlines serving most domestic and international destinations.State of Hawaii. Department of Transportation. Airports Division. c.. " Philippine Air Lines". Hawaii Aviation. Retrieved January 9, 2010.

(2020). 9781902339122, Oxford Business Group. .

As an , inter-island travel using watercraft is often necessary. PH firm takes on challenge to improve sea travel. Published by Philippine Daily Inquirer (Written By: Ira P. Pedrasa) This is traditionally done by small to medium-sized () vessels, ranging from to plank-built vessels. Although highly diverse, they are collectively known as bangka (also baroto, baloto, or ; archaic: , sakayan, biray, biroko, etc.). Bangka were originally propelled by sails. Since the 1970s, however, the sails have almost completely been replaced by motor engines. These motorized bangka are usually referred to as "" in Philippine English. Other traditional Filipino boat types have mostly gone extinct or are in danger of disappearing, like the once abundant casco barges and cargo ships. But the bangka remain the most ubiquitous type of watercraft in the Philippines, even in modern times, due to their stability, speed, and ability to navigate even shallow coral reefs.

(2020). 9789719275343, Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Republic of the Philippines.
The busiest are Manila, Batangas, Subic, Cebu, Iloilo, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, and Zamboanga. The Philippine Transportation System. (August 30, 2008). Asian Info. Retrieved January 22, 2009. The Pasig River Ferry serves the cities of Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig and Marikina in Metro Manila. Gov't revives Pasig River ferry service. (February 14, 2007). GMA News. Retrieved December 18, 2009.

Water supply and sanitation
Access to water is universal, affordable, efficient and of high quality. The creation of financially sustainable water service providers ("Water Districts") in small and medium towns with the continuous long-term support of a national agency (the "Local Water Utilities Administration" LWUA); and the improvement of access, service quality and efficiency in Manila through two high-profile water concessions awarded in 1997., p. 12 The challenges include limited access to sanitation services, high pollution of water resources, often poor drinking water quality and poor service quality, a fragmentation of executive functions at the national level among numerous agencies, and a fragmentation of service provision at the local level into many small service providers. In 2015, it was reported by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation by WHO and UNICEF that 74% of the population had access to improved sanitation and that "good progress" had been made.Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) (2015). 25 years Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water – 2015 Update and MDG Assessment. UNICEF and World Health Organization Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP), New York, Geneva, p. 68 () The access to improved sanitation was reported to be similar for the urban and rural population.

Filipino culture is a combination of and . The Philippines exhibits aspects found in other Asian countries with a heritage, yet its culture also displays a significant number of Spanish and American influences. Traditional festivities known as barrio fiestas (district festivals) to commemorate the feast days of patron saints are common, these community celebrations are times for feasting, music, and dancing. The Ati-Atihan, Moriones and festivals are among the most well-known. "The Most Popular Festivals in the Philippines" Published by Lamudi on September 16, 2015.

Some traditions, however, are changing or gradually being forgotten due to modernization. The Bayanihan Philippine National Folk Dance Company has been lauded for preserving many of the various traditional folk dances found throughout the Philippines. They are famed for their iconic performances of Philippine dances such as the and that both feature clashing bamboo poles.

(2020). 9781741042894, Lonely Planet. .

One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of Spanish names and surnames among Filipinos; a Spanish name and surname, however, does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial edict by Governor-General Narciso Clavería y Zaldua, which ordered the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of Hispanic nomenclature on the population.

(1992). 9780226169545, University of Chicago Press. .
The names of many streets, towns, and provinces are also in Spanish.

The common use of the English language is an example of the American impact on Philippine society. It has contributed to the ready acceptance and influence of American pop cultural trends. This affinity is seen in Filipinos' love of and American film and music. Fast food outlets are found on many street corners. American global fast food chain stalwarts have entered the market, but local fast food chains like Goldilocks "The Goldilocks story–from childhood bakery to baking institution" By: Reggie Aspiras, Philippine Daily Inquirer. and most notably , the leading fast food chain in the country, have emerged and compete successfully against foreign chains.

