The Philippines (; Pilipinas or Filipinas ), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both within the urban area of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea to the west, the Philippine Sea to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Palau to the east, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia and Brunei to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest.
The Philippines' position as an island country on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the country prone to earthquakes and typhoons. The country has a variety of and a globally significant level of biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of around with a population of around 109 million people. , it is the 8th-most populated country in Asia and the 12th-most populated country in the world. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands.
, some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for Spain, marked the beginning of Spanish colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas]] in honor of Philip II of Spain. Spanish settlement, beginning in 1565, led to the Philippines becoming part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. During this time, Catholicism became the dominant religion, and Manila became the western hub of trans-Pacific trade. In 1896, the Philippine Revolution began, which then became entwined with the 1898 Spanish–American War. Spain ceded the territory to the United States, while Filipino rebels declared the First Philippine Republic. The ensuing Philippine–American War ended with the United States establishing control over the territory, which they maintained until the Japanese invasion of the islands during World War II. Following liberation, the Philippines became independent in 1946. Since then, the unitary state sovereign state has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by the People Power Revolution.
The Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the East Asia Summit. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to being based more on services and manufacturing.
Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte
" after Philip II of Spain, then the Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name " Las Islas Filipinas
" would be used to cover the archipelago's Spanish possessions. Before Spanish rule was established, other names such as Islas del Poniente
(Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands, San Lázaro
, were also used by the Spanish to refer to islands in the region.
During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the period of the Spanish–American War (1898) and the Philippine–American War (1899–1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935–1946), American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name.
The full title of the Republic of the Philippines was included in the 1935 constitution as the name of the future independent state.
There is evidence of early hominins
living in what is now the Philippines as early as 709,000 years ago.
A small number of bones from Callao Cave
potentially represent an otherwise unknown species, Homo luzonensis
, that lived around 50,000 to 67,000 years ago.
The oldest modern human
remains found on the islands are from the Tabon Caves
, U/Th-dated to 47,000 ± 11–10,000 years ago.
The Tabon Man
is presumably a Negrito
, who were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, descendants of the first human migrations out of Africa
via the coastal route along southern Asia to the now sunken landmasses of Sundaland
The first Austronesians reached the Philippines at around 2200 BC, settling the Batanes Islands and northern Luzon from Taiwan. From there, they rapidly spread downwards to the rest of the islands of the Philippines and Southeast Asia.
This population assimilated with the existing Negritos resulting in the modern Filipino ethnic groups which display various ratios of genetic admixture between Austronesian and Negrito groups. Jade artifacts have been found dated to 2000 BC, with the lingling-o jade items crafted in Luzon made using raw materials originating from Taiwan. By 1000 BC, the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior societies, highland Plutocracy, and port principalities.
Early states (900–1565)
The earliest known surviving written record found in the Philippines is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription.
By the 1300s, a number of the large coastal settlements had emerged as trading centers, and became the focal point of societal changes.
Some polities had exchanges with other states across Asia.
Trade with China is believed to have begun during the Tang dynasty
, but grew more extensive during the Song dynasty
By the 2nd millennium CE, some Philippine polities were known to have sent trade delegations which participated in the tributary system of China.
Indian cultural traits, such as linguistic terms and religious practices, began to spread within the Philippines during the 10th century, likely via the Hindu Majapahit
By the 15th century, Islam was established in the Sulu Archipelago
and spread from there.
McAmis, Robert Day. (2021
, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.
. ISBN 9780802849458
Polities founded in the Philippines from the 10th–16th centuries include Maynila,
Tondo, Namayan, Caboloan, Cebu, Butuan, Maguindanao, Lanao, Sulu, and Ma-i. The early polities were typically made up of three-tier social structure: a nobility class, a class of "freemen", and a class of dependent debtor-bondsmen. (2021
, The Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office.
. ISBN 9789719555162
Among the nobility were leaders called "," responsible for ruling autonomous groups called "barangay" or "dulohan". When these barangays banded together, either to form a larger settlement or a geographically looser alliance group, the more esteemed among them would be recognized as a "paramount datu", rajah, or sultan which headed the community state. There is little evidence of large-scale violence in the archipelago prior to the 2nd millennium AD. However, warfare developed and escalated during the 14th to 16th centuries and throughout these periods population density is thought to have been low. In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the area, claimed the islands for Spain, and was then killed at the Battle of Mactan.
Colonial rule (1565–1946)
Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565.
In 1571, Intramuros
became the capital of the Spanish East Indies,
which encompassed Spanish territories in Asia and the Pacific.
The Spanish successfully invaded the different local states by employing the principle of divide and conquer,
bringing most of what is now the Philippines into a single unified administration.
Disparate barangays were deliberately Reductions
, where Catholic missionaries were more easily able to convert the inhabitants to Christianity
From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as part of the Mexico-based New Spain
, later administered from Madrid
following the Mexican War of Independence.
Manila was the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade.
were constructed in Bicol Region
During its rule, Spain quelled various indigenous revolts,
as well as defending against external military challenges. Spanish forces included soldiers from elsewhere in New Spain, many of whom deserted and intermingled with the wider population. [
] [Garcıa de los Arcos, "Grupos etnicos," ´ 65–66 ] [
] Immigration blurred the racial caste system [(Page 10) ] Spain maintained in towns and cities. War against the Dutch from the West, in the 17th century, together with conflict with the Muslims in the South nearly bankrupted the colonial treasury. [, The Early Spanish Period.]
Administration of the Philippine islands were considered a drain on the economy of Spain,
and there were debates about abandoning it or trading it for some other territory. However, this was opposed for a number of reasons, including economic potential, security, and the desire to continue religious conversion in the islands and the surrounding region. The Philippines survived on an annual subsidy provided by the Spanish Crown, which averaged 250,000 pesos and was usually paid through the provision of 75 tons of silver bullion being sent from the Americas.
British forces occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764 during the Seven Years' War, with Spanish rule restored through the 1763 Treaty of Paris.
The Spanish considered their war with the Muslims in Southeast Asia an extension of the Reconquista. The Spanish–Moro conflict lasted for several hundred years. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Spain conquered portions of Mindanao and Jolo, and the Moro people Muslims in the Sultanate of Sulu formally recognized Spanish sovereignty.
In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Filipino society.
The Latin American wars of independence and renewed immigration led to shifts in social identity, with the term Filipino shifting from referring to Peninsulares and Criollo people to a term encompassing all people in the archipelago. This identity shift was driven by wealthy mestizos, for which it developed into a national identity.
Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after Gomburza were executed on weak pretences.
[Nuguid, Nati. (1972). "The Cavite Mutiny". in Mary R. Tagle. 12 Events that Have Influenced Philippine History. Manila: National Media Production Center. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from StuartXchange Website.] This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, and Mariano Ponce, lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal was eventually executed on December 30, 1896, on charges of rebellion. This radicalized many who had previously been loyal to Spain. As attempts at reform met with resistance, Andrés Bonifacio in 1892 established the militant secret society called the Katipunan, who sought independence from Spain through armed revolt.
The Katipunan started the Philippine Revolution in 1896.
Internal disputes led to the an election in which Bonifacio lost his position and Emilio Aguinaldo was elected as the new leader of the revolution. In 1897, the Pact of Biak-na-Bato brought about the exile of the revolutionary leadership to Hong Kong. In 1898, the Spanish–American War began and reached Philippines. Aguinaldo returned, resumed the revolution, and declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898. The First Philippine Republic was established on January 21, 1899.
