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Linux ( ) is a family of open-source based on the , an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by . Linux is typically as a Linux distribution (distro), which includes the kernel and supporting and libraries, many of which are provided by the . Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses and recommends the name " GNU/Linux" to emphasize the use and importance of software in many distributions, causing some controversy.

Popular Linux distributions include , , , and . Commercial distributions include Red Hat Enterprise Linux and SUSE Linux Enterprise. Desktop Linux distributions include a such as X11 or Wayland and a desktop environment such as or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may not have a graphical user interface at all, or include a such as LAMP. Because Linux is freely redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose.

Linux was originally developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been to more platforms than any other operating system. Because of the dominance of Linux-based Android on , Linux, including Android, has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems . Although Linux is, , used by only around 2.6 percent of , the , which runs the Linux kernel-based , dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 sales in the US. Linux is the leading operating system on servers (over 96.4% of the top one million web servers' operating systems are Linux), leads other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, and is used on all of the world's 500 fastest supercomputers (, having gradually displaced all competitors).

Linux also runs on , i.e., devices whose operating system is typically built into the and is highly tailored to the system. This includes routers, controls, smart home devices, video game consoles, (Samsung and LG ), (Tesla, Audi, Mercedes-Benz, Hyundai, and Toyota), and (Falcon 9 rocket, Dragon crew capsule, and the Perseverance rover).

Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open-source collaboration. The may be used, modified, and distributed commercially or non-commercially by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License (GPL). The Linux kernel, for example, is licensed under the GPLv2, with an exception for that allows code that calls the kernel via system calls not to be licensed under the GPL.


History

Precursors
The operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969, at AT&T's , in the United States by , , , and . First released in 1971, Unix was written entirely in assembly language, as was common practice at the time. In 1973, in a key pioneering approach, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie (except for some hardware and I/O routines). The availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its to different computer platforms easier.

Due to an earlier forbidding it from entering the computer business, AT&T licensed the operating system's as a to anyone who asked. As a result, Unix grew quickly and became widely adopted by academic institutions and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of its regional operating companies, and was released from its obligation not to enter the computer business; freed of that obligation, Bell Labs began selling Unix as a proprietary product, where users were not legally allowed to modify it.

(2021). 9783658350840, Springer Nature. .
(2017). 9780262036474, MIT Press. .

began selling early microcomputer-based Unix workstations in 1980. Later, , founded as a spin-off of a student project at Stanford University, also began selling Unix-based desktop workstations in 1982. While Sun workstations did not use commodity PC hardware, for which Linux was later originally developed, it represented the first successful commercial attempt at distributing a primarily single-user microcomputer that ran a Unix operating system.

(1999). 9780596001087, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc. .

With Unix increasingly "locked in" as a proprietary product, the , started in 1983 by , had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed entirely of . Work began in 1984. Later, in 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) in 1989. By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system (such as libraries, , , a command-line shell, and a ) were completed, although low-level elements such as , daemons, and the kernel, called , were stalled and incomplete.

was created by Andrew S. Tanenbaum, a professor, and released in 1987 as a minimal Unix-like operating system targeted at students and others who wanted to learn operating system principles. Although the complete source code of MINIX was freely available, the licensing terms prevented it from being until the licensing changed in April 2000.

Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, the development of 386BSD, from which , and descended, predated that of Linux. Linus Torvalds has stated on separate occasions that if the or 386BSD had been available at the time (1991), he probably would not have created Linux.


Creation
While attending the University of Helsinki in the fall of 1990, Torvalds enrolled in a Unix course. The course used a minicomputer running , and one of the required texts was by Andrew S. Tanenbaum. This textbook included a copy of Tanenbaum's operating system. It was with this course that Torvalds first became exposed to Unix. In 1991, he became curious about operating systems. Frustrated by the licensing of MINIX, which at the time limited it to educational use only, he began to work on his operating system kernel, which eventually became the Linux kernel.

On July 3, 1991, to implement Unix , Linus Torvalds attempted unsuccessfully to obtain a digital copy of the standards documentation with a request to the comp.os.minix .

(2024). 9780066620732, .
After not finding the POSIX documentation, Torvalds initially resorted to determining system calls from documentation owned by the university for use in operating its server. He also learned some system calls from Tanenbaum's MINIX text.

Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were also used on Linux. Later, Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. GNU applications also replaced all MINIX components, because it was advantageous to use the freely available code from the GNU Project with the fledgling operating system; code licensed under the GNU GPL can be reused in other computer programs as long as they also are released under the same or a compatible license. Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license, which prohibited commercial redistribution, to the GNU GPL. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with the Linux kernel, creating a fully functional and free operating system.


Naming
Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention " Freax", a of "free", "freak", and "x" (as an allusion to Unix). During the start of his work on the system, some of the project's included the name "Freax" for about half a year. Initially, Torvalds considered the name "Linux" but dismissed it as too egotistical.Torvalds, Linus and Diamond, David, Just for Fun: The Story of an Accidental Revolutionary, 2001,

To facilitate development, the files were uploaded to the FTP server (ftp.funet.fi) of in September 1991. Ari Lemmke, Torvalds' coworker at the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) who was one of the volunteer administrators for the FTP server at the time, did not think that "Freax" was a good name, so he named the project "Linux" on the server without consulting Torvalds. Later, however, Torvalds consented to "Linux".

According to a post by Torvalds, the word "Linux" should be pronounced ( ) with a short 'i' as in 'print' and 'u' as in 'put'. To further demonstrate how the word "Linux" should be pronounced, he included an audio guide with the kernel source code. However, in this recording, he pronounces Linux as () with a short but close front unrounded vowel, instead of a near-close near-front unrounded vowel as in his newsgroup post.


Commercial and popular uptake
The adoption of Linux in production environments, rather than being used only by hobbyists, started to take off first in the mid-1990s in the supercomputing community, where organizations such as started to replace their increasingly expensive machines with of inexpensive commodity computers running Linux. Commercial use began when and , followed by , started offering Linux support to escape 's monopoly in the desktop operating system market.

Today, Linux systems are used throughout computing, from to virtually all , and have secured a place in server installations such as the popular LAMP application stack. The use of Linux distributions in home and enterprise desktops has been growing. Linux distributions have also become popular in the market, with many devices shipping with customized Linux distributions installed, and Google releasing their own designed for netbooks.

Linux's greatest success in the consumer market is perhaps the mobile device market, with Android being the dominant operating system on and very popular on and, more recently, on wearables. is also on the rise with Valve showing its support for Linux and rolling out , its own gaming-oriented Linux distribution, which was later implemented in their platform. Linux distributions have also gained popularity with various local and national governments, such as the federal government of .


Current development
Linus Torvalds is the lead maintainer for the Linux kernel and guides its development, while Greg Kroah-Hartman is the lead maintainer for the stable branch. Zoë Kooyman is the executive director of the Free Software Foundation, which in turn supports the GNU components. Finally, individuals and corporations develop third-party non-GNU components. These third-party components comprise a vast body of work and may include both kernel modules and user applications and libraries.

Linux vendors and communities combine and distribute the kernel, GNU components, and non-GNU components, with additional package management software in the form of Linux distributions.


Design
Many developers of software agree that the Linux kernel was not designed but rather through natural selection. Torvalds considers that although the design of Unix served as a scaffolding, "Linux grew with a lot of mutations – and because the mutations were less than random, they were faster and more directed than alpha-particles in DNA."Email correspondence on the Linux Kernel development mailing list Eric S. Raymond considers Linux's revolutionary aspects to be social, not technical: before Linux, complex software was designed carefully by small groups, but "Linux evolved in a completely different way. From nearly the beginning, it was rather casually hacked on by huge numbers of volunteers coordinating only through the Internet. Quality was maintained not by rigid standards or autocracy but by the naively simple strategy of releasing every week and getting feedback from hundreds of users within days, creating a sort of rapid Darwinian selection on the mutations introduced by developers."
(2024). 9780596001087, O'Reilly & Associates.
, an engineer of a competing OS, agrees that "Linux wasn't designed, it evolved", but considers this to be a limitation, proposing that some features, especially those related to security,"You have to design it you cannot asymptotically reach Security." Cantrill 2017 cannot be evolved into, "this is not a biological system at the end of the day, it's a software system."

A Linux-based system is a modular Unix-like operating system, deriving much of its basic design from principles established in Unix during the 1970s and 1980s. Such a system uses a monolithic kernel, the Linux kernel, which handles process control, networking, access to the , and . are either integrated directly with the kernel or added as modules that are loaded while the system is running.

