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Karnataka () is a state in the south western region of . It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as the , it was renamed Karnataka in 1973. The state corresponds to the . The capital and largest city is (Bengaluru).

Karnataka is bordered by the to the west, to the northwest, to the north, to the northeast, to the east, to the southeast, and to the south. The state covers an area of , or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. , one of the classical languages of India, is the most widely spoken and official language of the state alongside , , , , , , and . Karnataka also contains some of the only villages in India where Sanskrit is primarily spoken.

The two main river systems of the state are the and its tributaries, the , Ghataprabha, , and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka in and the and its tributaries, the , , , and , in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward, reaching the sea at the Bay of Bengal.

Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the generally accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu Nadu may also be read as karu, meaning "black" and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the found in the region of the state. The used the word , sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna.See 's life of Clive and James Talboys Wheeler: Early History of British India, London (1878) p.98. The principal meaning is the western half of this area, but the rulers there controlled the as well.

With an antiquity that dates to the , Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India. The philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day. Karnataka has contributed significantly to both forms of Indian classical music, the and traditions.

The economy of Karnataka is the third-largest state economy in India with in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of .


History
Karnataka's pre-history goes back to a hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, and cleavers in the region. Evidence of and cultures have also been found in the state. Gold discovered in was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE.

Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the before coming under the of . Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed, allowing them to control large areas of Karnataka. The decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the and the , marking the region's emergence as an independent political entity. The , founded by , had its capital at ;From the inscription (Dr. B. L. Rice in Kamath (2001), p. 30.)Moares (1931), p. 10. the Western Ganga Dynasty was formed with as its capital.Adiga and Sheik Ali in Adiga (2006), p. 89.Ramesh (1984), pp. 1–2.

These were also the first kingdoms to use in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi.From the Halmidi inscription (Ramesh 1984, pp. 10–11.)Kamath (2001), p. 10. These dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the ,The Chalukyas hailed from present-day Karnataka (Keay (2000), p. 168.)The Chalukyas were native (N. Laxminarayana Rao and Dr. S. C. Nandinath in Kamath (2001), p. 57.) the Rashtrakuta Empire of ManyakhetaAltekar (1934), pp. 21–24.Masica (1991), pp. 45–46. and the Western Chalukya Empire,Balagamve in Mysore territory was an early power centre (Cousens (1926), pp. 10, 105.)Tailapa II, the founder king was the governor of Tardavadi in modern Bijapur district, under the Rashtrakutas (Kamath (2001), p. 101.). which ruled over large parts of the and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the art of the 12th century.Kamath (2001), p. 115.Foekema (2003), p. 9. Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka (Gangavadi) were occupied by the at the turn of the 11th century.Sastri (1955), p.164 The Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it eventually came under Hoysala rule.

At the turn of the first millennium, the gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, and the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the style of architecture.Kamath (2001), pp. 132–134.Sastri (1955), pp. 358–359, 361.Foekema (1996), p. 14.Kamath (2001), pp. 122–124. The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern and under its rule. In the early 14th century, and established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana (later named ), on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district. The empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it completely controlled for over two centuries.Kamath (2001), pp. 157–160.Kulke and Rothermund (2004), p. 188.

In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota.Kamath (2001), pp. 190–191. The Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan; it was defeated by the in the late 17th century.Kamath (2001), p. 201.Kamath (2001), p. 202. The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and architecture, the being one of the high points of this style.Kamath (2001), p. 207. During the sixteenth century, Hindus migrated to Karnataka, mostly from , ,

(2019). 9780700711307, Routledge. .
while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, migrated to and , especially from , Goa, as a result of food shortages, epidemics and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.

In the period that followed, parts of northern Karnataka were ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad, the , the , and other powers.A History of India by p.190 In the south, the , a former of the Vijayanagara Empire, was briefly independent.Kamath (2001), p. 171. With the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, , the commander-in-chief of the Mysore army, gained control of the region. After his death, the kingdom was inherited by his son .Kamath (2001), pp. 171, 173, 174, 204. To contain European expansion in South India, Haidar Ali and later Tipu Sultan fought four significant Anglo-Mysore Wars, the last of which resulted in Tippu Sultan's death and the incorporation of Mysore into the in 1799.Kamath (2001), pp. 231–234. The Kingdom of Mysore was restored to the Wodeyars and Mysore remained a princely state under the British Raj.

As the "doctrine of lapse" gave way to dissent and resistance from princely states across the country, , and others spearheaded rebellions in Karnataka in 1830, nearly three decades before the Indian Rebellion of 1857. However, Kitturu was taken over by the British East India Company even before the doctrine was officially articulated by Lord Dalhousie in 1848. Other uprisings followed, such as the ones at , , , and . These rebellions — which coincided with the Indian Rebellion of 1857 – were led by Mundargi Bhimarao, Bhaskar Rao Bhave, the Halagali Bedas, Raja Venkatappa Nayaka and others. By the late 19th century, the independence movement had gained momentum; Karnad Sadashiva Rao, Aluru Venkata Raya, S. Nijalingappa, Kengal Hanumanthaiah, Nittoor Srinivasa Rau and others carried on the struggle into the early 20th century.