Literature, architecture, and art
Philippine mythology has been handed down primarily through the traditional oral folk literature of the Filipino people. While each unique ethnic group has its own stories and myths to tell, Hindu and Spanish influences can nonetheless be detected in many cases. Philippine mythology mostly consists of creation stories or stories about supernatural creatures, such as the , the , the /, and nature. Some popular figures from Philippine mythologies are , Lam-Ang, and the .
(2020). 9789715425148, University of the Philippines Press. .

Philippine literature comprises works usually written in Filipino, Spanish, or English. Some of the most known were created from the 17th to 19th century.Literatura Filipina en Castellano, Madrid, 1974. , for example, is a famous epic about an eponymous magical bird allegedly written by José de la Cruz or "Huseng Sisiw". Francisco Balagtas, the poet and playwright who wrote Florante at Laura, is recognized as a preeminent writer in the Tagalog (Filipino) language. LOOK: Google Honored Filipino Poet Francisco Balagtas By Dulce Morales José Rizal wrote the novels Noli Me Tángere ( Touch Me Not) and El Filibusterismo ( The Filibustering, also known as The Reign of Greed).

(1999). 9789716420708, All Nations publishing Co. Inc.. .

Spanish architecture has left an imprint in the Philippines in the way many towns were designed around a central square or plaza mayor, but many of the buildings bearing its influence were demolished during World War II. Some examples remain, mainly among the country's churches, government buildings, and universities. Four Philippine churches are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the San Agustín Church in Manila, in , Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Santa María) Church in , and in . in Ilocos Sur is also known for the many Hispanic-style houses and buildings preserved there.

(2020). 9781741042894, Lonely Planet. .

The American occupation in 1898 introduced a new breed of architectural structures in the Philippines. This led to the construction of government buildings and theaters. During the American period, some semblance of city planning using the architectural designs and master plans by was done on the portions of the city of . Part of the Burnham plan was the construction of government buildings that resembled Greek or Neoclassical architecture. In , a lot of the colonial edifices constructed during the American occupation in the country can still be seen. Commercial buildings, houses and churches in that era are abundant in the city and especially in Calle Real. Certain areas of the country like have slight differences as both Spanish and Filipino ways of architecture assimilated differently due to the climate. Limestones and coral were used as building materials.

Philippine music has evolved rapidly due to the different influences stemming from colonialism under other countries. Before the Spanish conquest of the islands, most music was reminiscent of, or heavily influenced by, nature. Some examples of this tribal music is Koyu No Tebulul of the and Ambo Hato of the . This genre is often accompanied by gong music and one well known instrument is the . During the Spanish era music, where traditional string orchestra type instruments were used, was widespread. Filipino Arts & Music Ensemble , Filipino Heritage, The Making of a Nation, Volume 9, 1978,

(organist), Simplicio Solis (organist), Diego C. Perez (pianist), Jose Conseco (pianist) and (composer) were some of the recognized musicians in this era. Nowadays, American pop culture has a heavy hold on the Filipinos that evolved from the Spanish times when the American occupation happened. Along with Korean pop, these two are dominating the recent music scene in media. However, the revival of Spanish-influence folk music has been possible thanks to the different choir groups coming in and going out of the country, such as the Philippine Madrigal Singers.

Just like the evolution of Philippine music, dance as well has been in constant change. Prior to colonial rule, the Philippines had a wide array of ethnic dances from different tribal groups. This was due mainly to the fact that Philippines is an archipelago thus the different varieties of dance developed. Both Luzon and Visayas, at first, were more akin to tribal movements until the Spanish came. Mindanao represents more of an array of Muslim inspired dances and Spanish influence was limited to the region of . The Philippine Island World: A Physical, Cultural, and Regional Geography By Frederick L. Wernstedt, Joseph Earle Spencer, Page 503.

One famous dance that is well known is called the , where a band of Rondalya musicians play along with the percussive beat of the two bamboo poles. It usually starts with men and women acting a scene about "How rural townsfolk mingle". The dancers then graze thru the clashing of the bamboo poles held on opposite sides. The end displays the paired bamboo poles crossing each other. The Muslim version of this where bamboo poles are also used is called the . Cariñosa is a Hispanic Filipino dance, unofficially considered as the "National Dance of the Philippines". It is a courtship dance which involves a woman holding a fan or a handkerchief, where it plays an instrumental role as it places the couple in romance scenario. PASSOC: Philippine Arts & Social Studies in the Ontario Curriculum, Page 1.

