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A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage)") is a Garner's Modern American Usage , p. 644. in which parts of multiple words are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel. In , a portmanteau is a single morph that is analyzed as representing two (or more) underlying .

A portmanteau word is similar to a contraction, but contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as do and not to make don't, whereas a portmanteau is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a single concept. A portmanteau also differs from a compound, which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words. For instance, starfish is a compound, not a portmanteau, of star and fish, as it includes both words in full.


Origin
The word portmanteau was introduced in this sense by in the book Through the Looking-Glass (1871), where explains to Alice the coinage of unusual words used in "".Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., and Hyams, N. (2007) An Introduction to Language, Eighth Edition. Boston: Thomson Wadsworth. . Slithy means "slimy and lithe" and mimsy means "miserable and flimsy". Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the practice of combining words in various ways:

In his introduction to his 1876 poem The Hunting of the Snark, Carroll again uses portmanteau when discussing :

In then-contemporary English, a portmanteau was a suitcase that opened into two equal sections. According to the , a portmanteau is a "case or bag for carrying clothing and other belongings when travelling; (originally) one of a form suitable for carrying on horseback; (now esp.) one in the form of a stiff leather case hinged at the back to open into two equal parts". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD), the etymology of the word is the French porte-manteau, from porter, "to carry", and manteau, "cloak" (from Old French mantel, from Latin mantellum)."Portmanteau". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. According to the , the etymology of the word is the "officer who carries the mantle of a person in a high position (1507 in Middle French), case or bag for carrying clothing (1547), clothes rack (1640)". In modern French, a porte-manteau is a , a coat-tree or similar article of furniture for hanging up jackets, hats, umbrellas and the like.: portemanteau – "malle penderie" (suitcase in which clothes hang).Such a "coat bag" is mentioned in Chapter 12 of Alexander Dumas' The Count of Monte Cristo.

An occasional synonym for "portmanteau word" is frankenword, an exemplifying the phenomenon it describes, blending "" and "word". "Frankenwords: They're Alive!" The Guardian, 5 February 2016. .


Examples in English
Many are examples of blends, but many blends have become part of the lexicon. In Punch in 1896, the word (breakfast + lunch) was introduced as a "portmanteau word". Punch, 1 August 1896, 58/2 In 1964, the newly independent African republic of Tanganyika and chose the portmanteau word as its name. Similarly is a portmanteau of Europe and Asia.

Some city names are portmanteaus of the border regions they straddle: Texarkana spreads across the Texas-Arkansas-Louisiana border, while Calexico and are respectively the American and Mexican sides of a single . A scientific example is a , which is a cross between a male lion and a female tiger (a is a similar cross in which the male is a tiger).

Many company or brand names are portmanteaus, including , a portmanteau of and software; the cheese combines a similar rind to with the same mould used to make ; passenger rail company , a portmanteau of and track; , a portmanteau of the French velours (velvet) and crochet (hook); , a portmanteau of veritas (Latin for truth) and horizon; and (a Chicago-area electric utility company), a portmanteau of Commonwealth and .

Jeoportmanteau! is a recurring category on the American television Jeopardy! The category's name is itself a portmanteau of the words Jeopardy and portmanteau. Responses in the category are portmanteaus constructed by fitting two words together.

Portmanteau words may be produced by joining together with common nouns, such as "", which refers to the scheme of Massachusetts Governor for politically contrived redistricting; the perimeter of one of the districts thereby created resembled a very curvy salamander in outline. The term gerrymander has itself contributed to portmanteau terms and .

is a common portmanteau for the UK's two oldest universities, those of and . In 2016, Britain's planned exit from the European Union became known as "".

Many portmanteau words receive some use but do not appear in all dictionaries. For example, a is an eating utensil that is a combination of a spoon and a fork, and a is an item of clothing that is part , part . On the other hand, , a dish made by inserting a chicken into a duck, and the duck into a turkey, was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2010.

Similarly, the word refudiate was first used by when she misspoke, conflating the words refute and repudiate. Though initially the word was a gaffe, it was recognized as the New Oxford American Dictionarys "Word of the Year" in 2010.

The business lexicon is replete with newly formed portmanteau words like "permalance" (permanent freelance), "advertainment" (advertising as entertainment), "advertorial" (a blurred distinction between advertising and editorial), "infotainment" (information about entertainment or itself intended to entertain by its manner of presentation), and "infomercial" (informational commercial).

Company and product names may also use portmanteau words: examples include Timex (a portmanteau of Time referring and ), 's (a combination of twist, swing and tango), and (portmanteau of company founders' first names and ).


