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Nokia Corporation () (, , ) is a Finnish communications corporation headquartered in , , a city neighbouring . Its principal products are mobile electronic devices, primarily and other communications devices. It also offers Internet services such as , , music, maps, and through its platform, and free-of-charge digital map information and services through its wholly owned subsidiary . Nokia has a joint venture with , , which provides equipment, solutions and services.

Nokia has 130,000 employees across 120 countries, sales in more than 150 countries and annual revenues of around €38 billion. As of 2012 it is the world's second-largest vendor of mobile phones (after ), with a global of 22.5% in the first quarter.http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-17865117 Nokia is a listed on the , , and stock exchanges. Since February 2011 Nokia has had a strategic partnership with , as part of which all Nokia smartphones will incorporate Microsoft's . On 26 October 2011 Nokia unveiled its first Windows Phone handsets, the WP7.5 and .

The Nokia brand, valued at $25 billion, is listed as the 14th most valuable global brand in the / Best Global Brands list of 2011. It is the 14th ranked brand corporation in Europe (as of 2011),http://www.icon-net.com/medialib/file/eurobrand2011-BRAND-RANKING-Brand-CorporationsEurope2011.pdf the 8th most admirable Network and Other Communications Equipment company worldwide in 's World's Most Admired Companies list of 2011, and the world's 143rd largest company as measured by revenue in list of 2011.


History

Pre-telecommunications era
The predecessors of the modern Nokia were the Nokia Company (Nokia Aktiebolag), (Suomen Gummitehdas Oy) and (Suomen Kaapelitehdas Oy).

Nokia's history started in 1865 when mining engineer established a on the banks of the rapids in the town of , in southwestern Finland in and started . In 1868, Idestam built a second mill near the town of , fifteen kilometres (nine miles) west of Tampere by the Nokianvirta river, which had better resources for production. In 1871, Idestam, with the help of his close friend statesman , renamed and transformed his firm into a share company, thereby founding the Nokia Company, the name it is still known by today.

Toward the end of the 19th century, Mechelin's wishes to expand into the electricity business were at first thwarted by Idestam's opposition. However, Idestam's retirement from the management of the company in 1896 allowed Mechelin to become the company's chairman (from 1898 until 1914) and sell most shareholders on his plans, thus realizing his vision. In 1902, Nokia added to its business activities.


Industrial conglomerate
In 1898, Eduard Polón founded , manufacturer of and other rubber products, which later became Nokia's rubber business. At the beginning of the 20th century, Finnish Rubber Works established its factories near the town of Nokia and they began using Nokia as its product brand. In 1912, Arvid Wickström founded , producer of , and and the foundation of Nokia's cable and electronics businesses. At the end of the 1910s, shortly after World War I, the Nokia Company was nearing bankruptcy. ξ1 To ensure the continuation of electricity supply from Nokia's , Finnish Rubber Works acquired the business of the insolvent company. In 1922, Finnish Rubber Works acquired Finnish Cable Works. In 1937, , a sport wrestler and Finland's first , became President of Finnish Cable Works, after 16 years as its Technical Director. After , Finnish Cable Works supplied cables to the as part of Finland's . This gave the company a good foothold for later trade.

The three companies, which had been jointly owned since 1922, were merged to form a new industrial conglomerate, Nokia Corporation in 1967 and paved the way for Nokia's future as a global corporation. The new company was involved in many industries, producing at one time or another paper products, car and bicycle tires, footwear (including ), communications cables, televisions and other consumer electronics, personal computers, electricity generation machinery, robotics, , (such as the device and the for the ), plastics, aluminium and . Each business unit had its own director who reported to the first Nokia Corporation President, . As the president of the Finnish Cable Works, he had been responsible for setting up the company's first electronics department in 1960, sowing the seeds of Nokia's future in telecommunications.

Eventually, the company decided to leave consumer electronics behind in the 1990s and focused solely on the fastest growing segments in telecommunications. , manufacturer of tires, split from Nokia Corporation to form its own company in 1988 and two years later , manufacturer of rubber boots, was founded. During the rest of the 1990s, Nokia divested itself of all of its non-telecommunications businesses.


Telecommunications era
The seeds of the current incarnation of Nokia were planted with the founding of the electronics section of the cable division in 1960 and the production of its first electronic device in 1962: a pulse analyzer designed for use in nuclear power plants. In the 1967 fusion, that section was separated into its own division, and began manufacturing telecommunications equipment. A key CEO and subsequent Chairman of the Board was (1912–2009), who founded the electronics department and let it run at a loss for 15 years.


Networking equipment
In the 1970s, Nokia became more involved in the telecommunications industry by developing the , a digital switch for telephone exchanges. The DX 200 became the workhorse of the network equipment division. Its modular and flexible architecture enabled it to be developed into various switching products. In 1984, development of a version of the exchange for the network was started.

For a while in the 1970s, Nokia's network equipment production was separated into Telefenno, a company jointly owned by the parent corporation and by a company owned by the Finnish state. In 1987, the state sold its shares to Nokia and in 1992 the name was changed to Nokia Telecommunications.

In the 1970s and 1980s, Nokia developed the Sanomalaitejärjestelmä ("Message device system"), a digital, portable and encrypted text-based communications device for the . The current main unit used by the Defence Forces is the (SANLA M/90).