The islands had been ceded by Spain to the United States alongside Puerto Rico and Guam as a result of the latter's victory in the Spanish–American War.
As it became increasingly clear the United States would not recognize the First Philippine Republic, the Philippine–American War broke out. War resulted in the deaths of 250,000 to 1 million civilians, mostly due to famine and disease. Brian McAllister Linn (2021
, University Press of Kansas.
. ISBN 9780700612253
After the defeat of the First Philippine Republic, an American civilian government was established. American forces continued to secure and extend their control over the islands, suppressing an attempted extension of the Philippine Republic, securing the Sultanate of Sulu, and establishing control over interior mountainous areas that had resisted Spanish conquest.
Cultural developments strengthened the continuing development of a national identity,
[Armes, Roy. "Third World Film Making and the West", p.152. University of California Press, 1987. Retrieved on October 30, 2020.] [ "The Role of José Nepomuceno in the Philippine Society: What language did his silent film speaks?". Stockholm University Publications. Retrieved on October 30, 2020.] and Tagalog began to take precedence over other local languages. In 1935, the Philippines was granted Commonwealth status with Manuel Quezon as president and Sergio Osmeña as vice president. Quezon's priorities were defence, social justice, inequality and economic diversification, and national character. Tagalog was designated the national language, women's suffrage was introduced, and land reform mooted. [Manapat, Carlos, et al. Economics, Taxation, and Agrarian Reform. Quezon City: C&E Pub., 2010.Print.]
During World War II the Japanese Empire invaded
and the Second Philippine Republic, under Jose P. Laurel, was established as a puppet state. From 1942 the Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by large-scale underground guerrilla activity. Atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war, including the Bataan Death March and the Manila massacre. Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. By the end of the war it is estimated that over a million Filipinos had died. On October 11, 1945, the Philippines became one of the founding members of the United Nations. On July 4, 1946, the Philippines was officially recognized by the United States as an independent nation through the Treaty of Manila, during the presidency of Manuel Roxas.
Postcolonial period (1946–present)
Efforts to end the Hukbalahap Rebellion began during Elpidio Quirino
[Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print.]
however, it was only during Ramon Magsaysay
's presidency was the movement suppressed.
[Jeff Goodwin, No Other Way Out, Cambridge University Press, 2001, p.119, , ]
Magsaysay's successor, Carlos P. Garcia, initiated the Filipino First Policy,
which was continued by Diosdado Macapagal, with celebration of Independence Day moved from July 4 to June 12, the date of Emilio Aguinaldo's declaration,
and pursuit of a claim on the eastern part of North Borneo
In 1965, Macapagal lost the presidential election to Ferdinand Marcos. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated numerous infrastructure projects
but, together with his wife Imelda Marcos, was accused of corruption and embezzling billions of dollars in public funds. Nearing the end of his term, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972. This period of his rule was characterized by political repression, censorship, and human rights violations.
On August 21, 1983, Marcos' chief rival, opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr., was assassinated on the tarmac at Manila International Airport. Marcos called a snap presidential election in 1986.
Marcos was proclaimed the winner, but the results were widely regarded as fraudulent. The resulting protests led to the People Power Revolution, which forced Marcos and his allies to flee to Hawaii, and Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino, was installed as president.
The return of democracy and government reforms beginning in 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts,
a persistent communist insurgency, and a military conflict with Moro conflict. The administration also faced a series of disasters, including the sinking of the MV Doña Paz in December 1987 and the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. Aquino was succeeded by Fidel V. Ramos, whose economic performance, at 3.6% growth rate, was overshadowed by the onset of the 1997 Asian financial crisis.
Ramos' successor, Joseph Estrada, was overthrown by the 2001 EDSA Revolution and succeeded by his Vice President, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, on January 20, 2001.
Arroyo's 9-year administration was marked by economic growth, but was tainted by graft and political scandals. On November 23, 2009, 34 journalists and several civilians were killed in Maguindanao.
Economic growth continued during Benigno Aquino III's administration, which pushed for good governance and transparency.
In 2015, a Mamasapano clash which took place in Mamasapano, Maguindanao killed 44 members of the Philippine National Police-Special Action Force, resulting in efforts to pass the Bangsamoro Basic Law reaching an impasse. Former Davao City mayor Rodrigo Duterte won the 2016 presidential election, becoming the first president from Mindanao. Duterte launched an anti-drug campaign and an infrastructure plan. The implementation of the Bangsamoro Organic Law led to the creation of the autonomous Bangsamoro region in Mindanao. In early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic reached the country causing the economy to contract by 9.5% in terms of gross domestic product since records began in 1947.
Geography and environment
The Philippines is an archipelago
composed of about 7,641 islands
with a total land area, including inland bodies of water, of around ,
with cadastral survey data suggesting it may be larger.
The of coastline makes it the country with the fifth longest coastline in the world.
[Central Intelligence Agency. (2009). "Field Listing : Coastline". Washington, DC. ]
The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines covers .
[ Exclusive Economic Zones – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.]
It is located between 116° 40', and 126° 34' E longitude and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N latitude and is bordered by the Philippine Sea
to the east,
[ Philippine Sea, encarta.msn.com (archived from the original on August 20, 2009).] ["". (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 9, 2021 from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.]
the South China Sea to the west,
[ "U.S. report details rich resources in South China Sea." (archived from the original on 2013-02-133)]
and the Celebes Sea
to the south.
[C.Michael Hogan. 2011. "Celebes Sea". Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. P. Saundry & C.J. Cleveland. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington, DC]
The island of Borneo
is located a few hundred kilometers southwest
and Taiwan is located directly to the north. Sulawesi
is located to the southwest and Palau
is located to the east of the islands.
The highest mountain is Mount Apo. It measures up to above sea level and is located on the island of Mindanao.
The Galathea Depth of the Philippine Trench in the Philippine Sea is the deepest point in the country and the third deepest in the world. (1993
, Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
. ISBN 9780844407487
The longest river is the Cagayan River in northern Luzon, measuring about . Manila Bay, [Jacinto, G.S., Azanza, R.V.,Velasquez,I.B. and Siringan, F.P.(2006)."Manila Bay:Environmental Challenges and Opportunities" in Wolanski, E.(ed.) The Environment in Asia Pacific Harbours. Springer: Dordrecht, Netherlands. p309-328.] upon the shore of which the capital city of Manila lies, is connected to Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the Philippines, by the Pasig River. The Puerto Princesa Subterranean River, which runs underground through a karst landscape before reaching the ocean, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Situated on the western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity.
The Benham Plateau to the east in the Philippine Sea is an undersea region active in Plate tectonics subduction. Around 20 earthquakes are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt. The last major earthquake was the 1990 Luzon earthquake. [La Putt, Juny P. c.. The 1990 Baguio City Earthquake. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from The City of Baguio Website. ] There are many active volcanoes such as the Mayon Volcano, Mount Pinatubo, and Taal Volcano. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century. The Philippines is the world's second-biggest geothermal energy producer behind the United States, with 18% of the country's electricity needs being met by geothermal power.