After India's independence, the Maharaja, Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar, allowed his kingdom's accession to India. In 1950, Mysore became an Indian state of the same name; the former Maharaja served as its Rajpramukh (head of state) until 1975. Following the long-standing demand of the Ekikarana Movement, Kodagu- and Kannada-speaking regions from the adjoining states of Madras, Hyderabad and Bombay were incorporated into the Mysore state, under the States Reorganisation Act of 1956. The thus expanded state was renamed Karnataka, seventeen years later, in 1973. In the early 1900s through the post-independence era, industrial visionaries such as Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya, born in , district, played an important role in the development of Karnataka's strong manufacturing and industrial base.


Geography
The state has three principal geographical zones:

  1. The coastal region of
  2. The hilly region comprising the
  3. The region comprising the plains of the

The bulk of the state is in the Bayaluseeme region, the northern part of which is the second-largest region in India. The highest point in Karnataka is the hills in Chickmagalur district which has an altitude of . Some of the important rivers in Karnataka are , , , and the . A large number of dams and reservoirs are constructed across these rivers which richly add to the and hydel power generation capacities of the state.

Karnataka consists of four main types of geological formations — the complex made up of and granitic , the non-fossiliferous sedimentary formations of the Kaladgi and Bhima series, the Deccan trappean and intertrappean deposits and the tertiary and recent and alluvial deposits. Significantly, about 60% of the state is composed of the Archean complex which consist of gneisses, granites and charnockite rocks. Laterite cappings that are found in many districts over the were formed after the cessation of volcanic activity in the early tertiary period. Eleven groups of soil orders are found in Karnataka, viz. , , , , , , , , , and . Depending on the agricultural capability of the soil, the soil types are divided into six types, viz. red, , , alluvio-colluvial, forest and coastal soils.

Karnataka experiences four seasons. The winter in January and February is followed by summer between March and May, the monsoon season between June and September and the post-monsoon season from October till December. , Karnataka is divided into three zones — coastal, north interior and south interior. Of these, the coastal zone receives the heaviest rainfall with an average rainfall of about per annum, far in excess of the state average of . in Khanapur received 10,068 mm of rainfall in the year 2010 followed by in Meghalaya received 13,472 mm of rainfall.In the year 2014 in Sirsi taluk received 8,746 mm of rainfall was the wettest region in the state whereas received 10,235 mm of rainfall in that year. and were considered as rain city or rain capital of Karnataka ,being considered as one of the wettest region in the world.Agumbe's receiving the second highest rainfall in India is mentioned by The highest recorded temperature was at and the lowest recorded temperature was at .

The following table shows the places with recorded coldest temperature in Karnataka Year:2019 Source: KSNDMC

+ !Rank !District !Taluk !Hobli/Village !Temperature in Celsius
1Nittur Buzurg4
2Garag4.1
3Bijapur districtSingiAlmel4.1
4Hukkeri4.1
5Tumakuru district4.1
6Kamalnagar4.3
7Balegodu4.3
84.7
9Chikmagalur districtBankal4.9
10SirsiSampakhanda5

About of Karnataka (i.e. 20% of the state's geographic area) is covered by forests. The forests are classified as reserved, protected, unclosed, village and private forests. The percentage of forested area is slightly less than the all-India average of about 23%, and significantly less than the 33% prescribed in the National Forest Policy.


Rainfall in Karnataka
and in Shivamogga District of Western Ghat region is considered as '' Cherrapunji of South India" but still some places in Western Ghats region had resulted much more rainfall than these two villages. in District recorded magical number of 10,068 mm in the year 2010 , Mundrote in recorded 9974 mm in the year 2011.

The table below compares rainfall  between Agumbe in Thirthahalli taluk in Shimoga district, Hulikal in Hosanagara taluk in Shimoga district, Amagaon in Khanapur Taluk in district and Talakaveri and Mundrote in Madikeri taluk in Kodagu district, Kokalli of Sirsi Taluk ,Nilkund of Siddapur Taluk, CastleRock of Supa(Joida) Taluk in Uttara Kannada District, Kollur in Udupi District to show which one can be called the " of South India".

20175,7006,3114,7335,85931304981556010025203
20165,7216,4494,7055,43026824655496814583496
20156,0355,5184,0135,31927304367366731434254
20147,9077,9175,5807,84487466710595655663308
20139,3838,7708,4408,62844647082366771996614
20128,4096,9335,9875,72250365398616537276715
20118,5237,9219,3686,85544376593708399747083
20107,7176,92910,0686,7944002--50427685
20098,3577,982-----
20087,1157,199-----
20079,0388,255-----
20068,6568,457-----

The following were the top 5 places that recorded highest rainfall in statistics 2010-2017

+ !Rank !Hobli/Village !District !Taluk !Year !Rainfall in mm !Elevation in metres
1201010,068785
2Mundrote/20119,974585
320139,383614
420138,770643
5Kokalli/KakalliSirsi20148,746780
The following places recorded highest rainfall with respect to each year 2010-2017
+ !Year !Place !Taluk !District !Rainfall in mm !Elevation
20176,311634
2016Agumbe6,449634
2015Hulikal6,035614
2014KokalliSirsi8,746780
2013Hulikal9,383614
2012Hulikal8,409614
2011Mundrote9,974585
2010Amagaon10,068785


Sub-divisions
There are 30 districts in Karnataka:

Each district is governed by a district commissioner or district magistrate. The districts are further divided into sub-divisions, which are governed by sub-divisional magistrates; sub-divisions comprise blocks containing (village councils) and town municipalities.