First mobile phones

The technologies that preceded modern cellular mobile telephony systems were the various "0G" pre-cellular standards. Nokia had been producing commercial and some military mobile radio communications technology since the 1960s, although this part of the company was sold some time before the later company rationalization. Since 1964, Nokia had developed radio simultaneously with . In 1966, Nokia and Salora started developing the standard (which stands for Autoradiopuhelin, or car radio phone in English), a car-based mobile radio telephony system and the first commercially operated public mobile phone network in Finland. It went online in 1971 and offered 100% coverage in 1978.

In 1979, the merger of Nokia and Salora resulted in the establishment of Mobira Oy. Mobira began developing mobile phones for the (Nordic Mobile Telephony) network standard, the , first fully automatic cellular phone system that went online in 1981. In 1982, Mobira introduced its first , the Mobira Senator for NMT-450 networks.

Nokia bought Salora Oy in 1984 and now owning 100% of the company, changed the company's telecommunications branch name to Nokia-Mobira Oy. The Mobira Talkman, launched in 1984, was one of the world's first transportable phones. In 1987, Nokia introduced one of the world's first handheld phones, the Mobira Cityman 900 for NMT-900 networks (which, compared to NMT-450, offered a better signal, yet a shorter roam). While the Mobira Senator of 1982 had weighed and the Talkman just under , the Mobira Cityman weighed only with the battery and had a price tag of 24,000 (approximately €4,560). Despite the high price, the first phones were almost snatched from the sales assistants' hands. Initially, the mobile phone was a "" product and a .

Nokia's mobile phones got a big publicity boost in 1987, when leader was pictured using a Mobira Cityman to make a call from to his communications minister in Moscow. This led to the phone's nickname of the "Gorba".

In 1988, Jorma Nieminen, resigning from the post of CEO of the mobile phone unit, along with two other employees from the unit, started a notable mobile phone company of their own, Benefon Oy (since renamed to ). One year later, Nokia-Mobira Oy became Nokia Mobile Phones.


Involvement in GSM
Nokia was one of the key developers of (Global System for Mobile Communications), the mobile technology which could carry data as well as voice traffic. (Nordic Mobile Telephony), the world's first mobile telephony standard that enabled international , provided valuable experience for Nokia for its close participation in developing GSM, which was adopted in 1987 as the new European standard for digital mobile technology.

Nokia delivered its first GSM network to the Finnish operator in 1989. The world's first commercial GSM call was made on 1 July 1991 in , Finland over a Nokia-supplied network, by then , using a prototype Nokia GSM phone. In 1992, the first GSM phone, the , was launched. The model number refers to its launch date, 10 November. The Nokia 1011 did not yet employ Nokia's characteristic ringtone, the . It was introduced as a ringtone in 1994 with the .

GSM's high-quality voice calls, easy international roaming and support for new services like text messaging (SMS) laid the foundations for a worldwide boom in mobile phone use. GSM came to dominate the world of mobile telephony in the 1990s, in mid-2008 accounting for about three billion mobile telephone subscribers in the world, with more than 700 mobile across 218 countries and territories. New connections are added at the rate of 15 per second, or 1.3 million per day.


Personal computers and IT equipment

In the 1980s, Nokia's computer division Nokia Data produced a series of personal computers called . MikroMikko was Nokia Data's attempt to enter the business computer market. The first model in the line, MikroMikko 1, was released on 29 September 1981, around the same time as the first . However, the personal computer division was sold to the British (International Computers Limited) in 1991, which later became part of . MikroMikko remained a trademark of ICL and later Fujitsu. Internationally the MikroMikko line was marketed by Fujitsu as the ErgoPro.

Fujitsu later transferred its personal computer operations to , which shut down its only factory in , Finland (in the district, where computers had been produced since the 1960s) at the end of March 2000, thus ending large-scale PC manufacturing in the country. Nokia was also known for producing very high quality and early displays for PC and larger systems application. The Nokia Display Products' branded business was sold to in 2000. In addition to personal computers and displays, Nokia used to manufacture and digital .

Nokia re-entered the PC market in August 2009 with the introduction of the mini laptop.


Challenges of growth
In the 1980s, during the era of its CEO , Nokia expanded into new fields, mostly by acquisitions. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the corporation ran into serious financial problems, a major reason being its heavy losses by the television manufacturing division and businesses that were just too diverse. These problems, and a suspected total , probably contributed to Kairamo taking his own life in 1988. After Kairamo's death, became Nokia's Chairman and CEO. In 1990–1993, Finland underwent , which also struck Nokia. Under Vuorilehto's management, Nokia was severely overhauled. The company responded by streamlining its telecommunications divisions, and by divesting itself of the television and PC divisions. ξ2

Probably the most important strategic change in Nokia's history was made in 1992, however, when the new CEO made a crucial strategic decision to concentrate solely on telecommunications. Thus, during the rest of the 1990s, the rubber, cable and consumer electronics divisions were gradually sold as Nokia continued to divest itself of all of its non-telecommunications businesses.

As late as 1991, more than a quarter of Nokia's turnover still came from sales in Finland. However, after the strategic change of 1992, Nokia saw a huge increase in sales to North America, South America and Asia. The exploding worldwide popularity of mobile telephones, beyond even Nokia's most optimistic predictions, caused a crisis in the mid-1990s. This prompted Nokia to overhaul its entire logistics operation. By 1998, Nokia's focus on telecommunications and its early investment in GSM technologies had made the company the world's largest mobile phone manufacturer, a position it would hold for the next 14 consecutive years until 2012. Between 1996 and 2001, Nokia's turnover increased almost fivefold from 6.5 billion euros to 31 billion euros. Logistics continues to be one of Nokia's major advantages over its rivals, along with greater .


