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Bacteria (; singular: bacterium) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one biological cell. They constitute a large domain of . Typically a few in length, bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on , and are present in most of its . Bacteria inhabit soil, water, , radioactive waste, and the of Earth's crust. Bacteria are vital in many stages of the by recycling nutrients such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere. The nutrient cycle includes the of ; bacteria are responsible for the stage in this process. In the biological communities surrounding hydrothermal vents and , bacteria provide the nutrients needed to sustain life by converting dissolved compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide and , to energy. Bacteria also live in and relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised and there are many species that cannot be grown in the laboratory. The study of bacteria is known as , a branch of .

Humans and most other animals carry millions of bacteria. Most are in the , and there are many on the skin. Most of the bacteria in and on the body are harmless or rendered so by the protective effects of the , and many are , particularly the ones in the gut. However, several species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases, including , , , , , and . The most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections. are used to treat and are also used in farming, making antibiotic resistance a growing problem. Bacteria are important in and the breakdown of , the production of and through fermentation, the recovery of gold, palladium, copper and other metals in the mining sector, as well as in , and the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals.

Once regarded as constituting the class Schizomycetes ("fission fungi"), bacteria are now classified as . Unlike cells of animals and other , bacterial cells do not contain a and rarely harbour . Although the term bacteria traditionally included all prokaryotes, the scientific classification changed after the discovery in the 1990s that prokaryotes consist of two very different groups of organisms that from an ancient common ancestor. These evolutionary domains are called Bacteria and .

The word bacteria is the plural of the , which is the latinisation of the (),. the of ( ), meaning "staff, cane",. because the first ones to be discovered were rod-shaped.

Origin and early evolution
The ancestors of bacteria were unicellular microorganisms that were the first forms of life to appear on Earth, about 4 billion years ago. For about 3 billion years, most organisms were microscopic, and bacteria and archaea were the dominant forms of life. Although bacterial exist, such as , their lack of distinctive morphology prevents them from being used to examine the history of bacterial evolution, or to date the time of origin of a particular bacterial species. However, gene sequences can be used to reconstruct the bacterial , and these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage. The most recent common ancestor of bacteria and archaea was probably a that lived about 2.5 billion–3.2 billion years ago. The earliest life on land may have been bacteria some 3.22 billion years ago.

Bacteria were also involved in the second great evolutionary divergence, that of the archaea and eukaryotes. Here, eukaryotes resulted from the entering of ancient bacteria into associations with the ancestors of eukaryotic cells, which were themselves possibly related to the Archaea. This involved the engulfment by proto-eukaryotic cells of alphaproteobacterial to form either or , which are still found in all known Eukarya (sometimes in highly , e.g. in ancient "amitochondrial" protozoa). Later, some eukaryotes that already contained mitochondria also engulfed -like organisms, leading to the formation of in algae and plants. This is known as primary endosymbiosis.

Bacteria are ubiquitous, living in every possible habitat on the planet including soil, underwater, deep in Earth's crust and even such extreme environments as acidic hot springs and radioactive waste. There are approximately 2×1030 bacteria on Earth, forming a biomass that is only exceeded by plants. They are abundant in lakes and oceans, in arctic ice, and geothermal springs where they provide the nutrients needed to sustain life by converting dissolved compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide and methane, to energy. They live on and in plants and animals. Most do not cause diseases, are beneficial to their environments, and are essential for life. The soil is a rich source of bacteria and a few grams contain around a thousand million of them. They are all essential to soil ecology, breaking down toxic waste and recycling nutrients. They are even found in the atmosphere and one cubic metre of air holds around one hundred million bacterial cells. The oceans and seas harbour around 3 x 1026 bacteria which provide up to 50% of the oxygen humans breathe. Only around 2% of bacterial species have been fully studied.

+ Bacteria ! Habitat !! Species !! Reference

Size. Bacteria display a wide diversity of shapes and sizes. Bacterial cells are about one-tenth the size of eukaryotic cells and are typically 0.5–5.0  in length. However, a few species are visible to the unaided eye—for example, Thiomargarita namibiensis is up to half a millimetre long, Epulopiscium fishelsoni reaches 0.7 mm, and Thiomargarita magnifica can reach even 2 cm in length, which is 50 times larger than other known bacteria. Among the smallest bacteria are members of the genus , which measure only 0.3 micrometres, as small as the largest . Some bacteria may be even smaller, but these ultramicrobacteria are not well-studied.