The country has valuable
mineral deposits as a result of the its complex geologic structure and high level of seismic activity. The Philippine are thought to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa, along with a large amount of copper deposits, and the world's largest deposits of palladium. Other minerals include chromite, nickel, and zinc. Despite this, a lack of law enforcement, poor management, opposition due to the presence of indigenous communities, and past instances of environmental damage and disaster, have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped.
The Philippines is a megadiverse country.
[ Retrieved February 15, 2010 from gbgm-umc.org.] Williams, Jann (2021
, CSIRO on behalf of the Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage.
. ISBN 9780643067493
Eight major types of forests are distributed throughout the Philippines; dipterocarp
, beach forest, pine
forest, Vitex parviflora
forest, lower montane forest, upper montane or mossy forest
, and ultrabasic forest.
Around 1,100 land vertebrate species can be found in the Philippines including over 100 mammal species and 170 bird species not thought to exist elsewhere.
The Philippines has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of mammals
discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, the rate of endemism for the Philippines has risen and likely will continue to rise.
Parts of its marine waters contain the highest diversity of shorefish species in the world.
Large reptiles include the Philippine crocodile
and saltwater crocodile. The largest crocodile in captivity, known locally as Lolong, was captured in the southern island of Mindanao, and died on February 10, 2013 from pneumonia and cardiac arrest. The national bird, known as the Philippine eagle, has the longest body of any eagle; it generally measures 86 to 102 cm (2.82 to 3.35 ft) in length and weighs 4.7 to 8.0 kg (10.4 to 17.6 lb). The Philippine eagle is part of the family Accipitridae and is endemic to the rainforests of Luzon, Samar, Leyte and Mindanao.
Philippine maritime waters encompass as much as producing unique and diverse marine life,
an important part of the Coral Triangle, a territory shared with other countries. The total number of corals and marine fish species was estimated at 500 and 2,400 respectively. New records and species discoveries continue. The Tubbataha Reef in the Sulu Sea was declared a World Heritage Site in 1993. Philippine waters also sustain the cultivation of fish, crustaceans, oysters, and seaweeds. One species of oyster, Pinctada maxima, produces pearls that are naturally golden in color. Pearls have been declared a "National Gem".
With an estimated 13,500 plant species in the country, 3,200 of which are unique to the islands,
Philippine rainforests boast an array of flora, including many rare types of orchids and rafflesia. [Taguinod, Fioro. (November 20, 2008). "Rare flower species found only in northern Philippines". GMA News. Retrieved July 5, 2020.] Deforestation, often the result of illegal logging, is an acute problem in the Philippines. Forest cover declined from 70% of the Philippines's total land area in 1900 to about 18.3% in 1999. [Peralta, Eleno O. (2005). " 21. Forests for poverty alleviation: the response of academic institutions in the Philippines". In Sim, Appanah, and Hooda (Eds.). Proceedings of the workshop on forests for poverty reduction: changing role for research, development and training institutions (RAP Publication). Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Retrieved July 5, 2020.] Many species are endangered and scientists say that Southeast Asia, which the Philippines is part of, faces a catastrophic extinction rate of 20% by the end of the 21st century. [Kirby, Alex. (July 23, 2003). "SE Asia faces 'catastrophic' extinction rate". BBC News. Retrieved July 5, 2020.]
The Philippines has a tropical maritime climate that is usually hot and humid. There are three seasons: a hot dry season or summer from March to May; a rainy season from June to November; and a cool dry season from December to February. The southwest monsoon
lasts from May to October, and the northeast monsoon from November to April. Temperatures usually range from to . The coolest month is January; the warmest is May.
The average yearly temperature is around . In considering temperature, location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor, and temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range. Altitude usually has more of an impact. The average annual temperature of Baguio at an elevation of above sea level is , making it a popular destination during hot summers.
Annual rainfall measures as much as in the mountainous east coast section but less than in some of the sheltered valleys.
Sitting astride the typhoon belt, the islands experience 15–20 typhoons annually from July to October,
[Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. (March 2006). Country Profile: Philippines. Retrieved July 30, 2020. ] with around nineteen typhoons entering the Philippine area of responsibility in a typical year and eight or nine making landfall. [ Monthly Typhoon Tracking Charts. (2010). Retrieved April 24, 2010 from the National Institute of Informatics, Kitamoto Laboratory, Digital Typhoon Website.] Historically typhoons were sometimes referred to as baguios. The wettest recorded typhoon to hit the Philippines dropped in Baguio from July 14 to 18, 1911. The Philippines is highly exposed to climate change and is among the world's ten countries that are most vulnerable to climate change risks. [Overland, Indra et al. (2017) Impact of Climate Change on ASEAN International Affairs: Risk and Opportunity Multiplier, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) and Myanmar Institute of International and Strategic Studies (MISIS). Page V.]
The Commission on Population estimated the country's population to be 107,190,081 as of December 31, 2018, based on the latest population census of 2015 conducted by the Philippine Statistics Authority.
The population increased from 1990 to 2008 by approximately 28 million, a 45% growth in that time frame.
[ CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971–2008 ( pdf page 86); page 86 of the pdf, IEA (OECD/ World Bank) (original population ref OECD/ World Bank e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57) (archived from the original
on October 12, 2009)
The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685.
[Republic of the Philippines. National Statistical Coordination Board. [http://www.nscb.gov.ph/secstat/d_popn.asp Population of the Philippines Census Years 1799 to 2007] . Retrieved December 11, 2009.]
A third of the population resides in Metro Manila and its immediately neighboring regions.
The 2.34% average annual population growth rate between 1990 and 2000 decreased to an estimated 1.90% for the 2000–2010 period. Government attempts to reduce population growth have been a contentious issue. The population's median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old. Life expectancy at birth is 69.4 years, 73.1 years for females and 65.9 years for males. Poverty incidence dropped to 21.6% in 2015 from 25.2% in 2012. [Republic of the Philippines. National Statistics Office. Poverty Incidence. Retrieved July 30, 2020. ]
Metro Manila is the most populous of the 3 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines
and the 5th most populous in the world. [Demographia. (June 2020). Demographia World Urban Areas (World Agglomerations) Population & Projections (Edition 16). Retrieved July 15, 2020. Page 23.] Census data from 2015 showed it had a population of 12,877,253 constituting almost 13% of the national population. Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces (Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, and Rizal) of Greater Manila, the population is around 23,088,000. Across the country, the Philippines has a total urbanization rate of 51.2 percent. Metro Manila's gross regional product was estimated to be Philippine peso468.4 billion (at constant 1985 prices) and accounts for 33% of the nation's GDP. [Republic of the Philippines. National Statistical Coordination Board. (July 2009). 2008 Gross Regional Domestic Product – Levels of GRDP . Retrieved April 4, 2010.] In 2011 Manila ranked as the 28th wealthiest urban agglomeration in the world and the 2nd in Southeast Asia.
There is substantial ethnic diversity with the Philippines, a product of the seas and mountain ranges dividing the archipelago along with significant foreign influences.
According to the 2010 census, 24.4% of Filipinos are Tagalog, 11.4% Visayans/Bisaya , 9.9% Cebuano, 8.8% Ilocano, 8.4% Hiligaynon, 6.8% Bikol, 4% Waray, and 26.2% are "others",
which can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the Moro people
, the Kapampangan, the Pangasinense, the Ibanag people
, and the Ivatan people
[" Philippines". (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 18, 2009 from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.]
