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A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a mobile PC, typically with a mobile operating system and display processing , and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package. Tablets, being computers, do what other personal computers do, but lack some I/O capabilities that others have.

Tablets typically have other I/O capabilities that suit them to their usual tasks. These may include , front-facing or rear-facing , a , , a , , , hall effect sensor, and an , so images on screens are displayed upright, or to sense velocity. Some have a fingerprint sensor, , or . Most tablets use , and some can also use , for . Tablets can run various software known as apps; most basic apps (such as camera, photos, web browser, voice/video calls, emails, text messages, maps, weather, calendar, contacts, notes, App Store, virtual assistant, etc) come pre-installed with the system. Others may be installed online from the .

The touchscreen display uses gestures by finger or stylus to replace the , and keyboard of larger computers. On the sides of the device, , volume buttons (to control the sound emitted by the speakers), a , and a will be present. Devices may have touchscreen home button (takes user to the starting user interface) at the bottom of the screen, or a physical home button or multiple buttons may be included below the touchscreen. Some tablets have a feature, which may be used in games, or for notifications. Tablets may able to place and receive voice/video using Voice over IP on Wi-Fi or cellular networks. Tablets largely resemble , the only difference being tablets are relatively larger than smartphones, with screens or larger, measured diagonally. What makes a tablet a tablet? (FAQ) CNET.com May 28, 2010 Ulefone U7 review Every device with diagonal equal 7" or longer is practically tablet PC. Retrieved June 28, 2014.

Portable computers can be classified according to the presence and physical appearance of keyboards. Slates and booklets do not have a physical keyboard, and usually accept text and other input by use of a shown on a touchscreen-enabled display. Hybrids, convertibles, and 2-in-1s all have physical keyboards (although these are usually concealable or detachable), yet they typically also make use of virtual keyboards. Some 2-in-1s have processors and operating systems like a full , whilst having the flexibility of being used as a tablet. Most tablets can use separate keyboards connected using .

The format was conceptualized in the mid-20th century ( depicted fictional tablets in the 1968 film ) and prototyped and developed in the last two decades of that century. In April 2010, Apple released the iPad, the first mass-market tablet to achieve widespread popularity. Thereafter in the 2010s, tablets rapidly rose in ubiquity and became a large product category The Dell Venue 8 7000 Series Review . . 23 March 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2015. used for personal, educational and workplace applications.


History

The tablet computer and its associated operating system began with the development of . Electrical devices with data input and output on a flat information display existed as early as 1888 with the , which used a sheet of paper as display and a pen attached to electromechanical . Throughout the 20th century devices with these characteristics have been imagined and created whether as , , or commercial products. In addition to many academic and research systems, several companies released commercial products in the 1980s, with various input/output types tried out:


Fictional and prototype tablets
Tablet computers appeared in a number of works of in the second half of the 20th century; all helped to promote and disseminate the concept to a wider audience. Examples include:
  • described a Calculator Pad in his novel Foundation (1951)
  • described the Opton in his novel Return from the Stars (1961)
  • Numerous similar devices were depicted in 's 1966
  • Arthur C. Clarke's NewsPad was depicted in 's film (1968)
  • Douglas Adams described a tablet computer in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy and the associated comedy of the same name (1978)
  • The sci-fi TV series Star Trek The Next Generation featured tablet computers which were designated as .
  • A device more powerful than today's tablets appeared briefly in The Mote in God's Eye (1974)."I keep wishing for a real tablet--one that would function as the pocket computer we described in The Mote in God's Eye".—

Additionally, real-life projects either proposed or created tablet computers, such as:

  • In 1968, computer scientist envisioned a KiddiComp; he developed and described the concept as a in his proposal, A personal computer for children of all ages (1972), which outlines functionality similar to that supplied via a computer, or (in some of its other incarnations) a tablet or slate computer, with the exception of near eternal battery life. Adults could also use a Dynabook, but the was children.
  • In 1979, the idea of a tablet that could detect an external force applied to one point on the screen was patented in Japan by a team at consisting of Masao Hotta, Yoshikazu Miyamoto, Norio Yokozawa and Yoshimitsu Oshima, who later received a US patent for their idea. US4389711A patent: Touch sensitive tablet using force detection
  • In 1992, showed developers the Stylus, later renamed ST-Pad. The ST-Pad was based on the TOS/GEM Platform and prototyped early handwriting recognition. 's company Momentus demonstrated in the same time a failed x86 based Pen Computer with its own .
  • In 1994, the initiated the project, inspired by Clarke and Kubrick's fictional work. developed and delivered an -based touch screen tablet computer for this program, branding it the "NewsPad"; the project ended in 1997.
  • During the November 2000 COMDEX, used the term Tablet PC to describe a prototype handheld device they were demonstrating.
  • In 2001, Ericsson Mobile Communications announced an experimental product named the DelphiPad, which was developed in cooperation with the Centre for Wireless Communications in , with a touch-sensitive screen, Netscape Navigator as a , and as its .