Shape. Most bacterial species are either spherical, called ( singular coccus, from Greek kókkos, grain, seed), or rod shaped, called bacilli ( sing. bacillus, from baculus, stick).Dusenbery, David B (2009). Living at Micro Scale, pp. 20–25. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts . Some bacteria, called vibrio, are shaped like slightly curved rods or comma shaped; others can be spiral shaped, called spirilla, or tightly coiled, called spirochaetes. A small number of other unusual shapes have been described, such as star-shaped bacteria. This wide variety of shapes is determined by the bacterial and , and is important because it can influence the ability of bacteria to acquire nutrients, attach to surfaces, swim through liquids and escape .

Multicellularity. Most bacterial species exist as single cells; others associate in characteristic patterns: forms diploids (pairs), form chains, and group together in "bunch of grapes" clusters. Bacteria can also group to form larger multicellular structures, such as the elongated filaments of species, the aggregates of species, and the complex hyphae of species. These multicellular structures are often only seen in certain conditions. For example, when starved of amino acids, myxobacteria detect surrounding cells in a process known as , migrate towards each other, and aggregate to form fruiting bodies up to 500 micrometres long and containing approximately 100,000 bacterial cells. In these fruiting bodies, the bacteria perform separate tasks; for example, about one in ten cells migrate to the top of a fruiting body and differentiate into a specialised dormant state called a myxospore, which is more resistant to drying and other adverse environmental conditions.

Biofilms. Bacteria often attach to surfaces and form dense aggregations called , and larger formations known as . These biofilms and mats can range from a few micrometres in thickness to up to half a metre in depth, and may contain multiple species of bacteria, and archaea. Bacteria living in biofilms display a complex arrangement of cells and extracellular components, forming secondary structures, such as , through which there are networks of channels to enable better diffusion of nutrients. In natural environments, such as soil or the surfaces of plants, the majority of bacteria are bound to surfaces in biofilms. Biofilms are also important in medicine, as these structures are often present during chronic bacterial infections or in infections of implanted , and bacteria protected within biofilms are much harder to kill than individual isolated bacteria.

Cellular structure

Intracellular structures
The bacterial cell is surrounded by a , which is made primarily of . This membrane encloses the contents of the cell and acts as a barrier to hold nutrients, and other essential components of the within the cell.
(2023). 9780393123678, W W Norton.
Unlike , bacteria usually lack large membrane-bound structures in their cytoplasm such as a , , and the other organelles present in eukaryotic cells. However, some bacteria have protein-bound organelles in the cytoplasm which compartmentalize aspects of bacterial metabolism, such as the . Additionally, bacteria have a multi-component cytoskeleton to control the localisation of proteins and nucleic acids within the cell, and to manage the process of .

Many important reactions, such as energy generation, occur due to across membranes, creating a potential difference analogous to a battery. The general lack of internal membranes in bacteria means these reactions, such as electron transport, occur across the cell membrane between the cytoplasm and the outside of the cell or . However, in many photosynthetic bacteria the plasma membrane is highly folded and fills most of the cell with layers of light-gathering membrane. These light-gathering complexes may even form lipid-enclosed structures called in green sulfur bacteria.

Bacteria do not have a membrane-bound nucleus, and their material is typically a single circular bacterial chromosome of located in the cytoplasm in an irregularly shaped body called the . The nucleoid contains the with its associated proteins and . Like all other , bacteria contain for the production of proteins, but the structure of the bacterial ribosome is different from that of and archaea.

Some bacteria produce intracellular nutrient storage granules, such as , , or polyhydroxyalkanoates. Bacteria such as the , produce internal gas vacuoles, which they use to regulate their buoyancy, allowing them to move up or down into water layers with different light intensities and nutrient levels.

Extracellular structures
Around the outside of the cell membrane is the . Bacterial cell walls are made of (also called murein), which is made from chains cross-linked by containing D-. Bacterial cell walls are different from the cell walls of and , which are made of and , respectively. The cell wall of bacteria is also distinct from that of achaea, which do not contain peptidoglycan. The cell wall is essential to the survival of many bacteria, and the antibiotic (produced by a fungus called ) is able to kill bacteria by inhibiting a step in the synthesis of peptidoglycan.

There are broadly speaking two different types of cell wall in bacteria, that classify bacteria into Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. The names originate from the reaction of cells to the , a long-standing test for the classification of bacterial species.