In the Modern and Post-Modern time periods, dances may vary from the delicate ballet up to the more street-oriented styles of breakdancing.

(2020). 9789712346286 .

As a general description, the distinct of Filipinos is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly ), and commercial relationships. Social Values and Organization, Philippines, Country Studies US. Online version of print book Ronald E. Dolan, ed. Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1991.

Filipino values are, for the most part, centered around maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group. The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of " Hiya", roughly translated as 'a sense of shame', and " Amor propio" or 'self-esteem'.

(2020). 9781741042894, Lonely Planet. .
Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think, say or do, are strong influences on social behavior among Filipinos.Hallig, Jason V. Communicating Holiness to the Filipinos: Challenges and Needs , The Path to a Filipino Theology of Holiness, pp. 2, 10.

Other elements of the Filipino value system are optimism about the future, pessimism about present situations and events, concern and care for other people, the existence of friendship and friendliness, the habit of being hospitable, religious nature, respectfulness to self and others, respect for the female members of society, the fear of God, and abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery. File dated April 8, 2000. In

(1994). 9781565180406, Council for Research in Values and Philosophy.

Filipino cuisine has evolved over several centuries from its Malayo-Polynesian origins to become a mixed cuisine with many , , American, and other influences that have been adapted to local ingredients and the Filipino palate to create distinctively Filipino dishes. Dishes range from the very simple, like a meal of fried salted fish and rice, to the elaborate, such as the and created for fiestas.

Popular dishes include , adobo, , , tapa, , , , and . Some common local ingredients used in cooking are , coconuts, (a kind of short wide plantain), , , , and . Filipino taste buds tend to favor robust flavors, but the cuisine is not as spicy as those of its neighbors.

(2020). 9789715504799, Ateneo de Manila University Press. .

Unlike many Asians, most Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks; they use Western cutlery. However, possibly due to rice being the primary staple food and the popularity of a large number of stews and main dishes with broth in Filipino cuisine, the main pairing of utensils seen at the Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork, not knife and fork.

(2020). 9781741042894, Lonely Planet. .

The traditional way of eating with the hands known as kamayan (using the washed right hand for bringing food to the mouth) was previously more often seen in the less urbanized areas.

(2020). 9780897323727, Menasha Ridge Press. .
However, due to the various Filipino restaurants that introduced Filipino food to people of other nationalities as well as to Filipino urbanites, kamayan fast became popular. This recent trend also sometimes incorporates the "Boodle Fight" concept (as popularized and coined by the Philippine Army), wherein banana leaves are used as giant plates on top of which rice portions and Filipino viands are placed all together for a filial, friendly and/or communal kamayan feasting. Captain A's Seafood Grill In Philippine usage, the boodle fight is a military academy terminology for "eating combat" or "attack the food."

Mass media
Philippine media uses mainly Filipino and English. Other Philippine languages, including various Visayan languages are also used, especially in radio due to its ability to reach remote rural locations that might otherwise not be serviced by other kinds of media. The dominant television networks ABS-CBN, and 5 also have extensive radio presence. Country profile: The Philippines. (December 8, 2009). BBC News. Retrieved December 20, 2009.

The entertainment industry is vibrant and feeds broadsheets and tabloids with an unending supply of details about celebrities and sensationalist daily scandals. and are anticipated as are Latin , , and . Daytime television is dominated by game shows, variety shows, and talk shows such as and It's Showtime.Santiago, Erwin (April 12, 2010). . Retrieved May 23, 2010 from the Philippine Entertainment Portal Website. In recent years it has become common to see celebrities flitting between television and movies and then moving into politics provoking concerns. "The Philippines' celebrity-obsessed elections". (April 26, 2007). . Retrieved January 15, 2010.