Early tablets
Following earlier tablet computer products such as the PenPad, and the CIC Handwriter, in September 1989, released the first commercially successful tablet computer, the . The GRiDPad was manufactured by South Korean company Samsung Corporation, modified from the Samsung PenMaster, a prototype that was not commercially distributed. All three products were based on extended versions of the operating system. In 1992, IBM announced (in April) and shipped to developers (in October) the 2521 ThinkPad, which ran the 's . Also based on PenPoint was AT&T's EO Personal Communicator from 1993, which ran on AT&T's own hardware, including their own AT&T Hobbit CPU. Apple Computer launched the personal digital assistant in 1993. It utilised Apple's own new , initially running on hardware manufactured by Motorola and incorporating an CPU, that Apple had specifically co-developed with . The operating system and platform design were later licensed to Sharp and , who went on to manufacture their own variants.

In 1996, Palm, Inc. released the first of the based touch and stylus based PDA, the touch based devices initially incorporating a Motorola Dragonball (68000) CPU. Also in 1996 Fujitsu released the Stylistic 1000 tablet format PC, running Microsoft Windows 95, on a 100 MHz AMD486 DX4 CPU, with 8 MB RAM offering stylus input, with the option of connecting a conventional Keyboard and mouse. Intel announced a processor-based touchscreen tablet computer in 1999, under the name WebPAD. It was later re-branded as the "Intel Web Tablet". In 2000, Norwegian company Screen Media AS and the German company Dosch & Amand Gmbh released the " FreePad". FreePad: Norway's alternative to Sweden's Screen Phone Rick Lehrbaum, ZDNet. Retrieved May 17, 2014 It was based on Linux and used the . was provided by DECT DMAP, only available in Europe and provided up to 10Mbit/s. The device had 16 MB storage, 32 MB of RAM and x86 compatible 166 MHz "Geode"-Microcontroller by National Semiconductor. The screen was 10.4" or 12.1" and was touch sensitive. It had slots for SIM cards to enable support of television set-up box. FreePad were sold in Norway and the Middle East; but the company was dissolved in 2003.

In April 2000, launched the 2000, utilizing their touch capable Windows CE 3.0 operating system. The devices were manufactured by several manufacturers, based on a mix of: x86, MIPS, , and hardware. In 2002, Microsoft attempted to define the Microsoft Tablet PCMarkoff, John (August 30, 1999) " Microsoft brings in top talent to pursue old goal: the tablet " The New York Times as a mobile computer for field work in business, though their devices failed, mainly due to pricing and decisions that limited them to their original purpose - such as the existing devices being too heavy to be held with one hand for extended periods, and having legacy applications created for desktop interfaces and not well adapted to the slate format.Bright, Peter Ballmer (and Microsoft) still doesn't get the iPad , , 2010

had plans for an tablet since before 2000. An early model was test manufactured in 2001, the Nokia M510, which was running on EPOC and featuring an Opera browser, speakers and a 10-inch 800×600 screen, but it was not released because of fears that the market was not ready for it. In 2005, Nokia finally released the first of its Internet Tablet range, the Nokia 770. These tablets now ran a based Linux OS called . Nokia used the term internet tablet to refer to a portable information appliance that focused on Internet use and media consumption, in the range between a personal digital assistant (PDA) and an (UMPC). They made two mobile phones, the N900 that runs Maemo, and N9 that run Meego. Before the release of iPad, Axiotron introduced an aftermarket, heavily modified Apple called , a Mac OS X-based tablet computer. The Modbook uses Apple's Inkwell for handwriting and gesture recognition, and uses digitization hardware from Wacom. To get Mac OS X to talk to the digitizer on the integrated tablet, the Modbook was supplied with a third-party driver.