Gram-positive bacteria possess a thick cell wall containing many layers of peptidoglycan and . In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria have a relatively thin cell wall consisting of a few layers of peptidoglycan surrounded by a second containing lipopolysaccharides and . Most bacteria have the Gram-negative cell wall, and only members of the group and (previously known as the low G+C and high G+C Gram-positive bacteria, respectively) have the alternative Gram-positive arrangement. These differences in structure can produce differences in antibiotic susceptibility; for instance, can kill only Gram-positive bacteria and is ineffective against Gram-negative , such as Haemophilus influenzae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Some bacteria have cell wall structures that are neither classically Gram-positive or Gram-negative. This includes clinically important bacteria such as which have a thick peptidoglycan cell wall like a Gram-positive bacterium, but also a second outer layer of lipids.

In many bacteria, an of rigidly arrayed protein molecules covers the outside of the cell. This layer provides chemical and physical protection for the cell surface and can act as a diffusion barrier. S-layers have diverse functions and are known to act as virulence factors in species and contain surface in Bacillus stearothermophilus.

are rigid protein structures, about 20 nanometres in diameter and up to 20 micrometres in length, that are used for . Flagella are driven by the energy released by the transfer of down an electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane.

(2023). 9780123646378

Fimbriae (sometimes called "attachment pili") are fine filaments of protein, usually 2–10 nanometres in diameter and up to several micrometres in length. They are distributed over the surface of the cell, and resemble fine hairs when seen under the electron microscope. Fimbriae are believed to be involved in attachment to solid surfaces or to other cells, and are essential for the virulence of some bacterial pathogens. ( sing. pilus) are cellular appendages, slightly larger than fimbriae, that can transfer between bacterial cells in a process called conjugation where they are called conjugation pili or sex pili (see bacterial genetics, below). They can also generate movement where they are called type IV pili.

Glycocalyx is produced by many bacteria to surround their cells, and varies in structural complexity: ranging from a disorganised of extracellular polymeric substances to a highly structured capsule. These structures can protect cells from engulfment by eukaryotic cells such as (part of the human ). They can also act as and be involved in cell recognition, as well as aiding attachment to surfaces and the formation of biofilms.

The assembly of these extracellular structures is dependent on bacterial secretion systems. These transfer proteins from the cytoplasm into the periplasm or into the environment around the cell. Many types of secretion systems are known and these structures are often essential for the of pathogens, so are intensively studied.

Some of Gram-positive bacteria, such as , , , , and , can form highly resistant, dormant structures called . Endospores develop within the cytoplasm of the cell; generally a single endospore develops in each cell. Each endospore contains a core of and surrounded by a cortex layer and protected by a multilayer rigid coat composed of peptidoglycan and a variety of proteins.

Endospores show no detectable and can survive extreme physical and chemical stresses, such as high levels of , , , , heat, freezing, pressure, and . In this dormant state, these organisms may remain viable for millions of years, and endospores even allow bacteria to survive exposure to the and radiation in space, possibly bacteria could be distributed throughout the by , , , , planetoids or via directed panspermia. Endospore-forming bacteria can also cause disease: for example, can be contracted by the inhalation of Bacillus anthracis endospores, and contamination of deep puncture wounds with Clostridium tetani endospores causes , which like is caused by a toxin released by the bacteria that grow from the spores. Clostridioides difficile infection, which is a problem in healthcare settings is also caused by spore-forming bacteria.

Bacteria exhibit an extremely wide variety of types. The distribution of metabolic traits within a group of bacteria has traditionally been used to define their taxonomy, but these traits often do not correspond with modern genetic classifications. Bacterial metabolism is classified into nutritional groups on the basis of three major criteria: the source of energy, the used, and the source of used for growth.

Bacteria either derive energy from light using (called ), or by breaking down chemical compounds using (called ). Chemotrophs use chemical compounds as a source of energy by transferring electrons from a given electron donor to a terminal electron acceptor in a . This reaction releases energy that can be used to drive metabolism. Chemotrophs are further divided by the types of compounds they use to transfer electrons. Bacteria that use inorganic compounds such as hydrogen, , or as are called , while those that use organic compounds are called . The compounds used to receive electrons are also used to classify bacteria: use as the terminal electron acceptor, while anaerobic organisms use other compounds such as , , or carbon dioxide.

Many bacteria get their carbon from other , called . Others such as and some are , meaning that they obtain cellular carbon by . In unusual circumstances, the gas can be used by bacteria as both a source of and a substrate for carbon .