Name-meshing
Two proper names can also be used in creating a portmanteau word in reference to the partnership between people, especially in cases where both persons are well-known, or sometimes to produce such as "Billary" (referring to former United States president and his wife, former United States Secretary of State ). In this example of recent American political history, the purpose for blending is not so much to combine the meanings of the source words but "to suggest a resemblance of one named person to the other"; the effect is often derogatory, as linguist states. By contrast, the public, including the media, use portmanteaus to refer to their favorite pairings as a way to "...give people an essence of who they are within the same name." This is particularly seen in cases of fictional and real-life "". An early known example, , referred to film stars and . Other examples include ( and ) and ( and ). "Desilu Productions" was a Los Angeles, California-based company jointly owned by couple and actors and . is the combination of the first names of the parents of the Weinstein brothers. On Wednesday, 28 June 2017, The New York Times included the quip, "How I wish dated , so I could call them 'Portmanteau'".

Holidays are another example, as in , a portmanteau neologism given to the convergence of the American holiday of Thanksgiving and the first day of the of on Thursday, 28 November 2013. is another pop-culture portmanteau neologism popularized by the TV drama The O.C., merging of the holidays of Christianity's Christmas and Judaism's Hanukkah.

In the Disney film Big Hero 6, the film is situated in a fictitious city called "San Fransokyo", which is a portmanteau of two real locations, San Francisco and Tokyo.


Other languages

Modern Hebrew
abounds with European mechanisms such as blending: Along with CD, or simply ( Disk), Hebrew has the blend ( taklitor), which consists of ( taklít, Phonograph record) and ( or, light). Modern Hebrew is full of portmanteau blends, such as the following:See p. 62 in Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2009), Hybridity versus Revivability: Multiple Causation, Forms and Patterns , Journal of Language Contact, Varia 2 (2009), pp. 40–67.
  • ( arpíakh, smog), from ( arafél, fog) and ( píakh, soot)
  • ( midrakhov, pedestrian-only street), from ( midrakhá, sidewalk) and ( rekhóv, street)
  • ( makhazémer, musical), from ( makhazé,theatre play) and ( zémer, singing gerund)

Other blends include the following:

  • ( migdalór, lighthouse), from ( migdál, tower) and ( or, light)
  • ( karnàf, rhinoceros), from ( kéren, horn) and ( af, nose)
  • ( ramzór, traffic light), from ( rémez, indication) and ( or, light)

Sometimes the root of the second word is truncated, giving rise to a blend that resembles an :

  • ( tapúz, orange (fruit), from ( tapúakh, apple) and ( zaháv, gold), as well as ( tapúd, potato) from ( tapúakh, apple) and ( adamah, soil) but the full is more common in the latter case.


Irish
A few portmanteaus are in use in modern Irish, for example:
  • is referred to as Breatimeacht (from Breatain, "Britain", and imeacht, "leave") or Sasamach (from Sasana, "England", and amach, "out")
  • The resignation of Tánaiste (deputy prime minister) Frances Fitzgerald was referred to as Slánaiste (from slán, "goodbye" and Tánaiste) "Slánaiste: Irish Times Letter Writers Have Their Say on the Political Crisis" (30 November 2017). The Irish Times. Retrieved from IrishTimes.com, 18 September 2018.
  • Naíonra, an Irish-language (from naíonán, "infants", and gasra, "band")
  • The Irish translation of A Game of Thrones refers to castle as Gheimhsceirde (from gheimhridh, "winter", and sceird, "exposed to winds")
  • Jailtacht (from English jail and , "Irish-speaking region"): the community of Irish-speaking republican prisoners.
    (2018). 9780708324967, University of Wales Press.


Icelandic
There is a tradition of linguistic purism in Icelandic, and are frequently created from pre-existing words. For example, Tölva ("computer") is a portmanteau of tala ("digit; number") and völva ("oracle or seeress").Kristján Árnason; Sigrún Helgadóttir (1991), "Terminology and Icelandic Language Policy", Behovet och nyttan av terminologiskt arbete på 90-talet, Nordterm 5, Nordterm-symposium, pp. 7–21.


Indonesian
In Indonesian, portmanteaus and are very common in both formal and informal usage.


Malaysian
In the Malaysian national language of Bahasa Melayu, the word jadong was constructed out of three Malay words for evil ( jahat), stupid ( bodoh) and arrogant ( sombong) to be used on the worst kinds of community and religious leaders who mislead naive, submissive and powerless folk under their thrall.


Japanese
A very common type of portmanteau in Japanese forms one word from the beginnings of two others (that is, from two back-clippings). The portion of each input word retained is usually two morae, which is tantamount to one in most words written in kanji.