Recent history

Product releases

Nokia launched its handset in 2003, with over 200 million units shipped, was the best-selling mobile phone of all time and the world's top-selling product. In May 2007, Nokia released its first touch screen phone, the Nokia 7710, which was also a huge success. In November 2007, Nokia announced and released the , its first Nseries phone with . At the Nokia World conference in December 2007, Nokia announced their "Comes With Music" program: Nokia device buyers are to receive a year of complimentary access to music downloads. The service became commercially available in the second half of 2008.

Nokia Productions was the first ever mobile filmmaking project directed by . Work began in April 2008, and the film premiered in October 2008.

In 2008, Nokia released the which was marketed to directly compete with the other -type devices offering a full "qwerty" keyboard and cheaper prices. Nokia announced in August 2009 that they will be selling a high-end -based called the . On 2 September 2009, Nokia launched two new music and social networking phones, the X6 and X3. The Nokia X6 features 32GB of on-board memory with a 3.2" finger touch interface and comes with a music playback time of 35 hours. The Nokia X3 is a first series 40 Ovi Store-enabled device. The X3 is a music device that comes with stereo speakers, built-in FM radio, and a 3.2 megapixel camera. On 10 September 2009, Nokia unveiled a new handset, the 7705 Twist, a phone with a sports square shape that swivels open to reveal a full QWERTY keypad. The new mobile, which will be available exclusively through Verizon Wireless, features a 3 megapixel camera, web browsing, voice commands and weighs around .


Plant movements
Nokia opened its , Hungary mobile phone factory on 5 May 2000.

In March 2007, Nokia signed a memorandum with Council, to open a new plant near the city in commune. Moving the production from the , Germany factory to a low wage country created an uproar in Germany. Nokia recently moved its North American Headquarters to Sunnyvale.


Reorganizations
In April 2003, the troubles of the networks equipment division caused the corporation to resort to similar streamlining practices on that side, including and organizational restructuring. This diminished Nokia's public image in Finland, and produced a number of and an episode of a documentary television show critical of Nokia.

On February 2006, Nokia and announced a to create a joint venture addressing the handset business. But in June, they announced ending negotiations without agreement. Nokia also stated its decision to pull out of CDMA research and development, to continue CDMA business in selected markets.

In June 2006, Jorma Ollila left his position as CEO to become the chairman of and to give way for .

In May 2008, Nokia announced on their annual stockholder meeting that they want to shift to the Internet business as a whole. Nokia no longer wants to be seen as the telephone company. , and are not seen as natural competition for their new image but they are considered as major important players to deal with.

In November 2008, Nokia announced it was ceasing mobile phone distribution in Japan. Following early December, distribution of is cancelled, both from and . Nokia Japan retains global research & development programs, sourcing business, and an venture of luxury phones, using docomo's telecommunications network.

In February 2012, Nokia anonunced it was laying off 4000 employees to move manufacturing from Europe and Mexico to Asia. Nokia Will Lay off 4,000 and Move More Manufacturing to Asia | PCWorld Business Center

In March 2012, Nokia anonunced it was laying off 1000 employess from its factory to focus on software. Nokia Lays Off 1,000 Employees From Finnish Plant, Will Focus On Software


Acquisitions

On 22 September 2003, Nokia acquired Sega.com, a branch of which became the major basis to develop the Nokia device.

On 16 November 2005, Nokia and , a provider of data and PIM synchronization software, signed a definitive agreement for Nokia to acquire Intellisync. Nokia completed the acquisition on 10 February 2006.

On 19 June 2006, Nokia and announced the companies would merge their mobile and fixed-line phone network equipment businesses to create one of the world's largest network firms, . Each company has a 50% stake in the infrastructure company, and it is headquartered in , Finland. The companies predicted annual sales of €16 and cost savings of €1.5 bn a year by 2010. About 20,000 Nokia employees were transferred to this new company.

On 8 August 2006, Nokia and Loudeye Corp. announced that they had signed an agreement for Nokia to acquire online music distributor Loudeye Corporation for approximately US $60 million. The company has been developing this into an online music service in the hope of using it to generate handset sales. The service, launched on 29 August 2007, is aimed to rival . Nokia completed the acquisition on 16 October 2006.

In July 2007, Nokia acquired all assets of , the comprehensive media sharing solution for organizing and sharing photos, videos and other personal media.

In September 2007, Nokia announced its intention to acquire , a supplier of mobile advertising technology and services.

In October 2007, pending shareholder and regulatory approval, Nokia bought , a U.S.-based supplier of digital mapping data, for a price of $8.1 billion. Nokia finalized the acquisition on 10 July 2008.

In September, 2008, Nokia acquired OZ Communications, a privately held company with approximately 220 employees headquartered in Montreal, Canada.

On 24 July 2009, Nokia announced that it will acquire certain assets of cellity, a privately owned mobile software company which employs 14 people in Hamburg, Germany. The acquisition of cellity was completed on 5 August 2009.

On 11 September 2009, Nokia announced the acquisition of "certain assets of Plum Ventures, Inc, a privately held company which employed approximately 10 people with main offices in Boston, Massachusetts. Plum will complement Nokia's Social Location services".

On 28 March 2010, Nokia announced the acquisition of Novarra, the mobile web browser firm from Chicago. Terms of the deal were not disclosed.Novarra is a privately held company based in Chicago, IL and provider of a mobile browser and service platform and has more than 100 employees.