+ Nutritional types in bacterial metabolism
  Sunlight Organic compounds (photoheterotrophs) or carbon fixation (photoautotrophs) , Green sulfur bacteria, , or  
 Inorganic compounds Organic compounds (lithoheterotrophs) or carbon fixation (lithoautotrophs) Thermodesulfobacteriota, Hydrogenophilaceae, or  
 Organic compounds Organic compounds (chemoheterotrophs) or carbon fixation (chemoautotrophs)    , , or Enterobacteriaceae 

In many ways, bacterial metabolism provides traits that are useful for ecological stability and for human society. One example is that some bacteria called have the ability to fix nitrogen gas using the enzyme . This environmentally important trait can be found in bacteria of most metabolic types listed above. This leads to the ecologically important processes of , sulfate reduction, and , respectively. Bacterial metabolic processes are also important in biological responses to ; for example, sulfate-reducing bacteria are largely responsible for the production of the highly toxic forms of mercury ( and ) in the environment. Non-respiratory anaerobes use fermentation to generate energy and reducing power, secreting metabolic by-products (such as in brewing) as waste. Facultative anaerobes can switch between fermentation and different terminal electron acceptors depending on the environmental conditions in which they find themselves.

Growth and reproduction
Unlike in multicellular organisms, increases in cell size () and reproduction by are tightly linked in unicellular organisms. Bacteria grow to a fixed size and then reproduce through , a form of asexual reproduction. Under optimal conditions, bacteria can grow and divide extremely rapidly, and some bacterial populations can double as quickly as every 17 minutes. In cell division, two identical clone daughter cells are produced. Some bacteria, while still reproducing asexually, form more complex reproductive structures that help disperse the newly formed daughter cells. Examples include fruiting body formation by and aerial formation by species, or budding. Budding involves a cell forming a protrusion that breaks away and produces a daughter cell.

In the laboratory, bacteria are usually grown using solid or liquid media. Solid , such as , are used to isolate pure cultures of a bacterial strain. However, liquid growth media are used when the measurement of growth or large volumes of cells are required. Growth in stirred liquid media occurs as an even cell suspension, making the cultures easy to divide and transfer, although isolating single bacteria from liquid media is difficult. The use of selective media (media with specific nutrients added or deficient, or with antibiotics added) can help identify specific organisms.

Most laboratory techniques for growing bacteria use high levels of nutrients to produce large amounts of cells cheaply and quickly. However, in natural environments, nutrients are limited, meaning that bacteria cannot continue to reproduce indefinitely. This nutrient limitation has led the evolution of different growth strategies (see r/K selection theory). Some organisms can grow extremely rapidly when nutrients become available, such as the formation of and blooms that often occur in lakes during the summer. Other organisms have adaptations to harsh environments, such as the production of multiple by streptomyces that inhibit the growth of competing microorganisms. In nature, many organisms live in communities (e.g., ) that may allow for increased supply of nutrients and protection from environmental stresses. These relationships can be essential for growth of a particular organism or group of organisms ().

follows four phases. When a population of bacteria first enter a high-nutrient environment that allows growth, the cells need to adapt to their new environment. The first phase of growth is the lag phase, a period of slow growth when the cells are adapting to the high-nutrient environment and preparing for fast growth. The lag phase has high biosynthesis rates, as proteins necessary for rapid growth are produced. The second phase of growth is the logarithmic phase, also known as the exponential phase. The log phase is marked by rapid exponential growth. The rate at which cells grow during this phase is known as the growth rate ( k), and the time it takes the cells to double is known as the generation time ( g). During log phase, nutrients are metabolised at maximum speed until one of the nutrients is depleted and starts limiting growth. The third phase of growth is the stationary phase and is caused by depleted nutrients. The cells reduce their metabolic activity and consume non-essential cellular proteins. The stationary phase is a transition from rapid growth to a stress response state and there is increased involved in , and .

(2023). 9780120277445
The final phase is the death phase where the bacteria run out of nutrients and die.

Most bacteria have a single circular that can range in size from only 160,000 in the bacteria Carsonella ruddii, to 12,200,000 base pairs (12.2 Mbp) in the soil-dwelling bacteria Sorangium cellulosum. There are many exceptions to this, for example some and species contain a single linear chromosome, while some species contain more than one chromosome. Bacteria can also contain , small extra-chromosomal molecules of DNA that may contain genes for various useful functions such as antibiotic resistance, metabolic capabilities, or various .

Bacteria genomes usually encode a few hundred to a few thousand genes. The genes in bacterial genomes are usually a single continuous stretch of DNA and although several different types of do exist in bacteria, these are much rarer than in eukaryotes.

Bacteria, as asexual organisms, inherit an identical copy of the parent's genomes and are . However, all bacteria can evolve by selection on changes to their genetic material caused by genetic recombination or . Mutations come from errors made during the replication of DNA or from exposure to . Mutation rates vary widely among different species of bacteria and even among different clones of a single species of bacteria. Genetic changes in bacterial genomes come from either random mutation during replication or "stress-directed mutation", where genes involved in a particular growth-limiting process have an increased mutation rate.