The GNU userland is a key part of most systems based on the Linux kernel, with Android being the notable exception. The , an implementation of the C standard library, works as a wrapper for the system calls of the Linux kernel necessary to the kernel-userspace interface, the is a broad collection of programming tools vital to Linux development (including the compilers used to build the Linux kernel itself), and the coreutils implement many basic Unix tools. The GNU Project also develops Bash, a popular CLI shell. The graphical user interface (or GUI) used by most Linux systems is built on top of an implementation of the X Window System. More recently, the Linux community has sought to advance to Wayland as the new display server protocol, in place of X11. Many other open-source software projects contribute to Linux systems.

Installed components of a Linux system include the following:

  • A , for example , LILO, or . This is a program that loads the Linux kernel into the computer's , by being executed by the computer when it is turned on and after the initialization is performed.
  • An program, such as the traditional and the newer , and Upstart. This is the first process launched by the Linux kernel, and is at the root of the process tree. It starts processes such as system services and login prompts (whether graphical or in terminal mode).
  • Software libraries, which contain code that can be used by running processes. On Linux systems using ELF-format executable files, the that manages the use of dynamic libraries is known as ld-linux.so. If the system is set up for the user to compile software themselves, will also be included to describe the of installed libraries. Besides the most commonly used software library on Linux systems, the GNU C Library (glibc), there are numerous other libraries, such as SDL and Mesa.
    • The C standard library is the library necessary to run programs written in C on a computer system, with the GNU C Library being the standard. It provides an implementation of the POSIX API, as well as extensions to that API. For embedded systems, alternatives such as , (a glibc fork once used by Debian) and (which was designed for ) have been developed, although the last two are no longer maintained. Android uses its own C library, Bionic. However, musl can additionally be used as a replacement for glibc on desktop and laptop systems, as seen on certain Linux distributions like .
  • Basic Unix commands, with GNU coreutils being the standard implementation. Alternatives exist for embedded systems, such as the copyleft , and the BSD-licensed .
  • are the libraries used to build graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for software applications. Numerous widget toolkits are available, including and Clutter developed by the , Qt developed by the and led by The Qt Company, and Enlightenment Foundation Libraries (EFL) developed primarily by the Enlightenment team.
  • A , such as and RPM. Alternatively packages can be compiled from binary or source tarballs.
  • User interface programs such as command shells or windowing environments.


User interface
The , also known as the shell, is either a command-line interface (CLI), a graphical user interface (GUI), or controls attached to the associated hardware, which is common for embedded systems. For desktop systems, the default user interface is usually graphical, although the CLI is commonly available through terminal emulator windows or on a separate .

CLI shells are text-based user interfaces, which use text for both input and output. The dominant shell used in Linux is the Bourne-Again Shell (bash), originally developed for the GNU Project. Most low-level Linux components, including various parts of the userland, use the CLI exclusively. The CLI is particularly suited for automation of repetitive or delayed tasks and provides very simple inter-process communication.

On desktop systems, the most popular user interfaces are the , packaged together with extensive desktop environments, such as KDE Plasma, , MATE, Cinnamon, , , and , though a variety of additional user interfaces exist. Most popular user interfaces are based on the X Window System, often simply called "X". It provides network transparency and permits a graphical application running on one system to be displayed on another where a user may interact with the application; however, certain extensions of the X Window System are not capable of working over the network. Several X display servers exist, with the reference implementation, X.Org Server, being the most popular.

Server distributions might provide a command-line interface for developers and administrators, but provide a custom interface for end-users, designed for the use case of the system. This custom interface is accessed through a client that resides on another system, not necessarily Linux-based.

Several types of exist for X11, including tiling, dynamic, stacking, and compositing. Window managers provide means to control the placement and appearance of individual application windows, and interact with the X Window System. Simpler X window managers such as , , or i3wm provide a minimalist functionality, while more elaborate window managers such as , Enlightenment, or provide more features such as a built-in and themes, but are still lightweight when compared to desktop environments. Desktop environments include window managers as part of their standard installations, such as Mutter (GNOME), (KDE), or (xfce), although users may choose to use a different window manager if preferred.

Wayland is a display server protocol intended as a replacement for the X11 protocol; , it has received relatively wide adoption. Unlike X11, Wayland does not need an external window manager and compositing manager. Therefore, a Wayland compositor takes the role of the display server, window manager, and compositing manager. Weston is the reference implementation of Wayland, while GNOME's Mutter and KDE's KWin are being ported to Wayland as standalone display servers. Enlightenment has already been successfully ported since version 19.