Android was the first of the 2000s-era dominating platforms for tablet computers to reach the market. In 2008, the first plans for Android-based tablets appeared. The first products were released in 2009. Among them was the Archos 5, a pocket-sized model with a 5-inch , that was first released with a proprietary operating system and later (in 2009) released with Android 1.4. The Camangi WebStation was released in Q2 2009. The first LTE Android tablet appeared late 2009 and was made by ICD for . This unit was called the Ultra, but a version called Vega was released around the same time. Ultra had a 7-inch display while Vega's was 15 inches. Many more products followed in 2010. Several manufacturers waited for Android Honeycomb, specifically adapted for use with tablets, which debuted in February 2011.


Modern tablets
Apple is often credited for defining a new class of consumer device with the , which shaped the commercial market for tablets in the following years, and was the most successful tablet at the time of its release. iPads and competing devices were tested by the US military in 2011 and cleared for secure use in 2013. Its debut in 2010 pushed tablets into the mainstream.Roger Kay on Intel and Microsoft, as quoted April 29, 2011: "Clearly, each one is looking at a post-PC world..." MarketWatch
  • Kevin Parrish (October 28, 2010) "Microsoft's Ray Ozzie sees Post-PC world", Tom's Hardware US "It's important that all of us ... form a realistic picture of what a post-PC world would actually look like ... Those who can envision a plausible future that's brighter than today will earn the opportunity to lead in." —Ray Ozzie's memo to Microsoft on the eve of his retirement. Galaxy Tab and others followed, continuing the trends towards the features listed above. In March 2012, reported that 31% of U.S. Internet users owned a tablet, used mainly for viewing published content such as video and news. The top-selling line of devices was Apple's with 100 million sold between its release in April 2010 and mid-October 2012, but iPad market share (number of units) dropped to 36% in 2013 with Android tablets climbing to 62%. Android tablet sales volume was 121 million devices, plus 52 million, between 2012 and 2013 respectively. Individual brands of Android operating system devices or compatibles follow iPad with Amazon's with 7 million, and Barnes & Noble's with 5 million.

As of February 2014, 83% of mobile app developers were targeting tablets, W3C Interview: Vision Mobile on the App Developer Economy with Matos Kapetanakis and Dimitris Michalakos . 18 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2015. but 93% of developers were targeting smartphones. By 2014 around 23% of B2B companies were said to have deployed tablets for sales-related activities, according to a survey report by Corporate Visions. The iPad holds majority use in North America, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and most of the Americas. Android tablets are more popular in most of Asia (China and Russia an exception), Africa and Eastern Europe. In 2015 tablet sales did not increase. Apple remained the largest seller but its market share declined below 25%. vice president Gary Riding said early in 2016 that tablets were only doing well among those using them for work. Newer models were more expensive and designed for a keyboard and stylus, which reflected the changing uses. As of early 2016, Android reigns over the market with 65%. Apple takes the number 2 spot with 26%, and Windows take a distant third with the remaining 9%. IDC releases Q2 tablet PC marketshare

In late 2017, the will receive the iOS 11 update, that will add the ability to run multiple windows, drag and drop from one app to another, and browse a user's files. The iPad is about to get more Useful - and confusing


Types

Tablets can be loosely grouped into several categories, by physical size, operating system installed, input/output technology and usage.


Slate
A slate's size may vary, starting from 6 inches (approximately 15 cm). Some models in the larger than 10-inch category include the Samsung Galaxy Tab Pro 12.2 at 12.2 inches, the Toshiba Excite at 13.3 inches and the Dell XPS 18 at 18.4 inches. As of March 2013, the thinnest tablet on the market was the Sony Xperia Tablet Z at only 0.27 inches (6.9 mm) thick. On 9 September 2015, Apple released the with a screen size, larger than the regular .