There are also indigenous peoples like the Igorot
, the Lumad
, the Mangyan
, the Bajau
, and the tribes of Palawan.
are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands.
[Dolan, Ronald E. (Ed.). (1991). "Ethnicity, Regionalism, and Language". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved April 8, 2010 from Country Studies US Website.] These minority aboriginal settlers are an Australoid group and are a left-over from the first human migration out of Africa to Australia, and were likely displaced by later waves of migration. At least some Negritos in the Philippines have Denisovan admixture in their genomes. [ Extinct humanoid species may have lived in PHL, gmanetwork.com, Published August 31, 2012 3:48pm] Ethnic Filipinos generally belong to several Southeast Asians ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian speaking people. There is some uncertainty over the origin of this Austronesian speaking population, with it being likely that ancestors related to Taiwanese aborigines brought their language and mixed with existing populations in the area. [ The final component (dark blue in Fig. 3b) has a high frequency in South China (Fig. 2b) and is also seen in Taiwan at ~25–30 %, in the Philippines at ~20–30 % (except in one location which is almost zero) and across Indonesia/Malaysia at 1–10 %, declining overall from Taiwan within Austronesian-speaking populations.] European DNA is present in many Filipinos today. A Craniometry study reveals that samples taken from graveyards across the Philippines show a mean ratio of European descent of circa 6%. Under Spanish rule there was also immigration from elsewhere in the empire, especially from Latin America.
are mostly the descendants of immigrants from Fujian in China after 1898,
numbering around 2 million, although there are an estimated 20 percent of Filipinos who have partial Chinese ancestry, stemming from precolonial and colonial Chinese migrants. [" Chinese lunar new year might become national holiday in Philippines too". Xinhua News (August 23, 2009). (archived from the original on August 26, 2009)] While a distinct minority, Chinese Filipinos are well-integrated into Filipino society. As of 2015, there were 220,000 to 600,000 American citizens living in the country. There are also up to 250,000 scattered across the cities of Angeles, Manila, Clark and Olongapo. Other important non-indigenous minorities include Indian Filipino and Arab Filipino. [.] There are also Japanese people, which include escaped Christians (Kirishitan) who fled the persecutions of Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu which the Spanish empire in the Philippines had offered asylum from. The descendants of mixed-race couples are known as Filipino mestizo.
|Population by mother tongue (2010)|
|Source: Philippine Statistics Authority|
Ethnologue lists 186 individual languages in the Philippines, 182 of which are living languages, while 4 no longer have any known speakers. Most native languages are part of the Philippine branch of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is itself a branch of the Austronesian language family.
[Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). (2015) Ethnologue: Languages of the World (18th ed.). Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Retrieved April 13, 2015.] In addition, various Spanish-based creole varieties collectively called Chavacano exist. [Spanish creole: ] There are also many Philippine Negrito languages that have unique vocabularies that survived Austronesian acculturation. [Reid, Lawrence A. 1994. " Possible Non-Austronesian Lexical Elements in Philippine Negrito Languages." In Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Jun. 1994), pp. 37–72.]
Filipino and English are the official languages of the country.
Filipino is a standardized version of Tagalog language, spoken mainly in Metro Manila. Both Filipino and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business, with third local languages often being used at the same time. The Philippine constitution provides for the promotion of Spanish and Arabic on a voluntary and optional basis. Spanish, which was widely used as a lingua franca in the late nineteenth century, has since declined greatly in use, although Spanish loanwords are still present today in Philippine languages, while Arabic is mainly taught in Islamic schools in Mindanao.
Nineteen regional languages act as auxiliary official languages used as media of instruction: Aklan language, Bikol languages, Cebuano language, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ibanag language, Ilocano language, Ivatan language, Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao language, Pangasinan, Sambal language, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug language, Waray language, and Yakan language.
[ DepEd adds 7 languages to mother tongue-based education for Kinder to Grade 3. GMA News. July 13, 2013.] Other indigenous languages such as, Cuyonon language, Ifugao language, Itbayat language, Kalinga language, Kamayo language, Kankanaey, Masbateño, Romblomanon, Manobo languages, and several Visayan languages are prevalent in their respective provinces. Article 3 of Republic Act No. 11106 declared the Filipino Sign Language as the national sign language of the Philippines, specifying that it shall be recognized, supported and promoted as the medium of official communication in all transactions involving the deaf, and as the language of instruction of deaf education.
The Philippines is a secular state
which protects freedom of religion. Christianity is the dominant faith,
shared by over 92% of the population.
[ Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project: Philippines. Pew Research Center. 2010.]
, the country had the world's third largest Roman Catholic population, and was the largest Christian nation in Asia.
Census data from 2015 found that about % of the population professed Catholicism.
Around 37% of the population regularly attend Catholic Mass
. 29% of self-identified Catholics consider themselves very religious.
An independent Catholic church, the Philippine Independent Church, has around 66,959 adherents.
Protestants were 10.8% of the population in 2010.
% of the population are members of Iglesia ni Cristo.
The combined following of the Philippine Council of Evangelical Churches comes to % of the total population.
Islam is the second largest religion. The Muslim population of the Philippines was reported as % of the total population according to census returns in 2015.
Conversely, a 2012 report by the National Commission of Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) stated that about 10,700,000 or 11% of Filipinos are Muslims. The majority of Muslims live in Mindanao and nearby islands. [ RP closer to becoming observer-state in Organization of Islamic Conference . (May 29, 2009). The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2009-07-10, "Eight million Muslim Filipinos, representing 10 percent of the total Philippine population, ...".] Most practice Sunni Islam under the Shafi'i school.
The percentage of combined positive atheism and agnostic people in the Philippines was measured to be about 3% of the population as of 2008.
The 2015 Philippine Census reported the religion of about % of the population as "none". A 2014 survey by Gallup International Association reported that 21% of its respondents identify as "not a religious person". Around % of the population practice indigenous Philippine folk religions, whose practices and folk beliefs are often syncretized with Christianity and Islam. Buddhism is practiced by around % of the population, concentrated among Filipinos of Chinese descent.
In 2016, % of healthcare came from private expenditures while % was from the government (12.4% from the national government, 7.1% from the local government, and 17.4% from social health insurance). Total health expenditure share in GDP for the year 2016 was 4.5%. Per capita health expenditure rate in 2015 was , which was one of the lowest in Southeast Asia. The budget allocation for Healthcare in 2019 was ₱98.6 billion
and had an increase in budget in 2014 with a record high in the collection of taxes from the House Bill 5727 (commonly known as Sin tax
There were 101,688 hospital beds in the country in 2016, with government hospital beds accounting for 47% and private hospital beds for 53%.
In 2009, there were an estimated 90,370 physicians or 1 per every 833 people, 480,910 nurses and 43,220 dentists.
Retention of skilled practitioners is a problem. Seventy percent of nursing graduates go overseas to work. , the Philippines was the largest supplier of nurses for export. The Philippines suffers a triple burden of high levels of communicable diseases, high levels of non-communicable diseases, and high exposure to natural disasters. [World Health Organization. (April 2006). Philippines. Country Cooperation Strategy at a Glance. Retrieved December 23, 2009. ]
In 2018, there were 1,258 licensed by the Department of Health, of which were government-run and private.