Some bacteria also transfer genetic material between cells. This can occur in three main ways. First, bacteria can take up exogenous DNA from their environment, in a process called transformation. Many bacteria can naturally take up DNA from the environment, while others must be chemically altered in order to induce them to take up DNA. The development of competence in nature is usually associated with stressful environmental conditions, and seems to be an adaptation for facilitating repair of DNA damage in recipient cells.Bernstein H, Bernstein C, Michod RE (2012). "DNA repair as the primary adaptive function of sex in bacteria and eukaryotes". Chapter 1: pp. 1–49 in: DNA Repair: New Research, Sakura Kimura and Sora Shimizu (eds.). Nova Sci. Publ., Hauppauge, NY . The second way bacteria transfer genetic material is by transduction, when the integration of a introduces foreign DNA into the chromosome. Many types of bacteriophage exist, some infect and their host bacteria, while others insert into the bacterial chromosome. Bacteria resist phage infection through restriction modification systems that degrade foreign DNA, and a system that uses sequences to retain fragments of the genomes of phage that the bacteria have come into contact with in the past, which allows them to block virus replication through a form of . The third method of gene transfer is conjugation, whereby DNA is transferred through direct cell contact. In ordinary circumstances, transduction, conjugation, and transformation involve transfer of DNA between individual bacteria of the same species, but occasionally transfer may occur between individuals of different bacterial species and this may have significant consequences, such as the transfer of antibiotic resistance. In such cases, gene acquisition from other bacteria or the environment is called horizontal gene transfer and may be common under natural conditions.


Many bacteria are (able to move themselves) and do so using a variety of mechanisms. The best studied of these are , long filaments that are turned by a motor at the base to generate propeller-like movement. The bacterial flagellum is made of about 20 proteins, with approximately another 30 proteins required for its regulation and assembly. The flagellum is a rotating structure driven by a reversible motor at the base that uses the electrochemical gradient across the membrane for power.

Bacteria can use flagella in different ways to generate different kinds of movement. Many bacteria (such as ) have two distinct modes of movement: forward movement (swimming) and tumbling. The tumbling allows them to reorient and makes their movement a three-dimensional . Bacterial species differ in the number and arrangement of flagella on their surface; some have a single flagellum ( monotrichous), a flagellum at each end ( amphitrichous), clusters of flagella at the poles of the cell ( lophotrichous), while others have flagella distributed over the entire surface of the cell ( peritrichous). The flagella of a unique group of bacteria, the , are found between two membranes in the periplasmic space. They have a distinctive body that twists about as it moves.

Two other types of bacterial motion are called twitching motility that relies on a structure called the type IV pilus, and gliding motility, that uses other mechanisms. In twitching motility, the rod-like pilus extends out from the cell, binds some substrate, and then retracts, pulling the cell forward.

Motile bacteria are attracted or repelled by certain stimuli in behaviours called : these include , , , and . In one peculiar group, the myxobacteria, individual bacteria move together to form waves of cells that then differentiate to form fruiting bodies containing spores. The myxobacteria move only when on solid surfaces, unlike E. coli, which is motile in liquid or solid media.

Several and species move inside host cells by usurping the , which is normally used to move inside the cell. By promoting at one pole of their cells, they can form a kind of tail that pushes them through the host cell's cytoplasm.

A few bacteria have chemical systems that generate light. This often occurs in bacteria that live in association with fish, and the light probably serves to attract fish or other large animals.

Bacteria often function as multicellular aggregates known as , exchanging a variety of molecular signals for , and engaging in coordinated multicellular behaviour.

The communal benefits of multicellular cooperation include a cellular division of labour, accessing resources that cannot effectively be used by single cells, collectively defending against antagonists, and optimising population survival by differentiating into distinct cell types. For example, bacteria in biofilms can have more than 500 times increased resistance to agents than individual "planktonic" bacteria of the same species.

One type of inter-cellular communication by a molecular signal is called , which serves the purpose of determining whether there is a local population density that is sufficiently high that it is productive to invest in processes that are only successful if large numbers of similar organisms behave similarly, as in excreting digestive enzymes or emitting light.

(2023). 9783030285234

Quorum sensing allows bacteria to coordinate , and enables them to produce, release and detect or which accumulate with the growth in cell population.