Video input infrastructure
Linux currently has two modern kernel-userspace APIs for handling video input devices: V4L2 API for video streams and radio, and API for digital TV reception.

Due to the complexity and diversity of different devices, and due to the large number of formats and standards handled by those APIs, this infrastructure needs to evolve to better fit other devices. Also, a good userspace device library is the key to the success of having userspace applications to be able to work with all formats supported by those devices.


Development
The primary difference between Linux and many other popular contemporary operating systems is that the Linux kernel and other components are free and open-source software. Linux is not the only such operating system, although it is by far the most widely used. Some free and open-source software licenses are based on the principle of , a kind of reciprocity: any work derived from a copyleft piece of software must also be copyleft itself. The most common free software license, the GNU General Public License (GPL), is a form of copyleft and is used for the Linux kernel and many of the components from the GNU Project.

Linux-based distributions are intended by developers for with other operating systems and established computing standards. Linux systems adhere to POSIX, SUS, LSB, ISO, and ANSI standards where possible, although to date only one Linux distribution has been POSIX.1 certified, Linux-FT.

Free software projects, although developed through , are often produced independently of each other. The fact that the software licenses explicitly permit redistribution, however, provides a basis for larger-scale projects that collect the software produced by stand-alone projects and make it available all at once in the form of a Linux distribution.

Many Linux distributions manage a remote collection of system software and application software packages available for download and installation through a network connection. This allows users to adapt the operating system to their specific needs. Distributions are maintained by individuals, loose-knit teams, volunteer organizations, and commercial entities. A distribution is responsible for the default configuration of the installed Linux kernel, general system security, and more generally integration of the different software packages into a coherent whole. Distributions typically use a package manager such as apt, yum, , pacman or portage to install, remove, and update all of a system's software from one central location.


Community
A distribution is largely driven by its developer and user communities. Some vendors develop and fund their distributions on a volunteer basis, being a well-known example. Others maintain a community version of their commercial distributions, as does with , and does with .

In many cities and regions, local associations known as Linux User Groups (LUGs) seek to promote their preferred distribution and by extension free software. They hold meetings and provide free demonstrations, training, technical support, and operating system installation to new users. Many Internet communities also provide support to Linux users and developers. Most distributions and free software / open-source projects have IRC chatrooms or . are another means of support, with notable examples being LinuxQuestions.org and the various distribution-specific support and community forums, such as ones for Ubuntu, Fedora, and . Linux distributions host ; commonly there will be a specific topic such as usage or development for a given list.

There are several technology websites with a Linux focus. Print magazines on Linux often bundle that carry software or even complete Linux distributions.

Although Linux distributions are generally available without charge, several large corporations sell, support, and contribute to the development of the components of the system and free software. An analysis of the Linux kernel in 2017 showed that well over 85% of the code was developed by programmers who are being paid for their work, leaving about 8.2% to unpaid developers and 4.1% unclassified. Some of the major corporations that provide contributions include , , , , Oracle, and . Several corporations, notably Red Hat, Canonical, and have built a significant business around Linux distributions.

The free software licenses, on which the various software packages of a distribution built on the Linux kernel are based, explicitly accommodate and encourage commercialization; the relationship between a Linux distribution as a whole and individual vendors may be seen as . One common of commercial suppliers is charging for support, especially for business users. A number of companies also offer a specialized business version of their distribution, which adds proprietary support packages and tools to administer higher numbers of installations or to simplify administrative tasks.

Another business model is to give away the software to sell hardware. This used to be the norm in the computer industry, with operating systems such as CP/M, , and versions of the classic Mac OS before 7.6 freely copyable (but not modifiable). As computer hardware standardized throughout the 1980s, it became more difficult for hardware manufacturers to profit from this tactic, as the OS would run on any manufacturer's computer that shared the same architecture.


Programming on Linux
Most programming languages support Linux either directly or through third-party community based . The original development tools used for building both Linux applications and operating system programs are found within the , which includes the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) and the GNU Build System. Amongst others, GCC provides compilers for Ada, C, C++, Go and . Many programming languages have a cross-platform reference implementation that supports Linux, for example , , Ruby, Python, Java, Go, Rust and . First released in 2003, the project provides an alternative cross-platform open-source compiler for many languages. Proprietary compilers for Linux include the Intel C++ Compiler, Sun Studio, and IBM XL C/C++ Compiler. is available in procedural form from QB64, , , , Basic4GL, , , , and Basic-256, as well as object oriented through , , B4X, Basic for Qt, Phoenix Object Basic, , , , and . Pascal is implemented through , , and , as well as graphically via Lazarus, PascalABC.NET, or Delphi using (previously through ).