Philippine cinema has a long history and is popular domestically, but has faced increasing competition from American, Asian and European films. Critically acclaimed directors and actors include and for films like ( Manila: In the Claws of Light) and ( Miracle). Salón de Pertierra was the first introduced moving picture on January 1, 1897 in the Philippines. All films were all in Spanish since Philippine cinema was first introduced during the final years of the Spanish era of the country. was the first known movie producer. Meanwhile, was dubbed as the "Father of Philippine Cinema". "The Role of José Nepomuceno in the Philippine Society: What language did his silent film speaks?". Stockholm University Publications. Retrieved on January 6, 2011. His work marked the start of cinema as an art form in the Philippines. During the American period a movie market was formally created in the country along with the arrival of . Postwar 1940s and the 1950s were known as the first golden age of Philippine cinema.

During the 1960s, movies, bomba (soft porn) pictures and an era of musical films, produced mostly by Sampaguita Pictures, dominated the cinema. The second golden age occurred from 1970s to early 1980s. It was during this era that filmmakers ceased to produce pictures in black and white. A rise in films dominated theater sales during the late 1980s until the 2000s. A bleak storyline for the Filipino film industry. Conde, Carlos H. International Herald Tribune. February 11, 2007. (archived from the original on April 1, 2007) The dawn of this era saw a dramatic decline of the mainstream Philippine movie industry. RP Movie Industry Dying . Vanzi, Sol Jose. Newsflash. January 15, 2006. In the year 2009, however, presence of box-office films in the Philippine Box Office has surged. The mid 2010s also saw broader commercial success of films produced by independent studios.

Various sports and pastimes are popular in the Philippines including basketball, , , football (soccer), American football, both codes of , , , , , , , and . , , and are also becoming popular. Basketball is played at both amateur and professional levels and is considered to be the most popular sport in the Philippines. "Billiard Congress of America: Hall of Fame Inductees". (2009). Retrieved December 20, 2009 from the Billiard Congress of America Website. Mga Kilalang Pilipino Known. (n.d.) (in Filipino). Tagalog at NIU. Retrieved April 25, 2010 from the Northern Illinois University, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, SEAsite Project. In 2010, was named "Fighter of the Decade" for the 2000s (decade) by the Boxing Writers Association of America (BWAA), World Boxing Council (WBC), and World Boxing Organization (WBO). The national martial art and sport of the country is Arnis, or in some regionsRepublic of the Philippines. (Approved: December 11, 2009). An Act Declaring Arnis as the National Martial Art and Sport of the Philippines. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from the Senate of the Philippines Website.

The Philippines has participated in the Summer Olympic Games since 1924 and was the first country in to compete and win a medal. The country had competed in every Summer Olympic Games since then, except when they participated in the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics. The Philippines is also the first tropical nation to compete at the Winter Olympic Games debuting in the 1972 edition.

Traditional Philippine games such as luksung baka, patintero, piko, and tumbang preso are still played primarily as children's games among the youth. Games. (archived from the original on November 6, 2007) Mga Larong Pilipino Philippine. (2009). Tagalog at NIU. Retrieved December 19, 2009 from the Northern Illinois University, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, SEAsite Project. (archived from the original on June 28, 2014) or cockfighting is another popular entertainment especially among Filipino men, and was documented by Magellan's voyage as a pastime in the kingdom of Taytay.
(1994). 9780299140540, Univ of Wisconsin Press. .
The , a popular toy in the Philippines, was introduced in its modern form by Pedro Flores with its name coming from the . Yo-yo. (2010). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved January 10, 2010.

See also
  • Outline of the Philippines




External links


General information

Books and articles
  • History of the Philippine Islands in many volumes, from Project Gutenberg (indexed under Emma Helen Blair, the general editor)
  • About the influence of the Spanish people and language
  • (2020). 9780472052189, University of Michigan Press. .



Page 1 of 1
Page 1 of 1


Pages:  ..   .. 
Items:  .. 


General: Atom Feed Atom Feed  .. 
Help:  ..   .. 
Category:  ..   .. 
Media:  ..   .. 
Posts:  ..   ..   .. 


Page:  .. 
Summary:  .. 
1 Tags
10/10 Page Rank
5 Page Refs
10s Time