On 10 April 2010, Nokia announced its acquisition of , whose technology was planned to be used in the area of local search, particularly involving location and other services. Financial details of acquisition were not disclosed.


Curtailments
Amid falling sales, Nokia posted a loss of 368 million euros for Q2 2011, while in Q2 2010 had still a profit of 227 million euros. On September 2011, Nokia has announced it will lose another 3,500 jobs worldwide, including the closure of its factory in .

On 8 February 2012 Nokia Corp. said to cut around 4,000 jobs at smartphone manufacturing plants in Europe by the end of 2012 to move assembly closer to component supplier in Asia. It plans to cut 2,300 of the 4,400 jobs in , 700 out of 1,000 jobs in , and 1,000 out of 1,700 factory jobs in .


Operating systems

Originally Nokia phones had a custom operating system developed specifically for Nokia mobile phones.

The first Nseries device, the N90, utilised the older 8.1 , as did the N70. Subsequently Nokia switched to using SymbianOS 9 for all later Nseries devices (except the N72, which was based on the N70). Newer Nseries devices incorporate newer revisions of SymbianOS 9 that include Feature Packs. The , , , and are as of April 2012 the only Nseries devices (therefore excluding devices) to not use Symbian OS. They use the -based .

Nokia stated that Maemo would be developed alongside Symbian. Maemo had since (Maemo "6" and beyond) merged with 's , and became . MeeGo was later canceled and a development is now continued under name .

The is the first device to function on the .

Nokia revealed that the N8 will be the last device in its flagship N-series devices to ship with .

Instead, Nokia will use Microsoft for its high-end flagship devices, and revealed the will function on the .


Alliance with Microsoft
On 11 February 2011, Nokia's CEO , a former employee, unveiled a new strategic alliance with , and announced it would replace and with Microsoft's operating system except for mid-to-low-end devices, which would continue to run under Symbian. Nokia was also to invest into the platform and release a single MeeGo product in 2011.

These news was not well received by consumers, and has contributed to the decline in the stock price by 11%.[3]

As part of the restructuring plan, Nokia planned to reduce spending on research and development, instead customising and enhancing the software line for Windows Phone 7. Nokia's "applications and content store" (Ovi) becomes integrated into the , and Nokia Maps is at the heart of Microsoft's Bing and AdCenter. Microsoft provides developer tools to Nokia to replace the framework, which is not supported by Windows Phone 7 devices.

Symbian becomes described as a "franchise platform" with Nokia planning to sell 150 million Symbian devices after the alliance was set up. MeeGo emphasis is on longer-term exploration, with plans to ship "a MeeGo-related product" later in 2012. Microsoft's search engine, becomes the search engine for all Nokia phones. Nokia also gets some level of customisation on WP7.

After this announcement, Nokia's share price fell about 14%, its biggest drop since July 2009.

As Nokia was the largest mobile phone manufacturer worldwide at the time, it is suggested the alliance would make Microsoft's Windows Phone 7 a stronger contender against and . In June 2011 Nokia was overtaken by Apple as the world's biggest smartphone maker by volume. In August 2011 Chris Weber, head of Nokia's subsidiary in the U.S., stated " The reality is if we are not successful with Windows Phone, it doesn't matter what we do (elsewhere)." He further added " North America is a priority for Nokia (...) because it is a key market for Microsoft."

European carriers have stated that Nokia Windows phones are not good enough to compete with Apple or phones, that "they are overpriced for what is not an innovative product" and that "No one comes into the store and asks for a Windows phone". Mobile operators unconvinced by Nokia's revival bid | Reuters


Corporate affairs

Corporate structure

Divisions
Since 1 July 2010, Nokia comprises three business groups: Mobile Solutions, Mobile Phones and Markets. The three units receive operational support from the Corporate Development Office, led by Kai Öistämö, which is also responsible for exploring corporate strategic and future growth opportunities.

On 1 April 2007, Nokia's Networks business group was combined with 's carrier-related operations for fixed and mobile networks to form , jointly owned by Nokia and Siemens and consolidated by Nokia.


Mobile Solutions

Mobile Solutions is responsible for Nokia's portfolio of and mobile computers, including the more expensive multimedia and enterprise-class devices. The team is also responsible for a suite of internet services under the brand, with a strong focus on and , music, and . This unit is led by Anssi Vanjoki, along with Tero Ojanperä (for Services) and Alberto Torres (for Computers).

Alberto Torres has stepped down.


Mobile Phones
Mobile Phones is responsible for Nokia's portfolio of affordable mobile phones, as well as a range of services that people can access with them, headed by . This unit provides the general public with mobile voice and data products across a range of devices, including high-volume, consumer oriented mobile phones. The devices are based on /, / and cellular technologies.

In the first quarter of 2006 Nokia sold over 15 million MP3 capable mobile phones, which means that Nokia is not only the world's leading supplier of mobile phones and (as most of Nokia's mobile telephones feature digital cameras, it is also believed that Nokia has recently overtaken in camera production making it the largest in the world), Nokia is now also the leading supplier of digital audio players (MP3 players), outpacing sales of devices such as the from . At the end of the year 2007, Nokia managed to sell almost 440 million mobile phones which accounted for 40% of all global mobile phones sales. By 2010, Nokia's market share in the mobile phone market had dropped to 32.6% (453 million phones).

