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A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of part or all of an organism, and that is not due to any external injury. Diseases are often construed as medical conditions that are associated with specific and . A disease may be caused by external factors such as or by internal dysfunctions. For example, internal dysfunctions of the can produce a variety of different diseases, including various forms of , , and autoimmune disorders.

In humans, disease is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes , dysfunction, distress, , or to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person. In this broader sense, it sometimes includes , , disorders, , , isolated , deviant , and atypical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories. Diseases can affect people not only physically, but also mentally, as contracting and living with a disease can alter the affected person's perspective on life.

Death due to disease is called death by natural causes. There are four main types of disease: infectious diseases, deficiency diseases, hereditary diseases (including both and non-genetic hereditary diseases), and physiological diseases. Diseases can also be classified in other ways, such as communicable versus non-communicable diseases. The deadliest diseases in humans are coronary artery disease (blood flow obstruction), followed by cerebrovascular disease and lower respiratory infections. In developed countries, the diseases that cause the most sickness overall are neuropsychiatric conditions, such as depression and .

The study of disease is called , which includes the study of etiology, or cause.


Terminology

Concepts
In many cases, terms such as disease, disorder, morbidity, sickness and illness are used interchangeably. There are situations, however, when specific terms are considered preferable.

Disease
The term disease broadly refers to any condition that impairs the normal functioning of the body. For this reason, diseases are associated with dysfunctioning of the body's normal homeostatic processes. Commonly, the term is used to refer specifically to infectious diseases, which are clinically evident diseases that result from the presence of microbial agents, including viruses, , fungi, protozoa, multicellular organisms, and aberrant proteins known as . An or colonization that does not and will not produce clinically evident impairment of normal functioning, such as the presence of the normal , or of a , is not considered a disease. By contrast, an infection that is asymptomatic during its incubation period, but expected to produce symptoms later, is usually considered a disease. Non-infectious diseases are all other diseases, including most forms of , , and .
Acquired disease
An acquired disease is one that began at some point during one's lifetime, as opposed to disease that was already present at birth, which is congenital disease. Acquired sounds like it could mean "caught via contagion", but it simply means acquired sometime after birth. It also sounds like it could imply secondary disease, but acquired disease can be primary disease.
Acute disease
An acute disease is one of a short-term nature (acute); the term sometimes also a nature
Chronic condition or chronic disease
A chronic disease is one that persists over time, often characterized as at least six months but may also include illnesses that are expected to last for the entirety of one's natural life.
Congenital disorder or congenital disease
A congenital disorder is one that is present at . It is often a and can be . It can also be the result of a vertically transmitted infection from the mother, such as HIV/AIDS.
Genetic disease
A is caused by one or more genetic . It is often inherited, but some mutations are random and .
Hereditary or inherited disease
A hereditary disease is a type of genetic disease caused by genetic mutations that are (and can run in families)
Iatrogenic disease
An or condition is one that caused by medical intervention, whether as a side effect of a treatment or as an inadvertent outcome.
Idiopathic disease
An idiopathic disease has an unknown cause or source. As medical science has advanced, many diseases with entirely unknown causes have had some aspects of their sources explained and therefore shed their idiopathic status. For example, when germs were discovered, it became known that they were a cause of infection, but particular germs and diseases had not been linked. In another example, it is known that is the cause of some forms of diabetes mellitus type 1, even though the particular molecular pathways by which it works are not yet understood. It is also common to know certain factors are associated with certain diseases. However, association and causality are two very different phenomena, as a third cause might be producing the disease, as well as an associated phenomenon.
Incurable disease
A disease that cannot be . Incurable diseases are not necessarily , and sometimes a disease's symptoms can be treated sufficiently for the disease to have little or no impact on quality of life.
Primary disease
A primary disease is a disease that is due to a of illness, as opposed to secondary disease, which is a , or complication that is caused by the primary disease. For example, a is a primary disease, where is a possible secondary disease, or . A doctor must determine what primary disease, a cold or a bacterial infection, is causing a patient's secondary rhinitis when deciding whether or not to prescribe antibiotics.
Secondary disease
A secondary disease is a disease that is a or complication of a prior, causal disease, which is referred to as the primary disease or simply the underlying cause (). For example, a bacterial infection can be primary, wherein a healthy person is exposed to a bacteria and becomes infected, or it can be secondary to a primary cause, that predisposes the body to infection. For example, a primary that weakens the could lead to a secondary bacterial infection. Similarly, a primary that creates an open wound could provide an entry point for bacteria, and lead to a secondary bacterial infection.
Terminal disease
A terminal disease is one that is expected to have the inevitable result of death. Previously, AIDS was a terminal disease; it is now incurable, but can be managed indefinitely using medications.