A total of 20,065 barangay health stations (BHS) and 2,590 rural health units (RHUs) provide primary care services throughout the country as of 2016. Cardiovascular diseases account for more than 35% of all deaths. 9,264 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were reported for the year 2016, with 8,151 being asymptomatic cases. At the time the country was considered a low-HIV-prevalence country, with less than 0.1% of the adult population estimated to be HIV-positive. HIV/AIDS cases increased from 12,000 in 2005 [United States Agency for International Development. (May 2008). USAID Country Health Statistical Report – Philippines. Retrieved July 13, 2020.] to 39,622 as of 2016, with 35,957 being asymptomatic cases.
There is improvement in patients access to medicines due to Filipinos' growing acceptance of , with 6 out of 10 Filipinos already using generics. While the country's universal healthcare implementation is underway as spearheaded by the state-owned Philippine Health Insurance Corporation,
most healthcare-related expenses are either borne out of pocket or through health maintenance organization (HMO)-provided health plans. As of April 2020, there are only about 7 million individuals covered by these plans.
The Philippines had a simple literacy
rate of 98.3% as of 2015, and a functional literacy rate of 90.3% as of 2013.
Education takes up a significant proportion of the national budget. In the 2020 budget, education was allocated PHP17.1 billion from the PHP4.1 trillion budget.
The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) lists 2,180 higher education institutions, among which 607 are public and 1,573 are private.
[Republic of the Philippines. Commission on Higher Education. (August 2010). . Official Website of the Commission on Higher Education. Retrieved April 17, 2011.] Classes start in June and end in March. The majority of colleges and universities follow a semester calendar from June to October and November to March, while some have adopted an increasingly common semester calendar from August to December and January to May. [ Official Website of the Commission on Higher Education. Retrieved February 9, 2021.] Primary and secondary schooling is divided between a 6-year elementary period, a 4-year junior high school period, and a 2-year senior high school period. [Republic of the Philippines. (Approved: August 11, 2001). Republic Act No. 9155 – Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001. Retrieved December 11, 2009 from the Chan Robles Virtual Law Library.]
The Department of Education (DepEd) covers elementary, secondary, and non-formal education.
The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) administers middle-level education training and development. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) was created in 1994 to, among other functions, formulate and recommend development plans, policies,
priorities, and programs on higher education and research.
In 2004, madrasa were mainstreamed in 16 regions nationwide, mainly in Muslim areas in Mindanao under the auspices and program of the Department of Education.
Public universities are all non-sectarian entities, and are further classified as State Universities and Colleges (SUC) or Local Colleges and Universities (LCU). The University of the Philippines, a system of eight (8) constituent universities, is the national university system of the Philippines. [Republic of the Philippines. (Approved: April 29, 2008). Republic Act 9500 – An Act to Strengthen the University of the Philippines as the National University. Chan Robles Law Library.] The country's top ranked universities are as follows: University of the Philippines, Ateneo de Manila University, De La Salle University, and University of Santo Tomas. The University of Santo Tomas, established in 1611, has the oldest extant university charter in the Philippines and Asia.
Government and politics
The Philippines has a democracy
government in the form of a constitutional republic with a presidential system.
The President functions as both head of state and head of government
and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
The president is elected by popular vote for a single six-year term,
during which he or she appoints and presides over the cabinet.
was elected to a six-year term as president in 2016.
Congress is composed of the Senate, serving as the upper house
, with members elected to a six-year term, and the House of Representatives, serving as the lower house
, with members elected to a three-year term.
Philippine politics tends to be dominated by those with well-known names, such as members of political dynasties or celebrities.
[ "The Philippines' celebrity-obsessed elections". (April 26, 2007). The Economist. Retrieved July 25, 2020.]
Senators are elected at large
while the representatives are elected from both legislative districts and through sectoral representation. The judiciary power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen associate justices, all of whom are appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both within the single urban area of Metro Manila.
There have been attempts to change the government to a federal, unicameral, or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration.
There is a significant amount of corruption in the Philippines, which some historians attribute to the system of governance put in place during the Spanish colonial period.
As a founding and active member of the United Nations,
the country has been elected to the Security Council.
[Permanent Mission of the Republic of the Philippines to the United Nations. c.. The Philippines and the UN Security Council. Retrieved July 6, 2020. (archived from the original on January 23, 2008)]
Carlos P. Romulo was a former President of the United Nations General Assembly.
The country is an active participant in peacekeeping
missions, particularly in East Timor.
Over 10 million Filipinos live and work overseas.
The Philippines is a founding and active member of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations).
[. (1999). 3 ASEAN Informal Summit. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved December 13, 2009.] It has hosted several ASEAN summit and is an active contributor to the direction and policies of the bloc. It is also a member of the East Asia Summit (EAS), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Group of 24, and the Non-Aligned Movement. [. (older version – as it existed in 2009 – during the presidency of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo), The Official Government Portal of the Republic of the Philippines .] The country is also seeking to obtain observer status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. [ "DFA: 'Technicalities' blocking RP bid for OIC observer status".
(May 26, 2009). GMA News. Retrieved July 10, 2009.]
The Philippines has a long relationship with the United States, covering economics, security, and people-to-people relations.
A mutual defense treaty between the two countries was signed in 1951, and supplemented later with the 1999 Visiting Forces Agreement and the 2016 Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement. The Philippines supported American policies during the Cold War and participated in the Korean War and Vietnam War wars. In 2003 the Philippines was designated a Major non-NATO ally.
Under President Duterte ties with the United States have weakened with military purchases instead coming from China and Russia, while Duterte states that the Philippines will no longer participate in any US-led wars. In 2021, it was revealed the United States would defend the Philippines including the South China sea.
The Philippines attaches great importance in its relations with China, and has established significant cooperation with the country.
Japan is the biggest bilateral contributor of official development assistance to the country. Although historical tensions exist due to the events of World War II, much of the animosity has faded. [Dolan, Ronald E. (Ed.). (1991). "Relations with Asian Neighbors". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved January 5, 2010 from Country Studies US Website.]
Historical and cultural ties continue to affect relations with Spain.
Relations with countries are shaped by the high number of Filipinos working in these countries, and by issues relating the Muslim minority in the Philippines. Concerns have been raised regarding issues such as domestic abuse and war affecting the around 2.5 million overseas Filipino workers in the region.
The Philippines has claims in the Spratly Islands which overlap with claims by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam. The largest of its controlled islands in Thitu Island, which contains the Philippine's smallest village.
The Scarborough Shoal standoff in 2012, where China took control of the shoal from the Philippines, led to an international arbitration case and has made the shoal a prominent symbol in the wider dispute.
The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) consist of three branches: the Philippine Air Force, the Philippine Army
, and the Philippine Navy
The Armed Forces of the Philippines are a volunteer force.
Civilian security is handled by the Philippine National Police under the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG).
[ "Department of the Interior and Local Government Act of 1990". Lawphil.net. Retrieved January 30, 2014.]
In Bangsamoro, the largest separatist organizations, the Moro National Liberation Front and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front were engaging the government politically .