Anssi Vanjoki resigned a few days before Nokia World 2010 and under new leadership team Jo Harlow will look into the affairs of Smartphones portfolio.

On 27 April 2011, The Register reported that Nokia is secretly developing a new operating system called Meltemi aiming at the low-end market. It is believed it will be replacing the S30 and S40 operating systems. Due to low-end market customers' demand of having smartphone features in their feature phone, the OS will include some features exclusive to high-end smartphones.


Markets
Markets is responsible for Nokia's , sales channels, brand and marketing functions of the company, and is responsible for delivering mobile solutions and mobile phones to the market. The unit is headed by .


Subsidiaries

Nokia has several subsidiaries, of which the two most significant as of 2009 are and . Other notable subsidiaries include, but are not limited to , a British-based manufacturer and retailer of luxury mobile phones; , a Norwegian-based software company, and OZ Communications, a consumer e-mail and instant messaging provider.

Until 2008 Nokia was the major shareholder in , a software development and licensing company that produced , a smartphone operating system used by Nokia and other manufacturers. In 2008 Nokia acquired Symbian Ltd and, along with a number of other companies, created the to distribute the royalty free and as .


Nokia Siemens Networks
Nokia Siemens Networks (previously Nokia Networks) provides wireless and fixed network infrastructure, communications and networks service platforms, as well as professional services to operators and service providers. Nokia Siemens Networks focuses in , , / and radio access networks; core networks with increasing IP and multiaccess capabilities; and services.

On 19 June 2006 Nokia and announced the companies are to merge their mobile and fixed-line phone network equipment businesses to create one of the world's largest network firms, called . The Nokia Siemens Networks brand identity was subsequently launched at the 3GSM World Congress in Barcelona in February 2007.

As of March 2009, Nokia Siemens Networks serves more than 600 operator customers in more than 150 countries, with over 1.5 billion people connected through its networks.

On 22 August 2011 Nokia Siemens became embroiled in a scandal related to the use and abuse of surveillance systems delivered to the Bahrain government by one of its former business units, Nokia Siemens Intelligence Solutions (NSIS). The spy gear in Bahrain was sold by Siemens AG (SIE), and maintained by Nokia Siemens Networks and NSN's divested unit, Trovicor GmbH. The sale and maintenance contracts were also confirmed by Ben Roome, a Nokia Siemens spokesman based in Farnborough, England. The system was reportedly used as the investigative tool of choice to gather information about political dissidents—and silence them. Companies such as Nokia and Nokia Siemens are free to sell such equipment almost anywhere. For the most part, the U.S. and European countries lack export controls to deter the use of such systems for repression, as was the case in Bahrain were at least 30 people were killed during the 2011 uprising. Many Western nations actively support the export of these systems of repression, e.g. to countries that are home to some of the U.S. Navy's Fleet. Monitoring centers, as the systems are called, are sold around the world by Nokia Siemens and its competitors, such as Israel-based Nice Systems Ltd. (NICE), and Verint Systems Inc. (VRNT), headquartered in Melville, New York. They form the heart of so-called lawful interception surveillance systems. By the end of 2007, the Nokia Siemens Intelligence Solutions unit had more than 90 systems installed in 60 countries. Besides Bahrain, several other Middle Eastern nations that cracked down on uprisings this year—including Egypt, Syria and Yemen—also purchased monitoring centers from the chain of businesses now known as Trovicor. Trovicor equipment plays a surveillance role in at least 12 Middle Eastern and North African nations. Trovicor's precursor, which started in 1993 as the voice- and data-recording unit of Siemens, in 2007 became part of Nokia Siemens Networks, the world's second biggest maker of wireless communications equipment. NSN, a 50-50 joint venture with Espoo, Finland-based Nokia Oyj (NOK1V), sold the unit, known as Intelligence Solutions, in March 2009. The new owners, Guernsey-based Perusa Partners Fund 1 LP, renamed the business Trovicor, coined from the and words for find and heart, according to the company's website. According to NSN the elevated risk of human rights abuses was a major reason for NSN's exiting the monitoring-center business. In Bahrain, officials routinely used the NSIS surveillance systems as a basis for the arrest and torture of political opponents; legally the monitoring technology is to be only used by order of legal authorities such as judges and prosecutors. According to local regulations, every Bahraini phone and Internet operator must provide the state with the ability to monitor communications. Phone companies also must track the location of phones within a 164-foot (50-meter) radius, the rules say. NSN and Trovicor's status as exclusive provider in Bahrain continued at least through 2009. That period of more than two years coincides with the dates of text messages used to interrogate scores of political detainees. Authorities used messages that dated as far back as the mid-2000s, even in recent interrogations.


Navteq
Navteq is a Chicago, Illinois-based provider of digital map data and location-based content and services for automotive navigation systems, mobile navigation devices, Internet-based mapping applications, and government and business solutions. Navteq was acquired by Nokia on 1 October 2007. Navteq's map data is part of the online service where users can download maps, use voice-guided navigation and other context-aware web services. Nokia Maps is part of the brand of Nokia's Internet based online services.


Corporate governance
The control and management of Nokia is divided among the shareholders at a general meeting and the Nokia Leadership Team (left), under the direction of the Board of Directors (right). The Chairman and the rest of the Nokia Leadership Team members are appointed by the Board of Directors. Only the Chairman of the Nokia Leadership Team can belong to both, the Board of Directors and the Nokia Leadership Team. The Board of Directors' committees consist of the Audit Committee, the Personnel Committee and the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee.