Mini tablet
Mini tablets are smaller and lighter than standard slates, with a typical screen size between . The first successful ones were introduced by Amazon (Kindle Fire), Barnes & Noble (), and (7-inch Galaxy Tab) in 2011, and by (the Nexus 7) in 2012. They work the same as larger tablets, however with lower specifications when compared to the larger tablets. On September 14, 2012, Amazon released an upgraded version of the Kindle Fire, called the Kindle Fire HD, with higher resolution and more features compared with the original Kindle Fire, though it remained 7 inches. In October 2012, Apple released the with a 7.9 inch screen size, about 2 inches smaller than the regular , but less powerful than the then current iPad 3. On July 24, 2013, Google released an upgraded version of the Nexus 7, with FHD display, dual cameras, stereo speakers, more color accuracy, performance improvement, built-in wireless charging, and a variant with 4G LTE support for AT&T, T-Mobile, and Verizon. In September 2013, Amazon further updated the Fire tablet with the Kindle Fire HDX. In November 2013, Apple released the iPad Mini 2, which remained at 7.9 inches and nearly matched the hardware of the .


Phablet
Since 2010, crossover touch-screen mobile phones with screens larger than 5-inches have been released. That size is generally considered larger than a traditional , creating a hybrid category called a by and . Phablet is a of phone and tablet. At the time of the introduction of the first phablets, screens of 5.3 to 5.5 inches where considered phablets, but as of 2017 screen sizes up to 5.5 inches are considered mainstream. Examples of phablets (2017, exceeding 5.5 inches) are the Samsung Galaxy Note series (newer models with 5.7 inch), the LG V10/V20 (5.7 inch), the Sony Xperia XA Ultra 6, the Huawei Mate 9 (5.9 inch), or the Huawei Honor (MediaPad) X2 (7 inch).


Convertible, hybrid, 2-in-1
Convertibles and hybrids are crossover devices, featuring traits of both tablets and laptops. Convertibles have a chassis design allowing to conceal the keyboard, for example folding it behind the chassis. Hybrids' keyboards can be completely detached even when the device is running. 2-in-1s can have either the convertible or hybrid form, dubbed 2-in-1 convertibles and 2-in-1 detachables respectively, but distinct by support of desktop , such as Windows 10. When traditional tablets are primarily used as a media consumption devices, 2-in-1s capable of both that and a . For this reason they are often dubbed as a laptop or desktop replacement computers.

2-in-1s have a number of typical laptop I/O-ports, such as USB 3 and , run desktop operating system, like Windows 10, and can connect to a number of traditional PC peripheral devices and external displays. -series devices, which run variants of Android OS, are example of hybrids. The latest addition to the series, with an optional detachable keyboard and a stylus is a prominent example of a modern hybrid. Microsoft's Surface Pro-series devices and exemplify 2-in-1 detachables, whereas -series computers are notable 2-in-1 convertibles.


Gaming tablet
Some tablets are modified by adding physical buttons such as and thumb sticks for better gaming experience combined with the and all other features of a typical tablet computer. Most of these tablets are targeted to run native OS games and games. 's , with a display, and running Android, is an example. It runs Android games purchased from store. can also be to the tablet from computers with some higher end models of Nvidia-powered . The console is a gaming tablet.


Booklet
Booklets are tablet computers with a clamshell design that can fold like a laptop. Examples include the Microsoft Courier, which was discontinued in 2010, the Sony Tablet P (which was considered a flop), and the W100.


Customized business tablet
Customized business tablets are built specifically for a business customer's particular needs from a hardware and software perspective, and delivered in a business-to-business transaction. For example, in hardware, a transportation company may find that the consumer-grade module in an off-the-shelf tablet provides insufficient accuracy, so a tablet can be customized and embedded with a professional-grade antenna to provide a better GPS signal. Such tablets may also be for field use. For a software example, the same transportation company might remove certain software functions in the Android system, such as the internet browser, to reduce costs from unnecessary cellular network data consumption of an employee, and add custom package management software. Other applications may call for a resistive touchscreen and other special hardware and software.

A table ordering tablet is a touchscreen tablet computer designed for use in casual restaurants. Such devices allow users to order food and drinks, play games and pay their bill. Since 2013, including Chili's, and have adopted them. As of 2014, the two most popular brands were and .


Hardware

System architecture
Two major architectures dominate the tablet market, ' and Intel's and AMD's x86. Intel's x86, including x86-64 has powered the "IBM compatible" PC since 1981 and Apple's Macintosh computers since 2006. The CPUs have been incorporated into tablet PCs over the years and generally offer greater performance along with the ability to run full versions of Microsoft , along with Windows desktop and enterprise applications. Non-Windows based x86 tablets include the . Intel announced plans to enter the tablet market with its in 2010. In October 2013, Intel's foundry operation announced plans to build FPGA-based quad cores for ARM and x86 processors. Intel on track to build two chips with ARM inside . October 2013.