Classification and identification
Classification seeks to describe the diversity of bacterial species by naming and grouping organisms based on similarities. Bacteria can be classified on the basis of cell structure, or on differences in cell components, such as , , pigments, and . While these schemes allowed the identification and classification of bacterial strains, it was unclear whether these differences represented variation between distinct species or between strains of the same species. This uncertainty was due to the lack of distinctive structures in most bacteria, as well as lateral gene transfer between unrelated species. Due to lateral gene transfer, some closely related bacteria can have very different morphologies and metabolisms. To overcome this uncertainty, modern bacterial classification emphasises molecular systematics, using genetic techniques such as determination, genome-genome hybridisation, as well as genes that have not undergone extensive lateral gene transfer, such as the . Classification of bacteria is determined by publication in the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, and Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. The International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology (ICSB) maintains international rules for the naming of bacteria and taxonomic categories and for the ranking of them in the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria.

Historically, bacteria were considered a part of the , the Plant kingdom, and were called "Schizomycetes" (fission-fungi)."Schizomycetes." Https:// Accessed 3 August 2021. For this reason, collective bacteria and other microorganisms in a host are often called "flora". The term "bacteria" was traditionally applied to all microscopic, single-cell prokaryotes. However, molecular systematics showed prokaryotic life to consist of two separate domains, originally called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria, but now called Bacteria and Archaea that evolved independently from an ancient common ancestor. The archaea and eukaryotes are more closely related to each other than either is to the bacteria. These two domains, along with Eukarya, are the basis of the three-domain system, which is currently the most widely used classification system in microbiology. However, due to the relatively recent introduction of molecular systematics and a rapid increase in the number of genome sequences that are available, bacterial classification remains a changing and expanding field. For example, Cavalier-Smith argued that the Archaea and Eukaryotes evolved from Gram-positive bacteria.

The identification of bacteria in the laboratory is particularly relevant in , where the correct treatment is determined by the bacterial species causing an infection. Consequently, the need to identify human pathogens was a major impetus for the development of techniques to identify bacteria.

The , developed in 1884 by Hans Christian Gram, characterises bacteria based on the structural characteristics of their cell walls. The thick layers of peptidoglycan in the "Gram-positive" cell wall stain purple, while the thin "Gram-negative" cell wall appears pink. By combining morphology and Gram-staining, most bacteria can be classified as belonging to one of four groups (Gram-positive cocci, Gram-positive bacilli, Gram-negative cocci and Gram-negative bacilli). Some organisms are best identified by stains other than the Gram stain, particularly mycobacteria or Nocardia, which show on Ziehl–Neelsen or similar stains. Other organisms may need to be identified by their growth in special media, or by other techniques, such as .

Culture techniques are designed to promote the growth and identify particular bacteria, while restricting the growth of the other bacteria in the sample. Often these techniques are designed for specific specimens; for example, a sample will be treated to identify organisms that cause , while specimens are cultured on to identify organisms that cause , while preventing growth of non-pathogenic bacteria. Specimens that are normally sterile, such as , or spinal fluid, are cultured under conditions designed to grow all possible organisms. Once a pathogenic organism has been isolated, it can be further characterised by its morphology, growth patterns (such as or anaerobic growth), patterns of hemolysis, and staining.

As with bacterial classification, identification of bacteria is increasingly using molecular methods, and mass spectroscopy. Most bacteria have not been characterised and there are may species that cannot be grown in the laboratory. Diagnostics using DNA-based tools, such as polymerase chain reaction, are increasingly popular due to their specificity and speed, compared to culture-based methods. These methods also allow the detection and identification of "viable but nonculturable" cells that are metabolically active but non-dividing. However, even using these improved methods, the total number of bacterial species is not known and cannot even be estimated with any certainty. Following present classification, there are a little less than 9,300 known species of prokaryotes, which includes bacteria and archaea; but attempts to estimate the true number of bacterial diversity have ranged from 107 to 109 total species—and even these diverse estimates may be off by many orders of magnitude.


Valid phyla
The following phyla have been validly published according to the Bacteriological Code:

Provisional phyla
The following phyla have been proposed, but have not been validly published according to the Bacteriological Code (including those that have status):

Genera incertae sedis
The following bacteria genera have not been assigned to a phylum, class, or order:

    • " Candidatus " corrig. Fenchel and Thar 2004

    • " " Schopf 1983
    • " Rappaport" Waldman Ben-Asher et al. 2017

Interactions with other organisms
Despite their apparent simplicity, bacteria can form complex associations with other organisms. These associations can be divided into , mutualism and .