The operations of the company are managed within the framework set by the Finnish Companies Act, Nokia's Articles of Association and Corporate Governance Guidelines, and related Board of Directors adopted charters.

{ class="wikitable" style="width:100%; margin:0;"
(Chairman), b. 1963
President, CEO and Nokia Leadership Team Chairman of Nokia Corporation since 21 September 2010
Joined Nokia on 21 September 2010, Nokia Board member since May 3, 2011

, b. 1954
Executive Vice President, Corporate Relations and Responsibility
Joined Nokia 2008, Nokia Leadership Team member since 2009
Former (1991–1995)
, b. 1969
Executive Vice President, Design
Joined Nokia 2009, Nokia Leadership Team member since February 1, 2012
Jerri DeVard, b. 1958
Executive Vice President, Chief Marketing Officer
Joined Nokia 2011, Nokia Leadership Team member since January 1, 2011
Colin Giles, b. 1963
Executive Vice President, Sales
Joined Nokia 1992, Nokia Leadership Team member since February 11, 2011
Michael Halbherr, b. 1964
Executive Vice President, Location & Commerce
Joined Nokia 2006, Nokia Leadership Team member since July 1, 2011
Jo Harlow, b. 1962
Executive Vice President, Smart Devices
Joined Nokia 2003, Nokia Leadership Team member since February 11, 2011
Timo Ihamuotila, b. 1966
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer
With Nokia 1993–1996, rejoined 1999, Nokia Leadership Team member since 2007
, b. 1964
Executive Vice President, Mobile Phones
Joined Nokia 2004, Nokia Leadership Team member since 2004
Louise Pentland, b. 1972
Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer
Joined Nokia 1998, Nokia Leadership Team member since February 11, 2011
, b. 1962
Executive Vice President, Markets
Joined Nokia 1997, Nokia Leadership Team member since 2006
Henry Tirri, b. 1956
Executive Vice President, Chief Technology Officer
Joined Nokia 2004, Nokia Leadership Team member since September 22, 2011
Juha Äkräs, b. 1965
Executive Vice President, Human Resources
Joined Nokia 1993, Nokia Leadership Team member since 2010
Dr. Kai Öistämö, b. 1964
Executive Vice President, Chief Development Officer
Joined Nokia 1991, Nokia Leadership Team member since 2005
| style="width:50%; border:none; vertical-align:top; text-align:center;"|
(Chairman), b. 1966
Board member since 2008, Chairman of the Board of Directors since May 3, 2012
Chairman of the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee
Founder and Chairman of
(Vice Chairman), b. 1947
Board member since 2001, Vice Chairman since 2007
Member of the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee, Member of the Personnel Committee
Chief Executive Officer and member of the Board of Directors of
Bruce Brown, b. 1958
Board member since May 3, 2012, Member of the Personnel Committee
Chief Technology Officer of
, b. 1963
Board member since May 3, 2011
President and CEO of Nokia Corporation, Chairman of the Nokia Nokia Leadership Team
, b. 1947
Board member since 2007, Chairman of the Personnel Committee, Member of the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee
Former CEO and Chairman of the Executive Board of
Jouko Karvinen, b. 1957
Board member since May 3, 2011, Chairman of the Audit Committee, Member of the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee
CEO of
, b. 1962
Board member since May 3, 2011, Member of the Personnel Committee
President and CEO of
Isabel Marey-Semper, b. 1967
Board member since 2009, Member of the Audit Committee
Director of Advanced Research of
, b. 1962
Board member since May 3, 2012
Chief Executive Officer of
Elizabeth Nelson, b. 1960
Board member since May 3, 2012, Member of the Audit Committee
Independent Corporate Advisor
Kari Stadigh, b. 1955
Board member since May 3, 2011, Member of the Personnel Committee
Group CEO and President of
|}


Former corporate officers
1967–1977 1967–19771988–1990
1977–1988 1977–19791990–1992
1988–1992 1979–19861992–1999
1992–2006 1986–19881999–2012

2006–2010


International presence
In 2011 Nokia had 130,000 employees in 120 countries, sales in more than 150 countries, global annual revenue of over €38 billion, and operating loss of €1 billion. It was the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones in 2011, with global device of 23% in the second quarter.

The Nokia Research Center, founded in 1986, is Nokia's industrial research unit consisting of about 500 researchers, engineers and scientists; it has sites in seven countries: , , , , , the and the . Besides its research centers, in 2001 Nokia founded (and owns) – Nokia Institute of Technology, a R&D institute located in Brazil. Nokia operates a total of 9 manufacturing facilities located at , Finland; , Brazil; , Romania; Beijing and , China; , Hungary; , India; , Mexico; and , South Korea. Nokia's factory in Cluj was seized by the Romanian government in November 2011 to prevent a sale of the assets, after Nokia had accumulated a of US$ 10 million. Nokia's industrial design department is headquartered in in London, UK with significant satellite offices in Helsinki, Finland and , California in the US.

Nokia is a listed on the , , and stock exchanges. Nokia plays a very large role in the ; it is by far the largest , accounting for about a third of the of the Helsinki Stock Exchange (OMX Helsinki) in 2007, a unique situation for an . It is an important employer in Finland and several small companies have grown into large ones as its and . In 2009 Nokia contributed 1.6% to Finland's GDP, and accounted for about 16% of Finland's exports in 2006.