Illness
The terms illness and sickness are both generally used as synonyms for disease. However, the term illness is occasionally used to refer specifically to the patient's personal experience of his or her disease. In this model, it is possible for a person to have a disease without being ill (to have an objectively definable, but , medical condition, such as a subclinical infection, or to have a clinically apparent physical impairment but not feel sick or distressed by it), and to be ill without being diseased (such as when a person perceives a normal experience as a medical condition, or a non-disease situation in his or her life—for example, a person who feels unwell as a result of embarrassment, and who interprets those feelings as sickness rather than normal emotions). Symptoms of illness are often not directly the result of infection, but a collection of evolved responses—sickness behavior by the body—that helps clear infection and promote recovery. Such aspects of illness can include , depression, loss of appetite, , , and inability to .
A disorder is a functional abnormality or disturbance. Medical disorders can be categorized into , physical disorders, , emotional and behavioral disorders, and functional disorders. The term disorder is often considered more value-neutral and less stigmatizing than the terms disease or illness, and therefore is a preferred terminology in some circumstances. In mental health, the term mental disorder is used as a way of acknowledging the complex interaction of biological, social, and psychological factors in conditions. However, the term disorder is also used in many other areas of medicine, primarily to identify physical disorders that are not caused by infectious organisms, such as metabolic disorders.
Medical condition
A medical condition is a broad term that includes all diseases, , disorders, or nonpathologic condition that normally receives medical treatment, such as or . While the term medical condition generally includes mental illnesses, in some contexts the term is used specifically to denote any illness, injury, or disease except for mental illnesses. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the widely used psychiatric manual that defines all , uses the term general medical condition to refer to all diseases, illnesses, and injuries except for .
(2019). 9780890420256, American Psychiatric Association.
This usage is also commonly seen in the psychiatric literature. Some policies also define a medical condition as any illness, injury, or disease except for psychiatric illnesses.
As it is more than terms like disease, the term medical condition is sometimes preferred by people with health issues that they do not consider deleterious. On the other hand, by emphasizing the medical nature of the condition, this term is sometimes rejected, such as by proponents of the autism rights movement.
The term medical condition is also a synonym for , in which case it describes an individual patient's current state from a medical standpoint. This usage appears in statements that describe a patient as being in critical condition, for example.
Morbidity () is a diseased state, , or poor health due to any cause. The term may be used to refer to the existence of any form of disease, or to the degree that the health condition affects the patient. Among severely ill patients, the level of morbidity is often measured by ICU scoring systems. is the simultaneous presence of two or more medical conditions, such as and .
In and actuarial science, the term "morbidity rate" can refer to either the incidence rate, or the of a disease or medical condition. This measure of sickness is contrasted with the of a condition, which is the proportion of people dying during a given time interval. Morbidity rates are used in actuarial professions, such as health insurance, life insurance and long-term care insurance, to determine the correct premiums to charge to customers. Morbidity rates help insurers predict the likelihood that an insured will contract or develop any number of specified diseases.
Pathosis or pathology
Pathosis (plural pathoses) is synonymous with disease. The word also has this , in which it is commonly used by physicians in the medical literature, although . Sometimes a slight shade causes preference for pathology or pathosis implying "some as " rather than disease implying "a specific disease entity as defined by diagnostic criteria being already met". This is hard to quantify , but it explains why cognitive synonymy is not invariable.
Syndrome
A is the association of several , , or other characteristics that often occur together. Some syndromes, such as , have only one cause. Others, such as Parkinsonian syndrome, have multiple possible causes. For example, acute coronary syndrome is not a single disease itself, but rather the manifestation of any of several diseases, such as myocardial infarction secondary to coronary artery disease. In yet other syndromes, the . A familiar syndrome name often remains in use even after an underlying cause has been found, or when there are a number of different possible primary causes. Examples of the first-mentioned type are that and DiGeorge syndrome are still often called by the "syndrome" name despite that they can also be viewed as disease entities and not solely as sets of signs and symptoms.
Predisease
Predisease is a or vanguard of a disease. and are common examples. The or epistemology of predisease is contentious, though, because there is seldom a differentiating a legitimate concern for subclinical/prodromal/premonitory status (on one hand) and conflict of interest–driven disease mongering or (on the other hand). Identifying legitimate predisease can result in useful preventive measures, such as motivating the person to get a healthy amount of physical exercise, but labeling a healthy person with an unfounded notion of predisease can result in , such as taking drugs that only help people with severe disease or paying for drug prescription instances whose benefit–cost ratio is minuscule (placing it in the waste category of CMS' "waste, fraud, and abuse" classification). One review summarizes 3 requirements for legitimacy of instances of the concept: truly high risk for progression to disease, actionability for risk reduction, and benefit that outweighs harm in any interventions taken.