Cities
At the 2011 census, Karnataka's ten largest cities, sorted in order of decreasing population, were , -, , , , , , , and .
1 (Bengaluru)8,728,906
2 (Hubballi–Dharwad)943,857
3 (Mysuru)887,446
4 (Kalaburagi)Gulbarga district532,031
5 (Belagavi)488,292
6 (Mangaluru)Dakshina Kannada district484,785
7 (Davangere)Davanagere district435,128
8 (Ballari)409,444
9 (Bijapur)Vijayapur district327,427
10 (Shivamogga)322,428


Demographics
According to the 2011 census of India, the total population of Karnataka was 61,095,297 of which 30,966,657 (50.7%) were male and 30,128,640 (49.3%) were female, or 1000 males for every 973 females. This represents a 15.60% increase over the population in 2001. The population density was 319 per km2 and 38.67% of the people lived in urban areas. The literacy rate was 75.36% with 82.47% of males and 68.08% of females being literate. 84.00% of the population were , 12.92% were , 1.87% were , 0.72% were , 0.16% were , 0.05% were and 0.02% were belonging to other religions and 0.27% of the population did not state their religion.

In 2007 the state had a birth rate of 2.2%, a death rate of 0.7%, an infant mortality rate of 5.5% and a maternal mortality rate of 0.2%. The total fertility rate was 2.2.

In the field of speciality health care, Karnataka's private sector competes with the best in the world. Karnataka has also established a modicum of public health services having a better record of health care and child care than most other states of India. In spite of these advances, some parts of the state still leave much to be desired when it comes to primary health care.


Government and administration
Karnataka has a system of government with two democratically elected houses, the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council. The Legislative Assembly consists of 224 members who are elected for five-year terms. The Legislative Council is a permanent body of 75 members with one-third (25 members) retiring every two years.

The government of Karnataka is headed by the Chief Minister who is chosen by the ruling party members of the Legislative Assembly. The Chief Minister, along with the council of ministers, executes the legislative agenda and exercises most of the executive powers.Pylee, M. V. 2003. Constitutional government in India. New Delhi: S. Chand & Co, p. 365. However, the constitutional and formal head of the state is the Governor who is appointed for a five-year term by the President of India on the advice of the Union government."The Head of the State is called the Governor who is the constitutional head of the state as the President is for the whole of India", Pylee, M. V. 2003. Constitutional government in India. New Delhi: S. Chand & Co, p. 357. The people of Karnataka also elect 28 members to the , the lower house of the Indian Parliament. The members of the state Legislative Assembly elect 12 members to the , the upper house of the Indian Parliament.

For administrative purposes, Karnataka has been divided into four revenue divisions, 49 sub-divisions, 30 districts, 175 and 745 hoblies / revenue circles. The administration in each district is headed by a Deputy Commissioner who belongs to the Indian Administrative Service and is assisted by a number of officers belonging to Karnataka state services. The Deputy Commissioner of Police, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service and assisted by the officers of the Karnataka Police Service, is entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining law and order and related issues in each district. The Deputy Conservator of Forests, an officer belonging to the Indian Forest Service, is entrusted with the responsibility of managing forests, environment and wildlife of the district, he will be assisted by the officers belonging to Karnataka Forest Service and officers belonging to Karnataka Forest Subordinate Service. Sectoral development in the districts is looked after by the district head of each development department such as Public Works Department, Health, Education, Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, etc. The judiciary in the state consists of the Karnataka High Court ( Attara Kacheri) in Bangalore, Dharwad, and Gulbarga, district and session courts in each district and lower courts and judges at the taluk level.

Politics in Karnataka has been dominated by three political parties, the Indian National Congress, the Janata Dal (Secular) and the Bharatiya Janata Party. Politicians from Karnataka have played prominent roles in federal government of India with some of them having held the high positions of Prime Minister and Vice-President. Border disputes involving Karnataka's claim on the Kasaragod and districts and 's claim on Belgaum are ongoing since the states reorganisation. The official has a in the centre. Surmounting this are four lions facing the four directions, taken from the Lion Capital of Ashoka at . The emblem also carries two with the head of an and the body of a .