A common feature of Unix-like systems, Linux includes traditional specific-purpose programming languages targeted at scripting, text processing and system configuration and management in general. Linux distributions support , , and make. Many programs also have an embedded programming language to support configuring or programming themselves. For example, regular expressions are supported in programs like and locate, the traditional Unix message transfer agent contains its own Turing complete scripting system, and the advanced text editor is built around a general purpose interpreter.

Most distributions also include support for , , Ruby, Python and other dynamic languages. While not as common, Linux also supports C# and other CLI languages (via Mono), Vala, and Scheme. Guile Scheme acts as an extension language targeting the GNU system utilities, seeking to make the conventionally small, , compiled C programs of rapidly and dynamically extensible via an elegant, functional high-level scripting system; many GNU programs can be compiled with optional Guile to this end. A number of Java virtual machines and development kits run on Linux, including the original Sun Microsystems JVM (HotSpot), and IBM's J2SE RE, as well as many open-source projects like and ; Kotlin, Scala, and other JVM languages are also available.

GNOME and are popular desktop environments and provide a framework for developing applications. These projects are based on the and Qt widget toolkits, respectively, which can also be used independently of the larger framework. Both support a wide variety of languages. There are of Integrated development environments available including , , , Eclipse, , ActiveState Komodo, , Lazarus, , , and , while the long-established editors Vim, and remain popular.


Hardware support
The Linux kernel is a widely ported operating system kernel, available for devices ranging from mobile phones to supercomputers; it runs on a highly diverse range of computer architectures, including ARM-based Android smartphones and the mainframes. Specialized distributions and kernel forks exist for less mainstream architectures; for example, the ELKS kernel fork can run on Intel 8086 or Intel 80286 16-bit microprocessors, while the µClinux kernel fork may run on systems without a memory management unit. The kernel also runs on architectures that were only ever intended to use a proprietary manufacturer-created operating system, such as computers (with , , and processors), PDAs, video game consoles, portable music players, and mobile phones.

Linux has a reputation for supporting old hardware very well by maintaining standardized drivers for a long time. There are several industry associations and hardware conferences devoted to maintaining and improving support for diverse hardware under Linux, such as . Over time, support for different hardware has improved in Linux, resulting in any off-the-shelf purchase having a "good chance" of being compatible.

In 2014, a new initiative was launched to automatically collect a database of all tested hardware configurations.


Uses

Market share and uptake
Many quantitative studies of free/open-source software focus on topics including market share and reliability, with numerous studies specifically examining Linux. The Linux market is growing, and the Linux operating system market size is expected to see a growth of 19.2% by 2027, reaching $15.64 billion, compared to $3.89 billion in 2019. Analysts project a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 13.7% between 2024 and 2032, culminating in a market size of USD 34.90 billion by the latter year. Analysts and proponents attribute the relative success of Linux to its security, reliability, low cost, and freedom from .

Desktops and laptops
According to (that is, based on the numbers recorded from visits to websites by client devices), , the estimated market share of Linux on is around 3.7%. In comparison, Microsoft Windows has a market share of around 72.9%, while covers around 16.13%.

Web servers

W3Cook publishes stats that use the top 1,000,000 Alexa domains, which estimate that 96.55% of web servers run Linux, 1.73% run Windows, and 1.72% run FreeBSD.

W3Techs publishes stats that use the top 10,000,000 Alexa domains and the top 1,000,000 Tranco domains, updated monthly and estimate that Linux is used by 39% of the web servers, versus 21.9% being used by Microsoft Windows. 40.1% used other types of Unix.

IDC's Q1 2007 report indicated that Linux held 12.7% of the overall server market at that time; this estimate was based on the number of Linux servers sold by various companies, and did not include server hardware purchased separately that had Linux installed on it later.

Mobile devices
Android, which is based on the Linux kernel, has become the dominant operating system for smartphones. In April 2023, 68.61% of mobile devices accessing websites using were from Android. Android is also a popular operating system for tablets, being responsible for more than 60% of tablet sales . According to web server statistics, Android has a market share of about 71%, with holding 28%, and the remaining 1% attributed to various niche platforms.