ARM has been the CPU architecture of choice for manufacturers of smartphones (95% ARM), PDAs, digital cameras (80% ARM), , DSL routers, smart televisions (70% ARM), storage devices and tablet computers (95% ARM).Jeff Chu (December 18, 2012) "Where's ARM at CES?" http://blogs.arm.com/smart-connected-devices/870-ever-wonder-where%e2%80%99s-arm-at-ces/ This dominance began with the release of the mobile-focused and comparatively power-efficient 32-bit ARM610 processor originally designed for the in 1993 and ARM3-using Acorn A4 laptop in 1992. The chip was adopted by Psion, Palm and Nokia for PDAs and later smartphones, camera phones, cameras, etc. ARM's licensing model supported this success by allowing device manufacturers to license, alter and fabricate custom SoC derivatives tailored to their own products. This has helped manufacturers extend battery life and shrink component count along with the size of devices.

The multiple licensees ensured that multiple fabricators could supply near-identical products, while encouraging price competition. This forced unit prices down to a fraction of their x86 equivalents. The architecture has historically had limited support from Microsoft, with only available, but with the 2012 release of Windows 8, Microsoft announced additional support for the architecture, shipping their own ARM-based tablet computer, branded the Microsoft Surface, as well as an x86-64 Intel Core i5 variant branded as Microsoft Surface Pro. Intel tablet chip sales were 1 million units in 2012, and 12 million units in 2013. John Morris, "What we learned about Intel this week" (Nov 22, 2014) accessdate=2014-11-22 Intel chairman Andy Bryant has stated that its 2014 goal is to quadruple its tablet chip sales to 40 million units by the end of that year, as an investment for 2015.

  • : Mobile operating losses will be approximately $4 billion, and $3.2 billion in 2014, and 2015, respectively.


Display
A key component among tablet computers is touch input on a Liquid-crystal display (LCD). This allows the user to navigate easily and type with a on the screen or press other icons on the screen to open apps or files. The first tablet to do this was the by GRiD Systems Corporation; the tablet featured both a , a pen-like tool to aid with precision in a touchscreen device as well as an on-screen keyboard. The system must respond to on-screen touches rather than clicks of a keyboard or mouse. This operation makes precise use of our eye–hand coordination.

Touchscreens usually come in one of two forms:

  • Resistive touchscreens are passive and respond to pressure on the screen. They allow a high level of precision, useful in emulating a pointer (as is common in tablet computers) but may require calibration. Because of the high resolution, a stylus or fingernail is often used. Stylus-oriented systems are less suited to .
  • Capacitive touchscreens tend to be less accurate, but more responsive than resistive devices. Because they require a conductive material, such as a finger tip, for input, they are not common among stylus-oriented devices, but are prominent on consumer devices. Most finger-driven capacitive screens do not currently support pressure input (except for the iPhone 6S and later models), but some tablets use a pressure-sensitive stylus or .
  • Some tablets can recognize individual palms, while some professional-grade tablets use pressure-sensitive films, such as those on . Some capacitive touch-screens can detect the size of the touched area and the pressure used.Buxton, Bill. Multitouch Overview

Since mid-2010s, most tablets use capacitive with , unlike earlier resistive touchscreen devices which users needed styluses in order to perform inputs.


Handwriting recognition
Some ARM powered tablets, such as the Galaxy Note 10, support a stylus and support handwriting recognition. Wacom and digital pens provide approximately 2500 DPI resolution for handwriting, exceeding the resolution of capacitive touch screens by more than a factor of 10. These pens also support pressure sensitivity, allowing for "variable-width stroke-based" characters, such as Chinese/Japanese/Korean writing, due to their built-in capability of "pressure sensing". Pressure is also used in digital art applications such as Autodesk Sketchbook. China using keyboards versus tablet input Apps exist on both iOS and Android platforms for handwriting recognition and in 2015 Google introduced its own handwriting input with support for 82 languages.


Other features
After 2007, with access to capacitive screens and the success of the iPhone, other features became common, such as multi-touch features (in which the user can touch the screen in multiple places to trigger actions and other natural user interface features, as well as solid state storage and "instant on" ; external and keyboards defined tablets. Some tablets have 3G applications.