Economy
Karnataka had an estimated GSDP (Gross State Domestic Product) of about US$115.86 billion in the 2014–15 fiscal year. The state registered a GSDP growth rate of 7% for the year 2014–2015. Karnataka's contribution to India's GDP in the year 2014–15 was 7.54%. With GDP growth of 17.59% and per capita GDP growth of 16.04%, Karnataka is on the 6th position among all states and union territories. In an employment survey conducted for the year 2013–2014, the unemployment rate in Karnataka was 1.8% compared to the national rate of 4.9%. A article argues Karnataka to be India's most prosperous state citing many reasons. In 2011–2012, Karnataka had an estimated poverty ratio of 20.91% compared to the national ratio of 21.92%.

Nearly 56% of the workforce in Karnataka is engaged in agriculture and related activities. A total of 12.31 million hectares of land, or 64.6% of the state's total area, is cultivated. Much of the agricultural output is dependent on the southwest monsoon as only 26.5% of the sown area is irrigated.

Karnataka is the manufacturing hub for some of the largest industries in India, including Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, National Aerospace Laboratories, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Bharat Earth Movers Limited and HMT (formerly Hindustan Machine Tools), which are based in Bangalore. Many of India's premier science and technology research centres, such as Indian Space Research Organisation, Central Power Research Institute, Bharat Electronics Limited and the Central Food Technological Research Institute, are also headquartered in Karnataka. is an , located in Mangalore.

The state has also begun to invest heavily in centred on the Pavagada Solar Park. As of December 2017, the state has installed an estimated 2.2 gigawatts of block solar panelling and in January 2018 announced a tender to generate a further 1.2 gigawatts in the coming years: Karnataka Renewable Energy Development suggests that this will be based on 24 separate systems (or 'blocks') generating 50 megawatts each., KREDL tenders 1.2GW of solar PV

Since the 1980s, Karnataka has emerged as the pan-Indian leader in the field of IT (information technology). In 2007, there were nearly 2,000 firms operating in Karnataka. Many of them, including two of India's biggest software firms, and , are also headquartered in the state. Exports from these firms exceeded 50,000 crores ($12.5 billion) in 2006–07, accounting for nearly 38% of all IT exports from India. The Nandi Hills area in the outskirts of is the site of the upcoming $22 billion, 50 square kilometre BIAL IT Investment Region, one of the largest infrastructure projects in the history of Karnataka. All this has earned the state capital, Bangalore, the sobriquet Silicon Valley of India.

Karnataka also leads the nation in . It is home to India's largest biocluster, with 158 of the country's 320 biotechnology firms being based here. The state accounts for 75% of India's , an upcoming industry which supplies flowers and ornamental plants worldwide.

Seven of India's banks, , , , , , ING Vysya Bank and the State Bank of Mysore originated in this state. The coastal districts of and have a branch for every 500 persons—the best distribution of banks in India. In March 2002, Karnataka had 4767 branches of different banks with each branch serving 11,000 persons, which is lower than the national average of 16,000.

A majority of the silk industry in India is headquartered in Karnataka, much of it in , and the state government intends to invest 70 crore in a "Silk City" at , near Bangalore International Airport.


Transport
Air transport in Karnataka, as in the rest of the country, is still a fledgling but fast expanding sector. Karnataka has airports at , , , , , and with international operations from Bangalore and Mangalore airports.

Karnataka has a railway network with a total length of approximately . Until the creation of the South Western Zone headquartered at in 2003, the railway network in the state was in the Southern and Western railway zones. Several parts of the state now come under the South Western Zone, with the remainder under the Southern Railways. Coastal Karnataka is covered under the network which was considered India's biggest railway project of the century. Bangalore is well-connected with inter-state destinations, while other towns in the state are not.

Karnataka has 11 ports, including the New Mangalore Port, a major port and ten minor ports, of which three were operational in 2012. The New Mangalore port was incorporated as the ninth major port in India on 4 May 1974. This port handled 32.04 million tonnes of traffic in the fiscal year 2006–07 with 17.92 million tonnes of imports and 14.12 million tonnes of exports. The port also handled 1015 vessels including 18 cruise vessels during the year 2006–07. Foreigners can enter Mangalore through the New Mangalore Port with the help of Electronic visa (e-visa). from , and arrive at New Mangalore Port to visit the tourist places across Coastal Karnataka.

The total lengths of National Highways and state highways in Karnataka are , respectively. The KSRTC, the state public transport corporation, transports an average of 2.2 million passengers daily and employs about 25,000 people. In the late nineties, KSRTC was split into four corporations, viz., The Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation, The North-East Karnataka Road Transport Corporation and The North-West Karnataka Road Transport Corporation with their headquarters in Bangalore, Gulbarga and Hubli respectively, and with the remnant of the KSRTC maintaining operations in the rest of the state from its headquarters in Bangalore.