In February 2012 Nokia announced that it was cutting 4,000 factory jobs in Finland, Hungary and Mexico (more than half of the 7,100 jobs at the three factories affected) and moving smartphone assembly to existing facilities in South Korea and China Guardian newspaper: Nokia cuts 4,000 jobs and moves smartphone manufacturing to Asia, 9 February 2012.


Logos
File:Nokia logo (1865).svg|
Nokia Company logo. Founded in in 1865, incorporated in in 1871.
File:Finnish Rubber Works (Nokia) logo 1965.svg|
The brand logo of , founded in in 1898.
Logo from 1965 to 1966.
File:Nokia arrows logo.svg|
The Nokia Corporation "arrows" logo, used before the "Connecting People" logo.
File:Nokia Connecting People.svg|
Nokia introduced its "Connecting People" , coined by Ove Strandberg and used since 1992.
This earlier version of the slogan used (Small Caps) font.
File:Nokian logo.svg|
Nokia's current logo used since 2006, with the redesigned "Connecting People" slogan.
This slogan originally used Nokia's proprietary 'Nokia Sans' font, designed by . This was replaced in 2011 with the 'Nokia Pure' font designed by .
File:Nokia Siemens Networks logo.svg|
logo. Founded in 2007.


Stock
Nokia, a , is the oldest company listed under the same name on the (since 1915). Nokia's shares are also listed on the (since 1988) and (since 1994).

In 1 June 2011 Nokia shares dropped to their lowest in more than 13 years. Nokia shares fell as much as 10 percent, extending their previous day's by 18 percent fall.

For fiscal Q2 2011 ending in June 2011, Nokia reported a net loss of 492 million EUR, despite a 430 million EUR payment from Apple. Nokia cited decline in its mobile phone business as the primary cause of the loss.http://media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/IROL/10/107224/Nokia_results2011Q2e.pdf


Corporate culture

Nokia's official manifesto, The Nokia Way, emphasises the speed and flexibility of decision-making in a flat, , although the corporation's size necessarily imposes a certain amount of .

The official business language of Nokia is English. All documentation is written in English, and is used in official intra-company spoken communication and e-mail.

Until May 2007, the Nokia Values were , , , and Renewal. In May 2007, Nokia redefined its values after initiating a series of discussions worldwide as to what the new values of the company should be. Based on the employee suggestions, the new values were defined as: Engaging You, Achieving Together, Passion for Innovation and Very Human.


Online services

.mobi and the Mobile Web
Nokia was the first proponent of a (TLD) specifically for the and, as a result, was instrumental in the launch of the domain name extension in September 2006 as an official backer. Since then, Nokia has launched the largest mobile portal, Nokia.mobi, which receives over 100 million visits a month. It followed that with the launch of a mobile Ad Service to cater to the growing demand for mobile advertisement.


Ovi
, announced on 29 August 2007, is the name for Nokia's "umbrella concept" Internet services. Centered on Ovi.com, it is marketed as a "personal dashboard" where users can share photos with friends, download music, maps and games directly to their phones and access third-party services like Yahoo's photo site. It has some significance in that Nokia is moving deeper into the world of Internet services, where head-on competition with , and is inevitable.

The services offered through Ovi include the Ovi Store (Nokia's application store), the Nokia Music Store, , Ovi Mail, the mobile gaming platform available for several , Ovi Share, Ovi Files, and Contacts and Calendar. The Ovi Store, the Ovi application store was launched in May 2009. Prior to opening the Ovi Store, Nokia integrated its software Download! store, the stripped-down repository and the widget service into it.

On 23 March 2010, Nokia announced launch of its online magazine called the Nokia Ovi. The 44-page magazine contains articles on products by Nokia, what Ovi stands for, tips and tricks on the usage of Nokia mini laptop Booklet 3G, latest reviews of mobile applications, news about the mobile maker's services and apps such as Ovi maps, files and mail. Users can download the magazine as a PDF or view it online from the Nokia website.


My Nokia
Nokia offers a free personalised service to Nokia owners called My Nokia (located at my.nokia.com). Registered My Nokia users can get free services as follows:

  • Tips & tricks alerts through web, e-mail and also mobile text message.
  • My Nokia Backup: A free online backup service for mobile contacts, calendar logs and also various other files. This service needs connection.
  • , , , games and other things can be downloaded free of cost.


Comes With Music
In 2007 Nokia set up their "Nokia Comes With Music" service, in partnership with , , Warner Music Group, EMI, and hundreds of Independent labels and music aggregators, to allow 12, 18, or 24 months of unlimited free-of-charge music downloads with the purchase of a Nokia Comes With Music edition phone. Files could be downloaded on mobile devices or personal computers, and kept permanently.

In January 2011 Nokia withdrew this program in 27 countries, due to its failure to gain traction with customers or mobile network operators; existing subscribers could continue to download until their contracts ended. The service continued to be offered in China, India, Indonesia, Brazil, Turkey and South Africa where take-up had been better.


Nokia Messaging
On 13 August 2008 Nokia launched a beta release of "Nokia Email service", a push e-mail service, since incorporated into Nokia Messaging.

Nokia Messaging operates as a centralised, hosted service that acts as a proxy between the Nokia Messaging client and the user's e-mail server. The phone does not connect directly to the e-mail server, but instead sends e-mail credentials to Nokia's servers. is used as the protocol to transfer emails between the client and the server.