Most tablets released since mid-2010 use a version of an processor for longer battery life. The ARM Cortex family is powerful enough for tasks such as , light production work and . The Coming War: ARM versus x86 Mirror for: The Bright Side of News April 8, 2010

Other features are, High-definition, anti-glare display, Touchscreen, Front- and/or back- facing camera(s) for photographs and , Lower weight and longer battery life than a comparably-sized laptop, Wireless local area and internet connectivity (usually with standard and optional ), for connecting peripherals and communicating with local devices, Ports for wired connections and charging, for example , Early devices had IR support and could work as a TV remote controller, : Keyboard and additional connections, On-board , Ports for removable storage, Various services for backup and syncing data across devices, Local storage on a

Besides a touchscreen and keyboard, many tablets can also use these input methods:

  • : Detects the physical movement and of the tablet. This allows the touchscreen display to shift to either portrait or landscape mode. In addition, tilting the tablet may be used as an input (for instance to steer in a driving game)
  • Ambient light and , to detect if the device is close to something, in particular, to your ear, etc., which help to distinguish between intentional and unintentional touches.
  • Speech recognition Google introduced voice input in Android 2.1 in 2009 and in 2.2 in 2010, with up to five languages (now around 40). was introduced as a system-wide personal assistant on the iPhone 4S in 2011 and now supports nearly 20 languages. In both cases the voice input is sent to central servers to perform general speech recognition and therefore requires a network connection for more than simple commands.
  • Gesture recognition
  • Character recognition to write text on the tablet, that can be stored as any other text in the intended storage, instead of using a keyboard.
  • Near field communication with other compatible devices including ISO/IEC 14443 RFID tags.


Software

Operating system
Tablets, like conventional PCs, use several different , though is relatively rare. Tablet operating systems come in two classes:

Desktop OS-based tablets are currently thicker and heavier. They require more storage and more cooling and give less battery life. They can run processor-intensive graphical applications in addition to , and have more ports.

Mobile-based tablets are the reverse, and run only mobile apps. They can use battery life conservatively because the processor is significantly smaller. This allows the battery to last much longer than the common laptop.

At the end of Q1 2013, noted that in two years tablet usage increased by 282 percent, with 156 million Android tablet users and 122 million iPad users making up 75 percent. By year-end 2013, Gartner found that 121 million (plus 53M in 2012) Android tablets, 70 million (plus 61M in 2012) iOS tablets, and 4 million (plus 1M in 2012) Windows tablets had been sold to end-users (2013 and 2012 results). In early 2016 Android tablets had 65% of the market, Apple's iOS had 26% of the market and Windows 10 had 9% of the market.


Android
Android is a -based operating system that Google offers as under the . It is designed primarily for mobile devices such as and tablet computers. Android supports low-cost systems and others. Many such systems were announced in 2010. Vendors such as Motorola and Lenovo delayed deployment of their tablets until after 2011, when Android was reworked to include more tablet features.
  • Andy Rubin's demo of Motorola Honeycomb tablet Android 3.0 (Honeycomb) and later versions support larger screen sizes, mainly tablets, and have access to the service. Android includes operating system, and key applications. Other vendors sell customized Android tablets, such as and , which are used to consume and provide their own app store, rather than using the larger system, thereby fragmenting the Android market. Hardware makers that have shipped Android tablets include Acer, Asus, Lenovo, Samsung, Sony, and Toshiba. Additionally, Google introduced the Nexus 7 and Nexus 10 tablets in 2012.


iOS
The iPad runs on , which was created for the and . Although built on the same underlying implementation as MacOS, its user interface is radically different. iOS is designed for fingers and has none of the features that required a stylus on earlier tablets. Apple introduced gestures, such as moving two fingers apart or together to zoom in or out, also known as "pinch to zoom". iOS is built for the .


Windows
Following Windows for Pen Computing for Windows 3.1 in 1991, Microsoft supported tablets running Windows XP under the Microsoft Tablet PC name. Microsoft Tablet PCs were pen-based, fully functional x86 PCs with handwriting and voice recognition functionality. Tablet PC Brings the Simplicity of Pen and Paper to Computing: In a conversation with PressPass, Tablet PC general manager Alexandra Loeb discusses how the Tablet PC will bring... Windows XP Tablet PC Edition provided pen support. Tablet support was added to both Home and Business versions of and Windows 7. Tablets running Windows could use the touchscreen for mouse input, hand writing recognition and gesture support. Following Tablet PC, Microsoft announced the initiative in 2006 which brought Windows tablets to a smaller, touch-centric form factor. In 2008, Microsoft showed a prototype of a two-screen tablet called Microsoft Courier, but cancelled the project.