Culture
The diverse linguistic and religious ethnicities that are native to Karnataka, combined with their long histories, have contributed immensely to the varied cultural heritage of the state. Apart from Kannadigas, Karnataka is home to , and . Minor populations of and tribes like the , Yeravas, and Siddhis also live in Karnataka. The traditional folk arts cover the entire gamut of music, dance, drama, storytelling by itinerant troupes, etc. Yakshagana of Malnad and coastal Karnataka, a classical dance drama, is one of the major theatrical forms of Karnataka. Contemporary theatre culture in Karnataka remains vibrant with organisations like , , and Prabhat Kalavidaru continuing to build on the foundations laid by , T. P. Kailasam, B. V. Karanth, K V Subbanna, Prasanna and others.Chief Editor:H Chittaranjan. 2005. Handbook of Karnataka, Gazetteer Department of the Government of Karnataka, Chapter XIII, pp. 332–337. , , and are popular dance forms. The Mysore style of , nurtured and popularised by the likes of the legendary Jatti Tayamma, continues to hold sway in Karnataka, and Bangalore also enjoys an eminent place as one of the foremost centres of Bharatanatya.H Chittaranjan (chief editor). 2005. Handbook of Karnataka, Gazetteer Department of the Government of Karnataka, Chapter XIII, pp. 350–352.

Karnataka also has a special place in the world of Indian classical music, with both Karnataka Karnataka Music as Aesthetic Form/R. Sathyanarayana. New Delhi, Centre for Studies in Civilizations, 2004, xiii, 185 p., . () and styles finding place in the state, and Karnataka has produced a number of stalwarts in both styles. The movement of the sixteenth century contributed significantly to the development of Karnataka (Carnatic) music as a performing art form. , one of the most revered , is known as the Karnataka Sangeeta Pitamaha ('Father of Karnataka a.k.a. Carnatic music'). Celebrated Hindustani musicians like , Mallikarjun Mansur, , Basavaraja Rajaguru, and several others hail from Karnataka, and some of them have been recipients of the , and awards. Noted Carnatic musicians include Violin T. Chowdiah, Veena Sheshanna, Mysore Vasudevachar, Doreswamy Iyengar and Thitte Krishna Iyengar.

Gamaka is another classical music based on Carnatic music that is practised in Karnataka. Kannada Bhavageete is a genre of popular music that draws inspiration from the expressionist poetry of modern poets. The Mysore school of painting has produced painters like Sundarayya, Tanjavur Kondayya, B. Venkatappa and Keshavayya.Kamath (2001), p. 283. Chitrakala Parishat is an organisation in Karnataka dedicated to promoting painting, mainly in the style.

is the traditional dress of women in Karnataka. Women in Kodagu have a distinct style of wearing the saree, different from the rest of Karnataka. , known as Panche in Karnataka, is the traditional attire of men. , and are widely worn in Urban areas. is the traditional headgear of southern Karnataka, while the pagadi or pataga (similar to the Rajasthani turban) is preferred in the northern areas of the state.

and form the staple food in South Karnataka, whereas , is staple to North Karnataka. Bisi bele bath, , , , , and are some of the popular food items in Karnataka. Among sweets, , of and , Belgaavi Kunda and are popular. Apart from this, coastal Karnataka and Kodagu have distinctive cuisines of their own. of coastal Karnataka is popular all over India.


Religion
Adi Shankaracharya (788–820) chose in Karnataka to establish the first of his four (monastery). (1238–1317) was the chief proponent of (Philosophy of Reality), popularly known as or Dualistic school of Hindu philosophy — one of the three most influential philosophies. Madhvacharya was one of the important philosophers during the . He was a pioneer in many ways, going against standard conventions and norms. According to tradition, Madhvacharya is believed to be the third incarnation of (Mukhyaprana), after and . The devotional movement is considered as one of the turning points in the cultural history of India. Over a span of nearly six centuries, several saints and mystics helped shape the culture, philosophy, and art of South India and Karnataka in particular by exerting considerable spiritual influence over the masses and kingdoms that ruled South India.

This movement was ushered in by the Haridasas (literally "servants of Lord Hari") and took shape in the 13th century – 14th century CE, period, prior to and during the early rule of the Vijayanagara empire. The main objective of this movement was to propagate the Dvaita philosophy of Madhvacharya (Madhva Siddhanta) to the masses through a literary medium known as literature of the servants of the Lord. is widely recognised as the "Pithamaha" of for his immense contribution. , the leading expounder of , spent many years in . He came to Karnataka in 1098 AD and lived here until 1122 AD. He first lived in Tondanur and then moved to Melkote where the Cheluvanarayana Swamy Temple and a well-organised matha were built. He was patronised by the Hoysala king, .Kamath (2001), pp. 150–152

In the twelfth century, emerged in northern Karnataka as a protest against the rigidity of the prevailing social and caste system. Leading figures of this movement were , and , who established the which was the centre of all religious and philosophical thoughts and discussions pertaining to Lingayats. These three social reformers did so by the literary means of "Vachana Sahitya" which is very famous for its simple, straight forward and easily understandable Kannada language. Lingayatism preached women equality by letting women wear Ishtalinga i.e. Symbol of god around their neck. shunned the sharp hierarchical divisions that existed and sought to remove all distinctions between the hierarchically superior master class and the subordinate, servile class. He also supported inter-caste marriages and Kaayaka Tatva of Basavanna. This was the basis of the faith which today counts millions among its followers.Kamath (2001), pp. 152–154.