[ "Guide to the Philippines conflict". (August 10, 2007). BBC News. Retrieved July 6, 2020.] Other more militant groups like the Abu Sayyaf have kidnapped foreigners for ransom, particularly in the Sulu Archipelago. [Florante S. Solmerin, December 7, 2013, Manila Standard, Abu Sayyaf keeping 17 foreigners hostage, Retrieved July 6, 2020. , Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...17 foreigners, mostly birdwatchers, were being held hostage by the Abu Sayyaf Group..."] [Roel Pareño, The Philippine Star, March 24, 2013, Sayyaf releases Aussie hostage, Retrieved July 6, 2020, "...Australian Warren Rodwell emerged early yesterday withered after being held for 15 months by Abu Sayyaf bandits in southern Mindanao..."] [Sun Star, April 25, 2014, Abducted tourist, hotel staff now in Sulu, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...Abu Sayyaf bandits have brought a Chinese tourist and a Filipino hotel receptionist to their jungle stronghold in southern Philippines after kidnapping the women from a dive resort in eastern Malaysia ..."] Their presence decreased due to successful security provided by the Philippine government. [World Bank. Conflict Prevention & Reconstruction Unit. (February 2005). The Mindanao Conflict in the Philippines: Roots, Costs, and Potential Peace Dividend by Salvatore Schiavo-Campo and Mary Judd. Washington, DC: World Bank. (Social Development Paper No. 24). Retrieved December 16, 2009.] The Communist Party of the Philippines and its military wing, the New People's Army, have been waging guerrilla warfare against the government since the 1970s, reaching its apex in 1986 when Communist guerrillas gained control of a fifth of the country's territory, before significantly dwindling militarily and politically after the return of democracy in 1986. , $2.843 billion, or 1.1 percent of GDP is spent on military forces.
The Philippines is governed as a unitary state
, with the exception of the Bangsamoro
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM),
although there has been several steps towards decentralization within the unitary framework.
A 1991 law devolved some powers to local governments.
The country is divided into 17 regions, 81 provinces, 146 cities, 1,488 municipalities, and 42,036 barangays
Regions other than Bangsamoro serve primarily to organize the provinces of the country for administrative convenience.
was the most populated region while the Metro Manila
(NCR) the most densely populated.
|Regions of the Philippines
! scope="col" |Population|
! scope="col" |% of Population
! scope="col"||Population density|
The Philippine economy has produced an estimated gross domestic product (nominal) of $356.8 billion.
/ref> Primary exports include semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, and fruits. Major trading partners include the United States, Japan, China, Singapore, South Korea, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Germany, Taiwan, and Thailand.] Its unit of currency is the Philippine peso (₱ or PHP ).
A newly industrialized country,
the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one based upon agriculture to an economy with more emphasis upon services and manufacturing. Of the country's 2018 labor force of around 43.46 million, the agricultural sector employed 24.3%, and accounted for 8.1% of 2018 GDP. The industrial sector employed around 19% of the workforce and accounted for 34.1% of GDP, while 57% of the workers involved in the services sector were responsible for 57.8% of GDP.
The unemployment rate , stands at 4.5%.
Meanwhile, due to lower charges in basic necessities, the inflation rate eased to 1.7% in August 2019. Gross international reserves as of October 2013 are $83.201 billion. [Denis Somoso. (September 30, 2013). "$83.201 Billion – Philippines GIR now Rank 26th World's highest International Reserves" . Philippines, ASIA and the Global Economy Site. Retrieved September 30, 2013.] The Debt-to-GDP ratio continues to decline to 37.6% as of the second quarter of 2019 from a record high of 78% in 2004. The country is a net importer but it is also a creditor nation. Manila hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank.
The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis affected the economy, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the peso and falls in the stock market. The extent it was affected initially was not as severe as that of some of its Asian neighbors. This was largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the government, partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth.
There have been signs of progress since. In 2004, the economy experienced 6.4% GDP growth and 7.1% in 2007, its fastest pace of growth in three decades. [Felix, Rocel. (January 25, 2008). 2007 GDP seen growing at fastest rate in 30 years. The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 29, 2010. (archived from the original on February 22, 2015)] Average annual GDP growth per capita for the period 1966–2007 still stands at 1.45% in comparison to an average of 5.96% for the East Asia and the Pacific region as a whole. The daily income for 45% of the population of the Philippines remains less than $2. [Reddel, Paul (May 27, 2009). Infrastructure & Public-Private Partnerships in East Asia and the Philippines PowerPoint. Presentation in Manila to the American Foreign Chambers of Commerce of the Philippines. Retrieved February 13, 2010 from the Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF) Website.]
from overseas Filipinos contribute significantly to the Philippine economy.
Remittances peaked in 2006 at 10.4% of the national GDP, and were 8.6% and 8.5% in 2012 and in 2014 respectively. In 2014 the total worth of foreign exchange remittances was US$28 billion. Regional development is uneven, with Luzon – Metro Manila in particular – gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions. Service industries such as tourism and business process outsourcing have been identified as areas with some of the best opportunities for growth for the country. The Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry is composed of eight sub-sectors, namely, knowledge process outsourcing and back offices, animation, call centers, software development, game development, engineering design, and medical transcription. , the Philippines was reported as having eclipsed India as the main center of BPO services in the world.
Science and technology
The Department of Science and Technology is the governing agency responsible for the development of coordination of science and technology-related projects in the Philippines.
Research organizations in the country include the International Rice Research Institute, which focuses on the development of new rice varieties and rice crop management techniques.
The Philippines bought its first satellite in 1996.
In 2016, the Philippines first micro-satellite, Diwata-1 was launched aboard the US Cygnus spacecraft. The Philippines has a high concentration of cellular phone users. [ "Asia's Fab 50 Companies: PLDT-Philippine Long Distance Telephone". Forbes. September 3, 2008. Retrieved 2009-13-14.] Text messaging is a popular form of communication and, in 2007, the nation sent an average of one billion SMS messages per day. [Francisco, Rosemarie. (March 4, 2008). Filipinos sent 1 billion text messages daily in 2007. The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Reuters. Retrieved July 6, 2020.] The country has a high level of mobile financial services utilization. [Teves, Oliver. (October 29, 2007). Cell phones double as electronic wallets in Philippines. USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved July 6, 2020.] The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, commonly known as PLDT, is a formerly nationalized telecommunications provider. It is also the largest company in the country. [ Special Report: The Global 2000. (April 2, 2008). Forbes. p.10. Retrieved July 6, 2020.] The National Telecommunications Commission is the agency responsible for the supervision, adjudication and control over all telecommunications services throughout the country. There are approximately 417 AM and 1079 FM radio stations and 438 television and 1,551 cable television stations. On March 29, 1994, the country was connected to the Internet via a 64 kbit/s connection from a router serviced by PLDT to a Sprint router in California. Estimates for Internet penetration in the Philippines vary widely ranging from a low of 2.5 million to a high of 24 million people. [Internet World Stats. (2009). Philippines: Internet Usage Stats and Marketing Report . Miniwatts Marketing Group. Retrieved January 22, 2009.] Social networking and watching videos are among the most frequent Internet activities. The Philippine population is the world's top internet user. [Kate Lamb, "Philippines tops world internet usage index with an average 10 hours a day","The Guardian", February 1, 2019]
The travel and tourism sector contributed 10.6% of the country's GDP in 2015
and providing 1,226,500 jobs in 2013. 8,260,913 international visitors arrived from January to December 2019, up by 15.24% for the same period in 2018. of these came from East Asia, came from North America, and came from other ASEAN countries. The island of Boracay, popular for its beaches, was named as the best island in the world by Travel + Leisure in 2012. The Philippines is also a popular retirement destination for foreigners due to its climate and low cost of living.