The word "" is derived from the word "commensal", meaning "eating at the same table" and all plants and animals are colonised by commensal bacteria. In humans and other animals millions of them live on the skin, the airways, the gut and other orifices. Referred to as "normal flora", or "commensals", these bacteria usually cause no harm but may occasionally invade other sites of the body and cause infection. is a commensal in the human gut but can cause urinary tract infections. Similarly, streptoccoci, which are part of the normal flora of the human mouth, can cause heart disease.

Some species of bacteria kill and then consume other microorganisms, these species are called predatory bacteria. These include organisms such as Myxococcus xanthus, which forms swarms of cells that kill and digest any bacteria they encounter. Other bacterial predators either attach to their prey in order to digest them and absorb nutrients or invade another cell and multiply inside the cytosol. These predatory bacteria are thought to have evolved from that consumed dead microorganisms, through adaptations that allowed them to entrap and kill other organisms.

Certain bacteria form close spatial associations that are essential for their survival. One such mutualistic association, called interspecies hydrogen transfer, occurs between clusters of anaerobic bacteria that consume , such as or , and produce , and archaea that consume hydrogen. The bacteria in this association are unable to consume the organic acids as this reaction produces hydrogen that accumulates in their surroundings. Only the intimate association with the hydrogen-consuming archaea keeps the hydrogen concentration low enough to allow the bacteria to grow.

In soil, microorganisms that reside in the rhizosphere (a zone that includes the surface and the soil that adheres to the root after gentle shaking) carry out nitrogen fixation, converting nitrogen gas to nitrogenous compounds. This serves to provide an easily absorbable form of nitrogen for many plants, which cannot fix nitrogen themselves. Many other bacteria are found as in humans and other organisms. For example, the presence of over 1,000 bacterial species in the normal human of the can contribute to gut immunity, synthesise , such as , and , convert to (see ), as well as fermenting complex undigestible . The presence of this gut flora also inhibits the growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria (usually through competitive exclusion) and these beneficial bacteria are consequently sold as dietary supplements.

Nearly all is dependent on bacteria for survival as only bacteria and some possess the genes and enzymes necessary to synthesize vitamin B12, also known as , and provide it through the food chain. Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble that is involved in the of every cell of the human body. It is a cofactor in , and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. It is particularly important in the normal functioning of the via its role in the .

The body is continually exposed to many species of bacteria, including beneficial commensals, which grow on the skin and , and , which grow mainly in the soil and in matter. The blood and tissue fluids contain nutrients sufficient to sustain the growth of many bacteria. The body has defence mechanisms that enable it to resist microbial invasion of its tissues and give it a natural or against many . Unlike some , bacteria evolve relatively slowly so many bacterial diseases also occur in other animals.

If bacteria form a parasitic association with other organisms, they are classed as pathogens. Pathogenic bacteria are a major cause of human death and disease and cause infections such as (caused by Clostridium tetani), , , , , foodborne illness, (caused by Mycobacterium leprae) and (caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis). A pathogenic cause for a known medical disease may only be discovered many years later, as was the case with Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease. Bacterial diseases are also important in , with bacteria causing , and in plants, as well as Johne's disease, mastitis, and in farm animals. Each species of pathogen has a characteristic spectrum of interactions with its human hosts. Some organisms, such as or , can cause skin infections, , and , a systemic producing shock, massive and death. Yet these organisms are also part of the normal human flora and usually exist on the skin or in the nose without causing any disease at all. Other organisms invariably cause disease in humans, such as , which are obligate intracellular parasites able to grow and reproduce only within the cells of other organisms. One species of Rickettsia causes , while another causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Chlamydia, another phylum of obligate intracellular parasites, contains species that can cause pneumonia or urinary tract infection and may be involved in coronary heart disease. Some species, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cenocepacia, and Mycobacterium avium, are opportunistic pathogens and cause disease mainly in people who are immunosuppressed or have . Some bacteria produce , which cause diseases. These are , which come from broken bacterial cells, and , which are produced by bacteria and released into the environment. The bacterium Clostridium botulinum for example, produces a powerful exotoxin that cause respiratory paralysis, and produce an endotoxin that causes gastroenteritis. Some exotoxins can be converted to , which are used as vaccines to prevent the disease.

Bacterial infections may be treated with , which are classified as if they kill bacteria or if they just prevent bacterial growth. There are many types of antibiotics, and each class a process that is different in the pathogen from that found in the host. An example of how antibiotics produce selective toxicity are and , which inhibit the bacterial , but not the structurally different eukaryotic ribosome. Antibiotics are used both in treating human disease and in intensive farming to promote animal growth, where they may be contributing to the rapid development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations. Infections can be prevented by measures such as sterilising the skin prior to piercing it with the needle of a syringe, and by proper care of indwelling catheters. Surgical and dental instruments are also sterilised to prevent contamination by bacteria. such as are used to kill bacteria or other pathogens on surfaces to prevent contamination and further reduce the risk of infection.

