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   » » Wiki: Web Browser
Tag Wiki 'Web Browser'.

A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web. Each individual , image, and video is identified by a distinct , enabling browsers to retrieve and display them on the user's device.

A web browser is not the same thing as a , though the two are often confused. For a user, a search engine is just a , such as , that stores searchable data about other websites. But in order to connect to and display websites on their device, a user needs to have a web browser installed.

The most popular web browsers are , , Safari, Internet Explorer, and .

The first web browser, called , was invented in 1990 by Sir . He then recruited to write the Line Mode Browser, which displayed web pages on dumb terminals; it was released in 1991.
(2018). 9780192862075, Oxford University Press.

1993 was a landmark year with the release of Mosaic, credited as "the world's first popular browser". Its innovative graphical interface made the World Wide Web system easy to use and thus more accessible to the average person. This, in turn, sparked the Internet boom of the 1990s when the Web grew at a very rapid rate. , the leader of the Mosaic team, soon started his own company, , which released the Mosaic-influenced Netscape Navigator in 1994. Navigator quickly became the most popular browser.

debuted Internet Explorer in 1995, leading to a with Netscape. Microsoft was able to gain a dominant position for two reasons: it bundled Internet Explorer with its popular Windows and did so as with no restrictions on usage. Eventually the market share of Internet Explorer peaked at over 95% in 2002.

In 1998, desperate to remain competitive, Netscape launched what would become the Mozilla Foundation to create a new browser using the software model. This work evolved into , first released by Mozilla in 2004. Firefox reached a 28% market share in 2011.

Apple released its Safari browser in 2003. It remains the dominant browser on Apple platforms, though it never became a factor elsewhere.

The last major entrant to the browser market was . Its browser, which debuted in 2008, has been a huge success. It steadily took market share from Internet Explorer and became the most popular browser in 2012. It has remained dominant ever since.

In terms of technology, browsers have greatly expanded their , , , and capabilities since the 1990s. One reason has been to enable more sophisticated websites, such as . Another factor is the significant increase of connectivity, which enables people to access data-intensive web content, such as , that was not possible during the era of dial-up modems.

The purpose of a web browser is to fetch information resources and display them on a user's device.

This process begins when the user inputs a , such as, into the browser. Virtually all URLs on the Web start with either http: or https: which means the browser will retrieve them with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol. In the case of https: the communication between the browser and the is for the purposes of security and privacy. Another URL prefix is file: which is used to display already stored on the user's device.

Once a has been retrieved, the browser's displays it on the user's device. This includes image and video formats supported by the browser.

Web pages usually contain to other pages and resources. Each link contains a URL, and when it is clicked, the browser navigates to the new resource. Thus the process of bringing content to the user begins again.

To implement all of this, modern browsers are a combination of numerous software components.

All major browsers allow the user to open multiple pages at the same time, either in different browser windows or in different tabs of the same window. They also support the use of extensions to add to or modify browser operation in a variety of ways.

Common features of browsers:

  • Back and forward buttons to go back to the previous page visited or forward to the next one.
  • A refresh or reload button to reload the current page.
  • A stop button to cancel loading the page. (In some browsers, the stop button is merged with the reload button.)
  • A home button to return to the user's .
  • An to input the of a page and display it.
  • A search bar to input terms into a search engine. (In some browsers, the search bar is merged with the address bar.)

Market share
[[File:Browser Market Map June 2015.svg|thumb|Most used web browser by country, as of June 2015.


See also

External links
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