Types by body system
Mental
is a broad, generic label for a category of illnesses that may include affective or instability, behavioral dysregulation, cognitive dysfunction or impairment. Specific illnesses known as mental illnesses include major depression, generalized , , and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, to name a few. Mental illness can be of biological (e.g., anatomical, chemical, or genetic) or psychological (e.g., trauma or conflict) origin. It can impair the affected person's ability to work or study and can harm interpersonal relationships. The term is used technically as a legal term.
Organic
An organic disease is one caused by a physical or physiological change to some tissue or organ of the body. The term sometimes excludes infections. It is commonly used in contrast with mental disorders. It includes emotional and behavioral disorders if they are due to changes to the physical structures or functioning of the body, such as after a stroke or a traumatic brain injury, but not if they are due to issues.


Stages
In an infectious disease, the incubation period is the time between infection and the appearance of symptoms. The is the time between infection and the ability of the disease to spread to another person, which may precede, follow, or be simultaneous with the appearance of symptoms. Some viruses also exhibit a dormant phase, called , in which the virus hides in the body in an inactive state. For example, varicella zoster virus causes in the acute phase; after recovery from chickenpox, the virus may remain dormant in nerve cells for many years, and later cause (shingles).
Acute disease
An is a short-lived disease, like the .
Chronic disease
A is one that lasts for a long time, usually at least six months. During that time, it may be constantly present, or it may go into remission and periodically . A chronic disease may be stable (does not get any worse) or it may be progressive (gets worse over time). Some chronic diseases can be permanently cured. Most chronic diseases can be beneficially treated, even if they cannot be permanently cured.
Clinical disease
One that has clinical consequences; in other words, the stage of the disease that produces the characteristic signs and symptoms of that disease. is the clinical disease stage of .
Cure
A is the end of a medical condition or a treatment that is very likely to end it, while remission refers to the disappearance, possibly temporarily, of symptoms. Complete remission is the best possible outcome for incurable diseases.
Flare-up
A flare-up can refer to either the recurrence of symptoms or an onset of more severe symptoms.
Progressive disease
Progressive disease is a disease whose typical natural course is the worsening of the disease until death, serious debility, or organ failure occurs. Slowly progressive diseases are also ; many are also degenerative diseases. The opposite of progressive disease is stable disease or static disease: a medical condition that exists, but does not get better or worse.
A refractory disease is a disease that resists treatment, especially an individual case that resists treatment more than is normal for the specific disease in question.
Subclinical disease
Also called silent disease, silent stage, or asymptomatic disease. This is a stage in some diseases before the symptoms are first noted.
Terminal phase
If a person will die soon from a disease, regardless of whether that disease typically causes death, then the stage between the earlier disease process and active dying is the terminal phase.


Extent
Localized disease
A localized disease is one that affects only one part of the body, such as athlete's foot or an .
Disseminated disease
A disseminated disease has spread to other parts; with cancer, this is usually called metastatic disease.
Systemic disease
A is a disease that affects the entire body, such as or .


Classifications
Diseases may be classified by cause, (mechanism by which the disease is caused), or by (s). Alternatively, diseases may be classified according to the involved, though this is often complicated since many diseases affect more than one organ.

A chief difficulty in nosology is that diseases often cannot be defined and classified clearly, especially when cause or pathogenesis are unknown. Thus diagnostic terms often only reflect a symptom or set of symptoms ().

Classical classification of human disease derives from observational correlation between pathological analysis and clinical syndromes. Today it is preferred to classify them by their cause if it is known.Loscalzo J1, Kohane I, Barabasi AL. Human disease classification in the postgenomic era: a complex systems approach to human pathobiology. Mol Syst Biol. 2007;3:124. Epub 2007 Jul 10.