Film production
For years, Linux has been the platform of choice in the film industry. The first major film produced on Linux servers was 1997's Titanic. Since then major studios including DreamWorks Animation, , , and Industrial Light & Magic have migrated to Linux. According to the Linux Movies Group, more than 95% of the servers and desktops at large animation and visual effects companies use Linux.

Use in government
Linux distributions have also gained popularity with various local and national governments. News of the Russian military creating its own Linux distribution has also surfaced, and has come to fruition as the G.H.ost Project. The Indian state of has gone to the extent of mandating that all state high schools run Linux on their computers. China uses Linux exclusively as the operating system for its processor family to achieve technology independence. In Spain, some regions have developed their own Linux distributions, which are widely used in education and official institutions, like gnuLinEx in Extremadura and Guadalinex in Andalusia. and have also taken steps toward the adoption of Linux. North Korea's Red Star OS, developed , is based on a version of Fedora Linux.


Copyright, trademark, and naming
The Linux kernel is under the GNU General Public License (GPL), version 2. The GPL requires that anyone who distributes software based on source code under this license must make the originating source code (and any modifications) available to the recipient under the same terms. Other key components of a typical Linux distribution are also mainly licensed under the GPL, but they may use other licenses; many libraries use the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), a more permissive variant of the GPL, and the X.Org implementation of the X Window System uses the .

Torvalds states that the Linux kernel will not move from version 2 of the GPL to version 3. He specifically dislikes some provisions in the new license which prohibit the use of the software in digital rights management. It would also be impractical to obtain permission from all the copyright holders, who number in the thousands.

A 2001 study of Red Hat Linux 7.1 found that this distribution contained 30 million source lines of code. Using the , the study estimated that this distribution required about eight thousand person-years of development time. According to the study, if all this software had been developed by conventional proprietary means, it would have cost about to develop in in the United States. Most of the source code (71%) was written in the C programming language, but many other languages were used, including C++, Lisp, assembly language, Perl, Python, , and various languages. Slightly over half of all lines of code were licensed under the GPL. The Linux kernel itself was 2.4 million lines of code, or 8% of the total.

In a later study, the same analysis was performed for Debian version 4.0 (etch, which was released in 2007). This distribution contained close to 283 million source lines of code, and the study estimated that it would have required about seventy three thousand man-years and cost (in dollars) to develop by conventional means.

In the United States, the name Linux is a trademark registered to Linus Torvalds. Initially, nobody registered it. However, on August 15, 1994, William R. Della Croce Jr. filed for the trademark Linux, and then demanded royalties from Linux distributors. In 1996, Torvalds and some affected organizations sued him to have the trademark assigned to Torvalds, and, in 1997, the case was settled. The licensing of the trademark has since been handled by the Linux Mark Institute (LMI). Torvalds has stated that he trademarked the name only to prevent someone else from using it. LMI originally charged a nominal sublicensing fee for use of the Linux name as part of trademarks, but later changed this in favor of offering a free, perpetual worldwide sublicense.

The Free Software Foundation (FSF) prefers GNU/Linux as the name when referring to the operating system as a whole, because it considers Linux distributions to be of the GNU operating system initiated in 1983 by , president of the FSF. They explicitly take no issue over the name Android for the Android OS, which is also an operating system based on the Linux kernel, as GNU is not a part of it.

A minority of public figures and software projects other than Stallman and the FSF, notably Debian (which had been sponsored by the FSF up to 1996), also use GNU/Linux when referring to the operating system as a whole. Most media and common usage, however, refers to this family of operating systems simply as Linux, as do many large Linux distributions (for example, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux). By contrast, Linux distributions containing only free software use "GNU/Linux" or simply "GNU", such as Trisquel GNU/Linux, Parabola GNU/Linux-libre, BLAG Linux and GNU, and .

, about 8% to 13% of the lines of code of the Linux distribution Ubuntu (version "Natty") is made of GNU components (the range depending on whether GNOME is considered part of GNU); meanwhile, 6% is taken by the Linux kernel, increased to 9% when including its direct dependencies. ( data)


See also
  • Comparison of Linux distributions
  • Comparison of open-source and closed-source software
  • Comparison of operating systems
  • Comparison of X Window System desktop environments
  • Criticism of Linux
  • Linux kernel version history
  • Linux Documentation Project
  • Linux From Scratch
  • Linux Software Map
  • List of Linux distributions
  • List of games released on Linux
  • List of operating systems
  • Loadable kernel module
  • Usage share of operating systems
  • Timeline of operating systems


Notes

External links

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