Transportation in the Philippines is facilitated by road, air, rail and waterways. As of December 2018, there are of roads in the Philippines, with only of roads paved.
The Strong Republic Nautical Highway (SRNH), an integrated set of highway segments and ferry routes covering 17 cities was established in 2003. [ Strong Republic Nautical Highway . (n.d.). Official Website of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. Retrieved January 22, 2009.] The Pan-Philippine Highway connects the islands of Luzon, Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao, forming the backbone of land-based transportation in the country. Roads are the dominant form of transport, carrying 98% of people and 58% of cargo. A network of expressways extends from the capital to other areas of Luzon. The Cebu–Cordova Link Expressway in Cebu will be finished by 2021. Traffic is a significant issue facing the country, especially within Manila and on arterial roads connecting to the capital.
Public transport in the country include buses, , UV Express, TNVS, Filcab, , and .
Jeepneys are a popular and iconic public utility vehicle. Jeepneys and other Public Utility Vehicles which are older than 15 years are being phased out gradually in favor of a more efficient and environmentally friendly Euro 4 compliant vehicles.
Despite wider historical use, rail transport in the Philippines is extremely limited, being confined to transporting passengers within Metro Manila and neighboring Laguna, with a separate short track in the Bicol Region.
There are plans to revive Freight transport to reduce road congestion. , the country had a railway footprint of only 79 kilometers, which it had plans to expand up to 244 kilometers. Metro Manila is served by three rapid transit lines: LRT Line 1, LRT Line 2 and MRT Line 3. [United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. (1993). Provision of Travelway Space for Urban Public Transport in Developing Countries. UN–HABITAT. pp. 15, 26–70, 160–179. .] The PNR South Commuter Line transports passengers between Metro Manila and Laguna. Railway lines that are under-construction include the Line 2 East Extension Project (2020), the MRT Line 7 (2020), the Metro Manila Subway (2025), and the PNR North-South Commuter Railway which is divided into several phases, with partial operations to begin in 2022. The civil airline industry is regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines. Philippine Airlines is Asia's oldest commercial airline still operating under its original name. Cebu Pacific is the countries leading low-cost carrier.
As an archipelago, inter-island travel using watercraft is often necessary.
[ PH firm takes on challenge to improve sea travel. Published by Philippine Daily Inquirer (Written By: Ira P. Pedrasa)] Boats have always been important to societies in the Philippines. Most boats are outrigger boat vessels, which can reach up to in length, known as banca / bangka, (2021
, Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Republic of the Philippines. ISBN 9789719275343
parao, prahu, or balanghay. A variety of boat types are used throughout the islands, such as dugout canoe ( baloto) and house-boats like the lepa-lepa. Terms such as bangka and baroto are also used as general names for a variety of boat types. Modern ships use plywood in place of logs and motor engines in place of sails. These ships are used both for fishing and for inter-island travel. The principal of Manila, Batangas, Subic Bay, Cebu, Iloilo, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, General Santos, and Zamboanga form part of the ASEAN Transport Network. The Pasig River Ferry serves the cities of Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig and Marikina in Metro Manila. [ Gov't revives Pasig River ferry service. (February 14, 2007). GMA News. Retrieved December 18, 2009.]
Water supply and sanitation
In 2015, it was reported by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation that 74% of the population had access to improved sanitation, and that "good progress" had been made between 1990 and 2015.
As of 2016, 96% of Filipino households have an improved source of drinking water, and 92% of households had sanitary toilet facilities, although connections of these toilet facilities to appropriate sewerage systems remain largely insufficient especially in rural and urban poor communities.
World Health Organization (2015
, World Health Organization.
. ISBN 9789241509145
There is significant cultural diversity across the islands, reinforced by the fragmented geography of the country.
The cultures within Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago developed in a particularly distinct manner, due to very limited degree of Spanish influence and greater influence from nearby Islamic regions. Despite this, a national identity National revival in the 19th century, the development of which is represented by shared national symbols and other cultural and historical touchstones.
One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of Spanish names and surnames among Filipinos; a Spanish name and surname, however, does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial edict by Governor-General Narciso Clavería y Zaldua, which ordered the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of Hispanic nomenclature on the population.
The names of many locations are also Spanish, or stem from Spanish roots and origins. Dumont, Jean-Paul (1992
, University of Chicago Press.
. ISBN 9780226169545
There is a substantial American influence on modern Filipino culture.
The common use of the English language is an example of the American impact on Philippine society. It has contributed to the influence of American pop cultural trends. This affinity is seen in Filipinos' consumption of fast food and American film and music. American global fast-food chain stalwarts have entered the market, but local fast-food chains like Goldilocks and most notably Jollibee, the leading fast-food chain in the country, have emerged and compete successfully against foreign chains.
The Ati-Atihan, Moriones and Sinulog festivals are among the most well-known.
Philippine mythology has been handed down primarily through the traditional oral folk literature of the Filipino people. Some popular figures from Philippine mythologies are Maria Makiling, Lam-Ang, and the Sarimanok.
Lopez, Mellie Leandicho (2021
, University of the Philippines Press.
. ISBN 9789715425148
Philippine literature comprises works usually written in Filipino, Spanish, or English. Some of the most known were created from the 17th to 19th century.
[Literatura Filipina en Castellano, Madrid, 1974. ] Ibong Adarna, for example, is a famous epic about an eponymous magical bird allegedly written by José de la Cruz or "Huseng Sisiw". Francisco Balagtas, the poet and playwright who wrote Florante at Laura, is recognized as a preeminent writer in the Tagalog (Filipino) language. José Rizal wrote the novels Noli Me Tángere ( Touch Me Not) and El Filibusterismo ( The Filibustering, also known as The Reign of Greed).
Gregorio and Sonia Zaide (1999
, All Nations publishing Co. Inc..
. ISBN 9789716420708
Spanish architecture has left an imprint in the Philippines in the way many towns were designed around a poblacion or plaza mayor, but many of the buildings bearing its influence were demolished during World War II.
Four Philippine baroque churches are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the San Agustín Church in Manila, Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte, Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Santa María) Church in Ilocos Sur, and Miagao Church in Iloilo. Vigan in Ilocos Sur is also known for the many Hispanic-style houses and buildings preserved there.
American rule introduced new architectural styles. This led to the construction of government buildings and Art Deco theaters. During the American period, some semblance of city planning using the architectural designs and master plans by Daniel Burnham was done on the portions of the city of Manila. Part of the Burnham plan was the construction of government buildings that resembled Greek or Neoclassical architecture.
In Iloilo City, structures from both the Spanish and American periods can still be seen, especially in Calle Real. Certain areas of the country like Batanes have slight differences as both Spanish and Filipino ways of architecture assimilated differently due to the climate. Limestones were used as a building material, with houses being built to withstand typhoons.
During the Spanish era Rondalya music, where traditional string orchestra mandolin type instruments were used, was widespread.