In 2012, Microsoft released Windows 8, which features significant changes to various aspects of the operating system's user interface and platform which are designed for touch-based devices such as tablets. The operating system also introduced an and a new style of application optimized primarily for use on tablets. Microsoft also introduced , an edition of Windows 8 for use on ARM-based devices. The launch of Windows 8 and RT was accompanied by the release of devices with the two operating systems by various manufacturers (including Microsoft themselves, with the release of Surface), such as slate tablets, hybrids, and convertibles. Windows RT was discontinued in 2014. One of the following Windows OSs will be discontinued: Windows Phone, Windows RT, and Windows 8 Even not, the 2 programs, Microsoft Surface and Yoga Pro series were not discontinued because of the accessories.

Released in July 2015, Windows 10 introduces what Microsoft described as ""; expanding on , these apps can be designed to run across multiple Microsoft product families with nearly identical code‍—‌including PCs, tablets, , , , and Windows Holographic. The Windows user interface was revised to handle transitions between a mouse-oriented interface and a -optimized interface based on available input devices‍—‌particularly on 2-in-1 PCs; both interfaces include an updated which incorporates elements of Windows 7's traditional Start menu with the tiles of Windows 8.


Ubuntu Touch
Ubuntu uses the . hinted that would be available on tablets by 2014. In February 2016 there was a commercial release of an Ubuntu tablet. First Ubuntu 2-in-1: Aquaris M10 . Retrieved 8 February 2016. was the first to offer a hybrid digitizer / touch device running openSUSE Linux.


Hybrid OS operation
Several hardware companies have built hybrid devices with the possibility to work with both the Windows 10 and Android operating systems.


Discontinued operating systems

BlackBerry Tablet OS
The BlackBerry PlayBook is a tablet computer announced in September 2010 that runs the BlackBerry Tablet OS. The OS is based on the system that Research in Motion acquired in early 2010. The BlackBerry PlayBook was officially released to US and Canadian consumers on April 19, 2011. As of 2014, Playbook is not available on sale on any Blackberry websites.


Firefox OS
is an open-source operating system based on and the Firefox web browser, targeting low-end , tablet computers and devices. In 2013, the Mozilla Foundation started a prototype tablet model with . Firefox OS was discontinued in 2016. Mozilla is stopping all commercial development on Firefox OS


WebOS
announced that the , running 3.0 on a 1.2 GHz Qualcomm Snapdragon CPU, would be released in June 2011. On August 18, 2011, HP announced the discontinuation of the TouchPad, due to sluggish sales. In February 2013, HP announced they had sold WebOS to .


MeeGo/Maemo/Moblin
Nokia entered the tablet space in May 2005 with the Nokia 770 running , a Debian-based Linux distribution custom-made for their line. The product line continued with the N900. The and application framework layer, named , was an early instance of a software platform for generic computing in a tablet device intended for internet consumption. But Nokia didn't commit to it as their only platform for their future mobile devices and the project competed against other in-house platforms and later replaced it with the Series 60.

Following the launch of the , Intel started the Mobile Internet Device initiative, which took the same hardware and combined it with a tabletized Linux configuration. Intel co-developed the lightweight (mobile Linux) operating system following the successful launch of the Atom CPU series on netbooks.

was a Linux-based operating system developed by and that supports netbooks and smartphones/tablets. In 2010, Nokia and Intel combined the Maemo and Moblin projects to form MeeGo. The first tablet using MeeGo is the launched September 2010 in Germany. The WeTab uses an extended version of the MeeGo operating system called WeTab OS. WeTab OS adds runtimes for Android and and provides a proprietary user interface optimized for the WeTab device. On September 27, 2011 the announced that MeeGo would be replaced in 2012 by .


