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Tag Wiki 'Web Browser'.

A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web. Each individual , image, and video is identified by a distinct (URL), enabling browsers to retrieve these resources from a and display them on the user's device.

The web browser works as follows." A Survey of Techniques for Improving Efficiency of Mobile Web Browsing", Mittal et al., Concurrency and Computation, 2019 First, the rendering engine parses CSS and files. While parsing the HTML file, the rendering engine also produces DOM tree data construct where every node refers to an HTML tag, a property or a section of a text. CSS decides the visual style of the webpage based on the style rules, each of which selects single/multiple HTML tags for applying the properties. During parsing, CSS rules are extracted and corresponding data structure is constructed. Based on CSS rules and DOM tree, the style resolution unit decides the style information of the page (such as color font) by generating the render tree. Every node of the render tree corresponds to one visual component of the webpage. From this, the layout unit computes the precise screen-coordinates of every visual component. Finally, the painting unit traverses the render tree and invokes to actually display the page on the screen.

A web browser is not the same thing as a search engine, though the two are often confused. For a user, a search engine is just a , such as , that stores searchable data about other websites. But to connect to a website's server and display its web pages, a user needs to have a web browser installed on their device.

As of March 2019, more than 4.3 billion people are web browser users, around 55% of the world’s population.  Their success is in part caused by their flexibility, due to their Turing-complete execution and powerful graphic capabilities.

The most popular browsers are , , Safari, Internet Explorer, and .

The first web browser, called , was created in 1990 by Sir . He then recruited to write the Line Mode Browser, which displayed web pages on dumb terminals; it was released in 1991.
(2019). 9780192862075, Oxford University Press.

1993 was a landmark year with the release of Mosaic, credited as "the world's first popular browser". Its innovative graphical interface made the World Wide Web system easy to use and thus more accessible to the average person. This, in turn, sparked the Internet boom of the 1990s when the Web grew at a very rapid rate. , the leader of the Mosaic team, soon started his own company, , which released the Mosaic-influenced Netscape Navigator in 1994. Navigator quickly became the most popular browser.

debuted Internet Explorer in 1995, leading to a with Netscape. Microsoft was able to gain a dominant position for two reasons: it bundled Internet Explorer with its popular Microsoft Windows and did so as with no restrictions on usage. Eventually the market share of Internet Explorer peaked at over 95% in 2002.

In 1998, desperate to remain competitive, Netscape launched what would become the Mozilla Foundation to create a new browser using the open source software model. This work evolved into , first released by Mozilla in 2004. Firefox reached a 28% market share in 2011.

Apple released its Safari browser in 2003. It remains the dominant browser on Apple platforms, though it never became a factor elsewhere.

The last major entrant to the browser market was . Its browser, which debuted in 2008, has been a huge success. It steadily took market share from Internet Explorer and became the most popular browser in 2012. Chrome has remained dominant ever since.

In terms of technology, browsers have greatly expanded their , , , and capabilities since the 1990s. One reason has been to enable more sophisticated websites, such as . Another factor is the significant increase of connectivity, which enables people to access data-intensive web content, such as , that was not possible during the era of dial-up modems.

The purpose of a web browser is to fetch information resources from the Web and display them on a user's device.

This process begins when the user inputs a , such as <nowiki></nowiki>, into the browser. Virtually all URLs on the Web start with either http: or https: which means the browser will retrieve them with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol. In the case of https:, the communication between the browser and the is for the purposes of security and privacy. Another URL prefix is file: which is used to display already stored on the user's device.

Once a has been retrieved, the browser's displays it on the user's device. This includes image and video formats supported by the browser.

Web pages usually contain to other pages and resources. Each link contains a URL, and when it is clicked, the browser navigates to the new resource. Thus the process of bringing content to the user begins again.

Web browsers can typically be configured with a built-in menu. Depending on the browser, the menu may be named Settings, Options, or Preferences.

The menu has different types of settings. For example, users can change their and default search engine. They also can change default colors and . Various network connectivity and privacy settings are also usually available.

During the course of browsing, received from various are stored by the browser. Some of them contain login credentials or site preferences. However, others are used for tracking user behavior over long periods of time, so browsers typically provide settings for removing cookies when exiting the browser. Finer-grained management of cookies requires a browser extension.

The most popular browsers have a number of in common. They allow users to set bookmarks and browse in a . They also can be customized with extensions, and some of them provide a sync service.

Most browsers have these features:

  • Allow the user to open multiple pages at the same time, either in different browser windows or in different tabs of the same window.
  • Back and forward buttons to go back to the previous page visited or forward to the next one.
  • A refresh or reload button to reload the current page.
  • A stop button to cancel loading the page. (In some browsers, the stop button is merged with the reload button.)
  • A home button to return to the user's .
  • An to input the of a page and display it.
  • A search bar to input terms into a search engine. (In some browsers, the search bar is merged with the address bar.)

There are also niche browsers with distinct features. One example is text-only browsers that can benefit people with slow connections or those with visual impairments.

Web browsers are installed on almost all computers. As a result, they are popular targets for attackers to exploit vulnerabilities (security holes). Attackers can use these vulnerabilities to steal information, destroy , and use computers to attack other computers. Common methods to attack browsers include installing Trojan software or . Instead of actively targeting vulnerabilities, attackers often compromise systems passively when a malicious is visited.

Certain browser contain commonly exploited vulnerabilities. They include:

  • Plug-ins, applications used by browsers, which may contain programming flaws
  • Software frameworks like , which can increase the attack surface of a system
  • such as a Java virtual machine, which can be bypassed with certain
  • , which can grant attackers access to
  • Scripting languages, which are vulnerable to cross-site scripting (XSS)

Methods used to secure web browsers and computers in general include keeping browser software updated, installing and using antivirus software, and avoiding malicious content and website-based exploits.    

Market share
[[File:Browser Market Map June 2015.svg|thumb|Most used web browser by country, as of June 2015.


See also

External links
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