Controversies

NSN's provision of intercept capability to Iran
In 2008, , a joint venture between Nokia and , reportedly provided 's monopoly telecom company with technology that allowed it to intercept the Internet communications of its citizens to an unprecedented degree. The technology reportedly allowed it to use to read and even change the content of everything from "e-mails and Internet phone calls to images and messages on social-networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter". The technology "enables authorities to not only block communication but to monitor it to gather information about individuals, as well as alter it for disinformation purposes," expert insiders told . During the post-election protests in Iran in June 2009, Iran's Internet access was reported to have slowed to less than a tenth of its normal speeds, and experts suspected this was due to the use of the interception technology.

The joint venture company, Nokia Siemens Networks, asserted in a press release that it provided Iran only with a 'lawful intercept capability' "solely for monitoring of local voice calls". "Nokia Siemens Networks has not provided any deep packet inspection, web censorship or Internet filtering capability to Iran," it said.

In July 2009, Nokia began to experience a of their products and services in . The boycott was led by consumers sympathetic to the post-election protest movement and targeted at those companies deemed to be collaborating with the Islamic regime. Demand for handsets fell and users began shunning SMS messaging.


Lex Nokia
In 2009, Nokia heavily supported the passing of a law in Finland that allows companies to monitor their employees' electronic communications in cases of suspected information leaking. Contrary to rumors, Nokia denied that the company would have considered moving its head office out of Finland if laws on electronic were not changed. The law was enacted, but with strict requirements for implementation of its provisions. As of 2010, the law has become a dead letter; no corporation has implemented it. The Finnish media dubbed the name Lex Nokia for this law, named after the Finnish copyright law (the so-called ) a few years back.


Nokia–Apple patent dispute
In October 2009, Nokia filed a lawsuit against in the citing Apple infringed on 10 of its patents related to wireless communication including data transfer. Apple was quick to respond with a countersuit filed in December 2009 accusing Nokia of 11 patent infringements. Apple's General Counsel, Bruce Sewell went a step further by stating, "Other companies must compete with us by inventing their own technologies, not just by stealing ours." This resulted in an ugly spat between the two telecom majors with Nokia filing another suit, this time with the (ITC), alleging Apple of infringing its patents in "virtually all of its mobile phones, portable music players, and computers." Nokia went on to ask the court to bar all U.S. imports of the Apple products including the iPhone, Mac and the iPod. Apple countersued by filing a complaint with the ITC in January 2010, the details of which are yet to be confirmed.

In June 2011, Apple settled with Nokia and agreed to an estimated one time payment of $600 million and royalties to Nokia. The two companies also agreed on a cross-licensing patents for some of their patented technologies.


Environmental record
Electronic products such as cell phones impact the environment both during production and after their useful life when they are discarded and turned into . Nokia is listed in 's Guide to Greener Electronics that scores leading electronics manufacturers according to their policies on sustainability, climate and energy and how green their products are. In November 2011 Nokia ranked 3rd out of 15 listed electronics companies, falling two places due to its weaker performance on the Energy criteria and scoring 4.9/10.

All of Nokia's mobile phones are free of toxic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) since the end of 2005 and all new models of mobile phones and accessories launched in 2010 are on track to be free of brominated compounds, chlorinated flame retardants and antimony trioxide.

Nokia's voluntary take-back programme to recycle old mobile phones spans 84 countries with almost 5,000 collection points. However, the recycling rate of Nokia phones was only 3–5% in 2008, according to a global consumer survey released by Nokia. The majority of old mobile phones are simply lying in drawers at home and very few old devices, about 4%, are being thrown into landfill and not recycled.

All of Nokia's new models of chargers meet or exceed the requirements. Nokia aims to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions by at least 18 percent in 2010 from a baseline year of 2006 and cover 50 percent of its energy needs through renewable energy sources. Greenpeace is challenging the company to use its influence at the political level as number 85 on the Fortune 500 to advocate for climate legislation and call for global greenhouse gas emissions to peak by 2015.

Nokia is researching the use of recycled plastics in its products, which are currently used only in packaging but not yet in mobile phones.

Since 2001, Nokia has provided eco declarations of all its products and since May 2010 provides Eco profiles for all its new products. In an effort to further reduce their in the future, Nokia released a new phone concept, Remade, in February 2008. The phone has been constructed of solely recyclable materials. The outer part of the phone is made from recycled materials such as aluminium cans, plastic bottles, and used car tires. The screen is constructed of recycled glass, and the hinges have been created from rubber tires. The interior of the phone is entirely constructed with refurbished phone parts, and there is a feature that encourages energy saving habits by reducing the backlight to the ideal level, which then allows the battery to last longer without frequent charges.


Research cooperation with universities
Nokia is actively exploring and engaging in through selective research collaborations with major universities and institutions by sharing resources and leveraging ideas. Major research collaboration is with Tampere University of Technology based in Finland. Current collaborations include:


Awards and recognition
published by Trust Research Advisory has ranked Nokia in the 1st position among the brands in India.


See also
Lists

General
  • – Nokia's next generation phone suite software.
  • − A software package, slated to be replaced by Nokia Ovi Suite.
  • − Nokia beta applications.
  • − Mobile device firmware updater.
  • – An open source operating system for mobile devices.
  • − Software and development platform and an operating system.
  • − Merger of Nokia's and Intel's projects.
  • − A cross-platform application development framework.
  • − A suite of programs for communicating with mobile phones.
  • - Nokia's current corporate font

Other


Further reading


External links


References
    ^ (1998). 9789516090651, Tampere Museums.
    ^ (2018). 9789513734671, Edita. .

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