The philosophy and literature have contributed immensely to the religious and cultural landscape of Karnataka. , which had an early presence on the west coast of India as early as the tenth century, gained a foothold in Karnataka with the rise of the Bahamani and Bijapur sultanates that ruled parts of Karnataka.Sastri (1955), p. 396. reached Karnataka in the sixteenth century with the arrival of the Portuguese and St. Francis Xavier in 1545.Sastri (1955), p. 398.

was popular in Karnataka during the first millennium in places such as and . A chance discovery of edicts and several relics at in Gulbarga district in 1986 has proven that the basin was once home to both and Buddhism. There are Tibetan refugee camps in Karnataka.


Festivals
is celebrated as the Nada habba (state festival) and this is marked by major festivities at Mysore. , celebrated in the heart of Bangalore, is the second most important festival celebrated in Karnataka. (Kannada New Year), (the harvest festival), , , , , , , and are the other major festivals of Karnataka.


Language
is the official language of the state of Karnataka, as the native language of 66.54% of its population as of 2011 and is one of the classical languages of India. Other linguistic minorities in the state were (10.83%), (5.84%), (3.45%), (3.38%), (3.3%), (2.61%), (1.29%), (1.27%) and (0.18%).

played a crucial role in the creation of Karnataka: linguistic demographics played a major role in defining the new state in 1956. , and are other minor native languages that share a long history in the state. is spoken widely by the population. Less widely spoken languages include and certain languages such as Sankethi. Some of the regional languages in Karnataka are , , and .

Kannada features a rich and ancient body of literature including religious and secular genre, covering topics as diverse as (such as ), (such as ), (such as ) and modern literature. Evidence from edicts during the time of (reigned 274–232 BCE) suggest that Buddhist literature influenced the and its literature. The Halmidi inscription, the earliest attested full-length inscription in the Kannada language and script, dates from 450 CE, while the earliest available literary work, the , has been dated to 850 CE. References made in the Kavirajamarga, however, prove that Kannada literature flourished in the native composition meters such as Chattana, Beddande and Melvadu during earlier centuries. The classic refers to several earlier greats ( purvacharyar) of Kannada poetry and prose.Narasimhacharya (1988), pp. 12, 17.

, the renowned Kannada poet and writer who wrote Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate, the state anthem of Karnataka was the first recipient of the "" award, the highest civilian award bestowed by the Government of Karnataka. Contemporary Kannada literature has received considerable acknowledgement in the arena of Indian literature, with eight Kannada writers winning India's highest literary honour, the .

is spoken mainly in the of and . Tulu Mahabharato, written by Arunabja in the Tigalari script, is the oldest surviving Tulu text. Tigalari script was used by Brahmins to write language. The use of the for writing Tulu and non-availability of print in Tigalari script contributed to the marginalisation of Tigalari script. is mostly spoken in the and districts and in parts of , Konkani use the for writing. The who mainly reside in the , speak Kodava Takk. Two regional variations of the language exist, the northern Mendale Takka and the southern Kiggaati Takka. Kodava Takk use the Kannada script for writing. English is the medium of education in many schools and widely used for business communication in most private companies.

All of the state's languages are patronised and promoted by governmental and quasi-governmental bodies. The Kannada Sahitya Parishat and the Kannada Sahitya Akademi are responsible for the promotion of Kannada while the Karnataka Konkani Sahitya Akademi, the Tulu Sahitya Akademi and the Kodava Sahitya Akademi promote their respective languages.


Education
As per the 2011 census, Karnataka had a of 75.36%, with 82.47% of males and 68.08% of females in the state being literate. In 2001, the literacy rate of the state were 67.04%, with 76.29% of males and 57.45% of females being literate. The state is home to some of the premier educational and research institutions of India such as the Indian Institute of Science, the Indian Institute of Management, the Indian Institute of Technology Dharwad the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, the National Institute of Technology Karnataka and the National Law School of India University.

In March 2006, Karnataka had 54,529 primary schools with 252,875 teachers and 8.495 million students, and 9498 secondary schools with 92,287 teachers and 1.384 million students. There are three kinds of schools in the state, viz., government-run, private aided (financial aid is provided by the government) and private unaided (no financial aid is provided). The primary languages of instruction in most schools are Kannada and English.

The syllabus taught in the schools is either of the CBSE, the ICSE or the state syllabus () defined by the Department of Public Instruction of the Government of Karnataka. However, some schools follow the NIOS syllabus. The state has two sainik schools — in Kodagu Sainik School in Kodagu and in Bijapur Sainik School in Bijapur.

To maximise attendance in schools, the Karnataka Government has launched a midday meal scheme in government and aided schools in which free lunch is provided to the students.

are conducted at the end of secondary education. Students who qualify are allowed to pursue a two-year pre-university course, after which they become eligible to pursue under-graduate degrees.