The inputs to the process can be native words, Sino-Japanese words, (later borrowings), or combinations thereof. A Sino-Japanese example is the name Tōdai for the University of Tokyo, in full kyō daigaku. With borrowings, typical results are words such as pasokon, meaning personal computer (PC), which despite being formed of English elements does not exist in English; it is a contraction of the English pāsonaru konpyūta. Another example, ポケモン, is a contracted form of the English words poketto and monsutā. A famous example of a blend with mixed sources is karaoke, blending the Japanese word for kara and the Greek word ōkesutora. The Japanese fad of egg-shaped keychain pet toys from the 1990s, Tamagotchi, is a portmanteau combining the two Japanese words tamago (たまご), which means "egg", and uotchi (ウオッチ) "watch". The portmanteau can also be seen as a combination of tamago (たまご), "egg", and tomodachi (友だち), which means "friend".

Some anime titles also are portmanteaus, such as (ヘタリア). It came from He ta re (ヘタレ), which means "idiot", and Itaria (イタリア) which means Italy. Another example is , which came from the English words Ser va nt (サーヴァント) and Vampire (ヴァンパイア).


Portuguese
In Brazilian Portuguese, portmanteaus are usually slang, including:
  • Cantriz, from cantora (female singer) and atriz (actress), which defines women that both sing and act.
  • Aborrescente, from aborrecer (annoy) and adolescente (teenager), which is a pejorative term for teenagers.
  • Pescotapa, from pescoço (neck) and tapa (slap), which defines a slap on the back of the neck.

In European Portuguese, portmanteaus are also used. Some of them include:

  • Telemóvel, which means mobile phone, comes from telefone (telephone) and móvel (mobile).
  • Cantautor, which means Singer-songwriter, and comes from cantor (singer) and autor (songwriter).


Spanish
Although not very common in Spanish, portmanteaus are finding their way into the language mainly through marketing and media efforts, such as in 'cafebrería' from 'cafetería' (coffee shop) and 'librería' (bookstore), or Teletón from 'televisión' and 'maratón'. However, it is very frequent in commercial brands of any type (for instance, "chocolleta", from "chocolate" + "galleta", (cookie), and above all family-owned business (of small size, for instance: Rocar, from "Roberto" + "Carlos", and Mafer, from "Maria" + "Fernanda"). Such usages are prompted by the registering of a distinguishable trademark, but with time, commonly, a specific trademark became the name of the all similar products, like in , a name which is very common to use to refer any similar product.

Other examples:

  • Cantautor, which means Singer-songwriter, and comes from cantante (singer) and autor (songwriter). Cantautor, ra Royal Spanish Academy
  • and two that are blends of mecánica (mechanical) with electrónica (electronics), and oficina (office) with informática () respectively.
  • , interlanguage that combines words from both Spanish ( Español) and English.
  • Metrobús, blend of metro (subway) and autobús.
  • Autopista, blend of automóvil (car) and pista (highway).
  • Company names and brands with portmanteaus are common in Spanish. Some examples of Spanish portmanteaus for Mexican companies include: The Mexican flag carrier Aeroméxico, (Aerovías de México), Banorte (Bank and North), (Cement and Mexico), (Jugos Mexicanos or Mexican Juice), Mabe (from founders Egon MAbardi and Francisco BErrondo), (Petróleos Mexicanos or Mexican Oil), (portmanteau and stylization of Software and technology), and (Teléfonos de Mexico). (Galletera Mexicana, S.A. or Mexican Biscuit Company, Inc.) and (fabricantes Muebleros, S.A.) are examples of portmanteaus of four words, including the "S.A." (Sociedad Anónima).
  • Many more portmanteaus in Spanish come from , which are words borrowed from English, like módem, transistor, códec, email, internet or emoticon.

A somewhat popular example in Spain is the word Gallifante, a portmanteau of Gallo y Elefante (Cockerel and Elephant). It was the prize on the Spanish version of the children TV show Child's Play (Juego de niños) that ran on the public television channel La 1 of Televisión Española (TVE) from 1988 to 1992.


Portmanteau morph
In , a is an amalgamation or fusion of independent , while a portmanteau or portmanteau morph is a single that is analyzed as representing two (or more) underlying . For example, in the Latin word animalis the ending -is is a portmanteau morph because it is used for two morphemes: the singular number and the genitive case. In English two separate morphs are used ( of an animal). Other examples include French à le → /o/, and de le → /dy/.


See also
  • Amalgamation (names)
  • List of geographic portmanteaus
  • List of portmanteaus
  • Portmanteau sentence
  • Syllabic abbreviation


External links

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