Application store
that do not come pre-installed with the system are supplied through online distribution. These sources, known as "", provide centralized catalogs of software and allow "one click" on-device software purchasing, installation and updates. Non-Apple Tablets Making Small Gains on iPad , PC MagazineDamon Poeter (Dec 27, 2012). Massacre of the tablets , Financial Post by Matt Hartley December 24, 2011

Mobile device suppliers may adopt a "walled garden" approach, wherein the supplier controls what software applications ("") are available. Software development kits are restricted to approved software developers. This can be used to reduce the impact of , provide software with an approved , control application quality and exclude competing vendors.This "vicious cycle" (slow hardware development masking slow hardware, causing slow response, causing slow software development, causing sluggish performance at an unrealistic price, causing sluggish sales) serves only to impede further software investment. "HP reboots to confront Tablet Effect" Barron's, August 20, 2011 Apple, Google, Amazon, Microsoft and Barnes & Noble all adopted the strategy. B&N originally allowed arbitrary apps to be installed, but, in December 2011, excluded third parties. Apple and IBM have agreed to cooperate in IBM-developed applications for iPads and iPhones in enterprise-level accounts. Proponents of open source software say that it violates the spirit of personal control that traditional personal computers have always provided.Brown, Peter iPad is iBad for freedom , Free Software Foundation, 2010Cherry, Steven The iPad Is Not a Computer , IEEE Spectrum, 2010Conlon, Tom "The iPad’s Closed System: Sometimes I Hate Being Right" , Popular Science, 2010


Sales
Around 2010, tablet use by businesses jumped, as business have started to use them for conferences, events, and trade shows. In 2012, Intel reported that their tablet program improved productivity for about 19,000 of their employees by an average of 57 minutes a day. In October 2012, display screen shipments for tablets began surpassing shipments for laptop display screens. Tablets are increasingly used in the construction industry to look at , field documentation and other relevant information on the device instead of carrying around large amounts of paper.

As of the beginning of 2014, 44% of US online consumers own tablets, a significant jump from 5% in 2011. Tablet use has also become increasingly common among children. A 2014 survey found that mobiles were the most frequently used object for play among American children under the age of 12. Mobiles were used more often in play than video game consoles, board games, puzzles, play vehicles, blocks and dolls/action figures. Despite this, the majority of parents said that a mobile was "never" or only "sometimes" a toy. As of 2014, nearly two-thirds of American 2- to 10-year-olds have access to a tablet or . The large use of tablets by adults is as a personal internet-connected TV. A 2015 study found that a third of children under five have their own tablet device. While Android tablets sell more units than iPad, the web browser usage share of iPads is about 65% as of the middle of 2015. Global Stats Top 7 Tablet OSs from June to July 2015 . Retrieved 16 July 2015.

+ Unit sales – global tablet market
Units (million)17.660.0116.3195.4216.0
Growth (%)-240.993.868.010.5


By manufacturer
+Tablet market share (in percent)
Apple21.519.622.129.740.2
Samsung15.116.017.422.212.4
Others63.464.460.949.147.3
Note: Others consists of small vendors with mostly less market share.


By operating system
According to a survey conducted by the Online Publishers Association (OPA) now called Digital Content Next (DCN) in March 2012, it found that 72% of tablet owners had an iPad, while 32% had an Android tablet. By 2012, Android tablet adoption had increased. 52% of tablet owners owned an iPad, while 51% owned an Android-powered tablet (percentages do not add up to 100% because some tablet owners own more than one type). By end of 2013, Android's market share rose to 61.9%, followed by iOS at 36%. By late 2014, Android's market share rose to 72%, followed by iOS at 22.3% and Windows at 5.7%. Apple rules global tablet market with 22.3% share: Strategy Analytics As of early 2016, Android has 65% marketshare, Apple has 26% and Windows has 9% marketshare. IDC releases Q2 tablet PC marketshare


Use

Sleep
The blue wavelength of light from back-lit tablets may impact one's ability to fall asleep when reading at night, through the suppression of . Experts at Harvard Medical School suggest limiting tablets for reading use in the evening. Those who have a delayed body clock, such as teenagers, which makes them prone to stay up late in the evening and sleep later in the morning, may be at particular risk for increases in sleep deficiencies. A PC app such as F.lux and Android apps such as CF.lumen and Twilight attempt to decrease the impact on sleep by filtering blue wavelengths from the display. iOS 9.3 includes Night Shift that shifts the colors of the device's display to be warmer during the later hours.


See also


External links
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