[ Filipino Arts & Music Ensemble , Filipino Heritage, The Making of a Nation, Volume 9, 1978, famenyc.org] Kundiman developed in the 1920s and 30's, and had a renaissance in the postwar period. The American colonial period exposed many Filipinos to US culture and popular forms of music. Rock music was introduced to Filipinos in the 1960s, and developed into Filipino rock, or "Pinoy rock", a term encompassing diverse styles such as pop rock, alternative rock, heavy metal, punk rock, new wave, ska, and reggae. Martial law in the 1970s produced several Filipino folk rock bands and artists who were at the forefront of political demonstrations. The 1970s also saw the birth of Manila Sound and Original Pilipino Music (OPM). Filipino hip-hop traces its origins back to 1979, entering the mainstream in 1990. Recently K-pop has become popular. Karaoke is a popular activity in the country.
In general, there are two types of Philippine traditional folk dance. The first one reflects the influence under the Spanish occupation and the other, the country's profuseness of tribes that offer their own tribal dances. The music that incorporates the former are mostly bandurria-based bands that utilizes 14th string guitars. One example of such type is the Cariñosa. A Hispanic Filipino dance, unofficially considered as the "National Dance of the Philippines".
Another example is the Tinikling.
In the Modern and Post-Modern time periods, dances may vary from the delicate ballet up to the more street-oriented styles of breakdancing.
As a general description, the distinct value system of Filipinos is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly Christianity), and commercial relationships.
[ Social Values and Organization, Philippines, Country Studies US. Online version of print book Ronald E. Dolan, ed. Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1991.]
Filipino values are, for the most part, centered around maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group. The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of " Hiya", roughly translated as 'a sense of shame',
and " Amor propio" or 'self-esteem'. Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think, say or do, are strong influences on social behavior among Filipinos. [Hallig, Jason V. Communicating Holiness to the Filipinos: Challenges and Needs , The Path to a Filipino Theology of Holiness, pp. 2, 10.]
Other elements of the Filipino value system are optimism about the future, pessimism about present situations and events, concern and care for other people, the existence of friendship and friendliness, the habit of being hospitable, religious nature, respectfulness to self and others, respect for the female members of society, the fear of God, and abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery.
[ File dated April 8, 2000. In ]
Regional variations exist throughout the islands, for example rice is a standard starch in Luzon while cassava is more common in Mindanao.
Filipino taste buds tend to favor robust flavors, but the cuisine is not as spicy as those of its neighbors.
Zialcita, Fernando Nakpil (2021
, Ateneo de Manila University Press.
. ISBN 9789715504799
Unlike many Asians, most Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks; they use Western cutlery. However, possibly due to rice being the primary staple food and the popularity of a large number of stews and main dishes with broth in Filipino cuisine, the main pairing of utensils seen at the Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork, not knife and fork.
The traditional way of eating with the hands known as kamayan (using the hand for bringing food to the mouth)
was previously more often seen in the less urbanized areas. However, due to the various Filipino restaurants that introduced Filipino food to people of other nationalities, as well as to Filipino urbanites, kamayan fast became popular. This recent trend also sometimes incorporates the "Boodle fight" concept (as popularized and coined by the Philippine Army), wherein banana leaves are used as giant plates on top of which rice portions and Filipino viands are placed all together for a filial, friendly or communal kamayan feasting.
Philippine media uses mainly Filipino and English, though broadcasting has shifted to Filipino.
There are large numbers of both radio stations and newspapers. The top three newspapers by nationwide readership as well as credibility are the Philippine Daily Inquirer, Manila Bulletin, and The Philippine Star. While freedom of the press is protected by the constitution, the country is very dangerous for journalists. [ Country profile: The Philippines. (January 9, 2018). BBC News. Retrieved July 25, 2020.] The dominant television networks were ABS-CBN and GMA Network, both being free to air. ABS-CBN, at the time the largest network was shut down following a cease and desist order issued by the National Telecommunications Commission on May 5, 2020, a day after the expiration of the network's franchise. Prior to this move, Duterte accused ABS-CBN of being biased against his administration and vowed to block the renewal of their franchise. However, critics of the Duterte administration, human rights groups, and media unions said the shutdown of ABS-CBN was an attack on press freedom. On July 10, 2020, the House of Representatives declined a renewal of ABS-CBN's TV and radio franchise, voted 70–11.
TV, the Internet,
and social media, particularly Facebook, remain the top source of news and information for majority of Filipinos as newspaper readership continues to decline. English broadsheets are popular among executives, professionals and students. Cheaper Tagalog tabloids, which feature crime, sex, gossips and gore, saw a rise in the 1990s, and tend to be popular among the masses, particularly in Manila.
Philippine cinema began at the end of the 19th century,
and made up around 20% of the domestic market during the second half of the 20th century. During the 21st century however, the industry has struggled to compete with larger budget foreign films. Critically acclaimed Philippines films include Himala ( Miracle). Moving pictures were first shown in the Philippines on January 1, 1897. All films were all in Spanish since Philippine cinema was first introduced during the final years of the Spanish era of the country. Antonio Ramos was the first known movie producer. Meanwhile, Jose Nepomuceno was dubbed as the "Father of Philippine Movies". [ "The Role of José Nepomuceno in the Philippine Society: What language did his silent film speaks?". Stockholm University Publications. Retrieved on July 25, 2020.] His work marked the start of the local production of movies. Production companies remained small during the era of silent film, but 1933 saw the emergence of sound films and the arrival of the first significant production company. The postwar 1940s and the 1950s are regarded as a high point for Philippine cinema.
The growing dominance of Hollywood films and the cost of production has severely reduced local filmmaking.
[ A bleak storyline for the Filipino film industry. Conde, Carlos H. International Herald Tribune. February 11, 2007. (archived from the original on April 1, 2007)] [ RP Movie Industry Dying . Vanzi, Sol Jose. Newsflash. January 15, 2006.] Nonetheless, some local films continue to find success.
Basketball is played at both amateur and professional levels and is considered to be the most popular sport in the Philippines.
In 2010, Manny Pacquiao was named "Fighter of the Decade" for the 2000s by the Boxing Writers Association of America. The national martial art and sport of the country is Arnis. Sabong or cockfighting is another popular entertainment especially among Filipino men, and was documented by Magellan's voyage as a pastime in the kingdom of Taytay.
Beginning in 1924, the Philippines has competed in every Summer Olympic Games, except when they participated in the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics.
The Philippines is also the first tropical nation to compete at the Winter Olympic Games debuting in the 1972 edition.
Outline of the Philippines
Marciano R. De Borja (2021
, University of Nevada Press. ISBN 9780874175905
William Henry Scott (1994
, Ateneo de Manila University Press.
. ISBN 9789715501354
Wilhelm G. II Solheim (2021
, University of the Philippines Press. ISBN 9789715425087
Fernando Nakpil Zialcita (2021
, Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 9789715504799
Books and articles
History of the Philippine Islands in many volumes, from Project Gutenberg (indexed under Emma Helen Blair, the general editor)
About the influence of the Spanish people and language
: English-speaking Countries And Territories
, Former Colonies In Asia
, Former Spanish Colonies
, Island Countries
, Maritime Southeast Asia
, Member States Of Asean
, Member States Of The United Nations
, Newly Industrializing Countries
, Southeast Asian Countries
, Spanish East Indies
, States And Territories Established In 1565
, States And Territories Established In 1898
, States And Territories Established In 1946
, Volcanic Arc Islands
, Countries In Asia
, Former Japanese Colonies