There are 481 degree colleges affiliated with one of the in the state, viz. Bangalore University, Gulbarga University, Karnatak University, Kuvempu University, Mangalore University and Mysore University. In 1998, the engineering colleges in the state were brought under the newly formed Visvesvaraya Technological University headquartered at , whereas the medical colleges are run under the jurisdiction of the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences. Some of these baccalaureate colleges are accredited with the status of a deemed university. There are 186 engineering, 39 medical and 41 dental colleges in the state. , , Gokarna and are well-known places of and learning. In 2015 the Central Government decided to establish the first Indian Institute of Technology in Karnataka at . First IIT in Karnataka to Come up in Dharwad Tulu and Konkani languages are taught as an optional subject in the twin districts of and .

Christ University, , Manipal Academy Of Higher Education and are private universities in Karnataka.


High literacy districts
88.57%
87.67%
86.24%
84.06%
82.61%


High literacy taluks
92%
90%
89%
88%
88%


Media
The era of Kannada newspapers started in the year 1843 when Hermann Mögling, a from , published the first Kannada newspaper called Mangalooru Samachara in . The first Kannada periodical, Mysuru Vrittanta Bodhini was started by Bhashyam Bhashyacharya in Mysore. Shortly after Indian independence in 1948, K. N. Guruswamy founded The Printers (Mysore) Private Limited and began publishing two newspapers, and . Presently the Times of India and are the largest-selling English and Kannada newspapers respectively. A vast number of weekly, biweekly and monthly magazines are under publication in both Kannada and English. , , Samyukta Karnataka, , , Eesanje, , are also some popular dailies published from Karnataka.

is the broadcaster of the Government of India and its channel is dedicated to Kannada. Prominent Kannada channels include , and .

Karnataka occupies a special place in the history of Indian radio. In 1935, Aakashvani, the first private radio station in India, was started by Prof. M.V. Gopalaswamy in .Named by Na. Kasturi, a popular Kannada writer The popular radio station was taken over by the local municipality and later by All India Radio (AIR) and moved to Bangalore in 1955. Later in 1957, AIR adopted the original name of the radio station, Aakashavani as its own. Some of the popular programs aired by AIR Bangalore included Nisarga Sampada and Sasya Sanjeevini which were programs that taught science through songs, plays, and stories. These two programs became so popular that they were translated and broadcast in 18 different languages and the entire series was recorded on cassettes by the Government of Karnataka and distributed to thousands of schools across the state. Karnataka has witnessed a growth in FM radio channels, mainly in the cities of Bangalore, Mangalore and Mysore, which has become hugely popular.


Sports
Karnataka's smallest district, , is a major contributor to Indian field hockey, producing numerous players who have represented India at the international level. The annual Kodava Hockey Festival is the largest hockey tournament in the world. has hosted a WTA event and, in 1997, it hosted the fourth National Games of India. The Sports Authority of India, the premier sports institute in the country, and the Nike Tennis Academy are also situated in Bangalore. Karnataka has been referred to as the cradle of Indian swimming because of its high standards in comparison to other states.

One of the most popular sports in Karnataka is . The state cricket team has won the seven times, second only to Mumbai in terms of success. Chinnaswamy Stadium in Bangalore regularly hosts international matches and is also the home of the National Cricket Academy, which was opened in 2000 to nurture potential international players. Many cricketers have represented India and in one international match held in the 1990s; players from Karnataka composed the majority of the national team.Sujith Somasunder, , , , and , all from Karnataka played in this match: , , , , and , all from Karnataka played in this match: The Royal Challengers Bangalore, an Indian Premier League franchise, the Bengaluru Football Club, an Indian Super League franchise, the Bengaluru Yodhas, a Pro Wrestling League franchise, the Bengaluru Blasters, a Premier Badminton League franchise and the , a Pro Kabaddi League franchise are based in Bangalore. The Karnataka Premier League is an inter-regional Twenty20 cricket tournament played in the state.

Notable sportsmen from Karnataka include B.S. Chandrasekhar, E. A. S. Prasanna, , , , , , , Gundappa Vishwanath, , , K. L. Rahul, , , , , , , who won the All England Badminton Championships in 1980 and who has won three world titles in by the age of 20 including the amateur World Snooker Championship in 2003 and the World Billiards Championship in 2005.

Bijapur district has produced some of the best-known road cyclists in the national circuit. Premalata Sureban was part of the Indian contingent at the Perlis Open '99 in . In recognition of the talent of cyclists in the district, the state government laid down a cycling track at the B.R. Ambedkar Stadium at a cost of 40 lakh.

Sports like , , and goli () are played mostly in Karnataka's rural areas.