The most known and used classification of diseases is the World Health Organization's ICD. This is periodically updated. Currently the last publication is the ICD-10.


Causes
Only some diseases such as are contagious and commonly believed infectious. The micro-organisms that cause these diseases are known as pathogens and include varieties of bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi. Infectious diseases can be transmitted, e.g. by hand-to-mouth contact with infectious material on surfaces, by bites of insects or other carriers of the disease, and from contaminated water or food (often via contamination), etc.Alexander van Geen, et al. "Impact of population and latrines on fecal contamination of ponds in rural Bangladesh." Science Of The Total Environment 409, no. 17 (August 2011): 3174–82. Also, there are sexually transmitted diseases. In some cases, that are not readily spread from person to person play a role, while other diseases can be prevented or ameliorated with appropriate or other lifestyle changes.

Some diseases, such as most (but not all) forms of , , and mental disorders, are non-infectious diseases. Many non-infectious diseases have a partly or completely genetic basis (see ) and may thus be transmitted from one generation to another.

Social determinants of health are the social conditions in which people live that determine their health. Illnesses are generally related to social, economic, political, and environmental circumstances. Social determinants of health have been recognized by several health organizations such as the Public Health Agency of and the World Health Organization to greatly influence collective and personal well-being. The World Health Organization's Social Determinants Council also recognizes Social determinants of health in poverty.

When the cause of a disease is poorly understood, societies tend to mythologize the disease or use it as a or symbol of whatever that culture considers evil. For example, until the bacterial cause of was discovered in 1882, experts variously ascribed the disease to heredity, a sedentary lifestyle, depressed mood, and overindulgence in sex, rich food, or alcohol—all the of the time.

(2019). 9780801869365, The Johns Hopkins University Press.

When a disease is caused by a pathogen (e.g., when the disease is caused by infection by parasites.), the term disease may be misleadingly used even in the scientific literature in place of its causal agent, the pathogen. This language habit can cause confusion in the communication of the cause-effect principle in , and as such it should be strongly discouraged.


Types of causes
Airborne
An is any disease that is caused by pathogens and transmitted through the air.
Foodborne
Foodborne illness or food poisoning is any illness resulting from the consumption of food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites.
Infectious
Infectious diseases, also known as transmissible diseases or communicable diseases, comprise clinically evident illness (i.e., characteristic medical signs or symptoms of disease) resulting from the infection, presence and growth of pathogenic biological agents in an individual host organism. Included in this category are contagious diseases—an infection, such as or the , that commonly spreads from one person to another—and communicable diseases—a disease that can spread from one person to another, but does not necessarily spread through everyday contact.
Lifestyle
A lifestyle disease is any disease that appears to increase in frequency as countries become more industrialized and people live longer, especially if the risk factors include behavioral choices like a sedentary lifestyle or a diet high in unhealthful foods such as refined carbohydrates, trans fats, or alcoholic beverages.
Non-communicable
A non-communicable disease is a medical condition or disease that is non-transmissible. Non-communicable diseases cannot be spread directly from one person to another. and are examples of non-communicable diseases in humans.


Prevention
Many diseases and disorders can be prevented through a variety of means. These include , proper , adequate , and other and measures.


Treatments
Medical or treatments are efforts to cure or improve a disease or other health problem. In the medical field, therapy is synonymous with the word treatment. Among psychologists, the term may refer specifically to or "talk therapy". Common treatments include , , , and . Treatments may be provided by an organized health care system, or informally, by the patient or family members.

Preventive healthcare is a way to avoid an injury, sickness, or disease in the first place. A treatment or cure is applied after a medical problem has already started. A treatment attempts to improve or remove a problem, but treatments may not produce permanent cures, especially in . are a subset of treatments that reverse diseases completely or end medical problems permanently. Many diseases that cannot be completely cured are still treatable. (also called pain medicine) is that branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach to the relief of pain and improvement in the quality of life of those living with pain.

(1997). 9781900151856, Cambridge University Press. .

Treatment for medical emergencies must be provided promptly, often through an emergency department or, in less critical situations, through an facility.


Epidemiology
Epidemiology is the study of the factors that cause or encourage diseases. Some diseases are more common in certain geographic areas, among people with certain genetic or socioeconomic characteristics, or at different times of the year.