Significance in technology and industry
Bacteria, often lactic acid bacteria, such as species and species, in combination with and moulds, have been used for thousands of years in the preparation of fermented foods, such as , , , , , and .

The ability of bacteria to degrade a variety of organic compounds is remarkable and has been used in waste processing and . Bacteria capable of digesting the in are often used to clean up . Fertiliser was added to some of the beaches in Prince William Sound in an attempt to promote the growth of these naturally occurring bacteria after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. These efforts were effective on beaches that were not too thickly covered in oil. Bacteria are also used for the of industrial . In the chemical industry, bacteria are most important in the production of pure chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals or .

Bacteria can also be used in the place of in the biological pest control. This commonly involves Bacillus thuringiensis (also called BT), a Gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium. Subspecies of this bacteria are used as a -specific under trade names such as Dipel and Thuricide. Because of their specificity, these pesticides are regarded as environmentally friendly, with little or no effect on humans, , and most other beneficial insects.

Because of their ability to quickly grow and the relative ease with which they can be manipulated, bacteria are the workhorses for the fields of molecular biology, and . By making mutations in bacterial DNA and examining the resulting phenotypes, scientists can determine the function of genes, and metabolic pathways in bacteria, then apply this knowledge to more complex organisms. This aim of understanding the biochemistry of a cell reaches its most complex expression in the synthesis of huge amounts of and data into mathematical models of entire organisms. This is achievable in some well-studied bacteria, with models of Escherichia coli metabolism now being produced and tested. This understanding of bacterial metabolism and genetics allows the use of biotechnology to bacteria for the production of therapeutic proteins, such as , , or .

Because of their importance for research in general, samples of bacterial strains are isolated and preserved in Biological Resource Centers. This ensures the availability of the strain to scientists worldwide.

History of bacteriology
Bacteria were first observed by the Dutch microscopist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1676, using a single-lens of his own design. He then published his observations in a series of letters to the Royal Society of London. Bacteria were Leeuwenhoek's most remarkable microscopic discovery. They were just at the limit of what his simple lenses could make out and, in one of the most striking hiatuses in the history of science, no one else would see them again for over a century. His observations had also included protozoans which he called , and his findings were looked at again in the light of the more recent findings of .

Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg introduced the word "bacterium" in 1828. In fact, his Bacterium was a genus that contained non-spore-forming rod-shaped bacteria, as opposed to Bacillus, a genus of spore-forming rod-shaped bacteria defined by Ehrenberg in 1835.

demonstrated in 1859 that the growth of microorganisms causes the fermentation process, and that this growth is not due to spontaneous generation ( and molds, commonly associated with fermentation, are not bacteria, but rather ). Along with his contemporary , Pasteur was an early advocate of the germ theory of disease. Before them, and had realised the importance of sanitized hands in medical work. Semmelweis ideas was rejected and his book on the topic condemned by the medical community, but after Lister doctors started sanitizing their hands in the 1870s. While Semmelweis who started with rules about handwashing in his hospital in the 1840s predated the spread of the ideas about germs themselves and attributed diseases to "decomposing animal organic matter", Lister was active later. 'Wash your hands' was once controversial medical advice, National Geographic.

Robert Koch, a pioneer in medical microbiology, worked on , and . In his research into tuberculosis Koch finally proved the germ theory, for which he received a Nobel Prize in 1905. In Koch's postulates, he set out criteria to test if an organism is the cause of a , and these postulates are still used today.

is said to be a founder of bacteriology, studying bacteria from 1870. Cohn was the first to classify bacteria based on their morphology.

Though it was known in the nineteenth century that bacteria are the cause of many diseases, no effective treatments were available. In 1910, developed the first antibiotic, by changing dyes that selectively stained Treponema pallidum—the that causes —into compounds that selectively killed the pathogen. Ehrlich had been awarded a 1908 Nobel Prize for his work on , and pioneered the use of stains to detect and identify bacteria, with his work being the basis of the and the Ziehl–Neelsen stain.

A major step forward in the study of bacteria came in 1977 when recognised that archaea have a separate line of evolutionary descent from bacteria. This new taxonomy depended on the of 16S ribosomal RNA, and divided prokaryotes into two evolutionary domains, as part of the three-domain system.

See also
  • Genetically modified bacteria
  • Marine prokaryotes


External links

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