Flora and fauna
Karnataka has a rich diversity of flora and fauna. It has a recorded forest area of which constitutes 20.19% of the total geographical area of the state. These forests support 25% of the and 10% of the population of India. Many regions of Karnataka are as yet unexplored, so new species of flora and fauna are found periodically. The , a biodiversity hotspot, includes the western region of Karnataka. Two sub-clusters in the Western Ghats, viz. and , both in Karnataka, are on the tentative list of World Heritage Sites of . The Bandipur and Nagarahole National Parks, which fall outside these subclusters, were included in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in 1986, a UNESCO designation. The Indian roller and the are recognised as the state bird and animal while and the lotus are recognised as the state tree and flower respectively. Karnataka has five national parks: Anshi, Bandipur, Bannerghatta, Kudremukh and Nagarhole.A Walk on the Wild Side, An Information Guide to National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries of Karnataka, Compiled and Edited by Dr. Nima Manjrekar, Karnataka Forest Department, Wildlife Wing, October 2000 It also has 27 wildlife sanctuaries of which seven are bird sanctuaries. Wildlife Sanctuaries in India

Wild animals that are found in Karnataka include the , the , the , the , the , the , the muntjac, the , the slender loris, the common palm civet, the small Indian civet, the , the , the and the . Some of the birds found here are the , the Malabar pied hornbill, the , herons, ducks, kites, eagles, , quails, , , , pigeons, doves, , cuckoos, owls, , , , bee-eaters and . Some species of trees found in Karnataka are Callophyllum tomentosa, Callophyllum wightianum, Garcina cambogia, Garcina morealla, scholaris, Flacourtia montana, hirsutus, lacoocha, zeylanicum, tilaefolia, album, talura, officinalis, altissima and tinctoria. Wildlife in Karnataka is threatened by poaching, habitat destruction, human-wildlife conflict and pollution.


Tourism
By virtue of its varied geography and long history, Karnataka hosts numerous spots of interest for tourists. There is an array of ancient sculptured temples, modern cities, scenic hill ranges, forests and beaches. Karnataka has been ranked as the fourth most popular destination for tourism among the states of India. Karnataka has the second highest number of nationally protected monuments in India, second only to , in addition to 752 monuments protected by the State Directorate of Archaeology and Museums. Another 25,000 monuments are yet to receive protection.

The districts of the and the southern districts of the state have popular eco-tourism locations including , and . Karnataka has 25 wildlife sanctuaries and five national parks. Popular among them are Bandipur National Park, Bannerghatta National Park and Nagarhole National Park. The ruins of the Vijayanagara Empire at and the monuments of are on the list of 's World Heritage Sites. The cave temples at and the rock-cut temples at representing the Badami Chalukyan style of architecture are also popular tourist destinations. The temples at Belur and , which were built with Chloritic schist () are proposed UNESCO World Heritage sites. The Gol Gumbaz and Ibrahim Rauza are famous examples of the Deccan Sultanate style of architecture. The monolith of Gomateshwara at is the tallest sculpted monolith in the world, attracting tens of thousands of pilgrims during the Mahamastakabhisheka festival.Keay (2000), p. 324.

The waterfalls of Karnataka and are considered by some to be among the "1001 Natural Wonders of the World".Michael Bright, 1001 Natural Wonders of the World by Barrons Educational Series Inc., published by Quinted Inc., 2005. is India's tallest single-tiered waterfall with , , , and Shivanasamudra Falls among other popular waterfalls.

Several popular beaches dot the coastline, including , Gokarna, and . In addition, Karnataka is home to several places of religious importance. Several Hindu temples including the famous Udupi Sri Krishna Matha, the Marikamba Temple at Sirsi, the , the Sri Manjunatha Temple at , Kukke Subramanya Temple and Sharadamba Temple at attract pilgrims from all over India. Most of the holy sites of , like and Basavana Bagewadi, are found in northern parts of the state. , and are famous for Jain history and monuments. Jainism had a stronghold in Karnataka in the early medieval period with Shravanabelagola as its most important centre. The Shettihalli Rosary Church near , an example of French colonial Gothic architecture, is a rare example of a Christian ruin, is a popular tourist site.

Recently Karnataka has emerged as a center of health care tourism. Karnataka has the highest number of approved health systems and alternative therapies in India. Along with some ISO certified government-owned hospitals, private institutions which provide international-quality services have caused the health care industry to grow by 30% during 2004–05. Hospitals in Karnataka treat around 8,000 health tourists every year.


See also
  • Outline of Karnataka
  • Media in Karnataka
  • List of Governors of Karnataka
  • List of districts of Karnataka
  • List of people from Karnataka
  • List of butterflies of Karnataka
  • List of airports in Karnataka
  • Outline of India
  • Index of India-related articles


Notes
  • John Keay, India: A History, 2000, Grove publications, New York,
  • Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath, Concise history of Karnataka, 2001, MCC, Bangalore (Reprinted 2002)
  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955). A History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, OUP, New Delhi (Reprinted 2002) .
  • R. Narasimhacharya, History of Kannada Literature, 1988, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras, 1988, .
  • K.V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vātāpi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, Delhi. . . . . .
  • Malini Adiga (2006), The Making of Southern Karnataka: Society, Polity and Culture in the early medieval period, AD 400–1030, Orient Longman, Chennai,
  • (1991). 9780521299442, Cambridge University Press.
  • Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, fourth edition, Routledge, 2004,
  • Foekema, Gerard 2003 (2003). Architecture decorated with architecture: Later medieval temples of Karnataka, 1000–1300 AD. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. .


External links

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