Epidemiology is considered a cornerstone methodology of public health research, and is highly regarded in evidence-based medicine for identifying for disease. In the study of communicable and non-communicable diseases, the work of epidemiologists ranges from investigation to study design, data collection and analysis including the development of statistical models to test hypotheses and the documentation of results for submission to peer-reviewed journals. Epidemiologists also study the interaction of diseases in a population, a condition known as a . Epidemiologists rely on a number of other scientific disciplines such as (to better understand disease processes), (the current raw information available), Geographic Information Science (to store data and map disease patterns) and disciplines (to better understand proximate and distal risk factors). Epidemiology can help identify causes as well as guide prevention efforts.

In studying diseases, epidemiology faces the challenge of defining them. Especially for poorly understood diseases, different groups might use significantly different definitions. Without an agreed-on definition, different researchers may report different numbers of cases and characteristics of the disease.

Some morbidity databases are compiled with data supplied by states and territories health authorities, at national levels or larger scale (such as European Hospital Morbidity Database (HMDB)) which may contain hospital discharge data by detailed diagnosis, age and sex. The European HMDB datea was submitted by European countries to the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.


Burdens of disease
is the impact of a health problem in an area measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators.

There are several measures used to quantify the burden imposed by diseases on people. The years of potential life lost (YPLL) is a simple estimate of the number of years that a person's life was shortened due to a disease. For example, if a person dies at the age of 65 from a disease, and would probably have lived until age 80 without that disease, then that disease has caused a loss of 15 years of potential life. YPLL measurements do not account for how disabled a person is before dying, so the measurement treats a person who dies suddenly and a person who died at the same age after decades of illness as equivalent. In 2004, the World Health Organization calculated that 932 million years of potential life were lost to premature death.

The quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and disability-adjusted life year (DALY) metrics are similar, but take into account whether the person was healthy after diagnosis. In addition to the number of years lost due to premature death, these measurements add part of the years lost to being sick. Unlike YPLL, these measurements show the burden imposed on people who are very sick, but who live a normal lifespan. A disease that has high morbidity, but low mortality, has a high DALY and a low YPLL. In 2004, the World Health Organization calculated that 1.5 billion disability-adjusted life years were lost to disease and injury. Standard DALYs (3% discounting, age weights). Also DALY spreadsheet and YLL spreadsheet. In the developed world, and cause the most loss of life, but neuropsychiatric conditions like major depressive disorder cause the most years lost to being sick.

Infectious and parasitic diseases, especially lower respiratory tract infections, , , , and 37%26%9%6%5%3%
Neuropsychiatric conditions, e.g. depression2%13%3%19%5%28%
, especially motor vehicle accidents14%12%18%13%18%10%
Cardiovascular diseases, principally and 14%10%35%23%26%14%
and other deaths11%8%4%2%3%2%
8%5%19%11%25%13%


Society and culture
How a society responds to diseases is the subject of medical sociology.

A condition may be considered a disease in some cultures or eras but not in others. For example, can represent wealth and abundance, and is a status symbol in famine-prone areas and some places hard-hit by . is considered a sign of spiritual gifts among the .

(1997). 9780374525644, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.

Sickness confers the social legitimization of certain benefits, such as illness benefits, work avoidance, and being looked after by others. The person who is sick takes on a social role called the . A person who responds to a dreaded disease, such as , in a culturally acceptable fashion may be publicly and privately honored with higher .

(2019). 9780199740451, Oxford University Press.
In return for these benefits, the sick person is obligated to seek treatment and work to become well once more. As a comparison, consider , which is not interpreted as a disease or sickness, even if the mother and baby may both benefit from medical care.

Most religions grant exceptions from religious duties to people who are sick. For example, one whose life would be endangered by on or during is exempted from the requirement, or even forbidden from participating. People who are sick are also exempted from social duties. For example, ill health is the only socially acceptable reason for an American to refuse an invitation to the .

(2019). 9780393058741, W.W. Norton & Co.

The identification of a condition as a disease, rather than as simply a variation of human structure or function, can have significant social or economic implications. The controversial recognitions as diseases of repetitive stress injury (RSI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (also known as "Soldier's heart", "", and "combat fatigue") has had a number of positive and negative effects on the financial and other responsibilities of governments, corporations and institutions towards individuals, as well as on the individuals themselves. The social implication of viewing as a disease could be profound, though this classification is not yet widespread.

were people who were historically shunned because they had an infectious disease, and the term "leper" still evokes . Fear of disease can still be a widespread social phenomenon, though not all diseases evoke extreme social stigma.

Social standing and economic status affect health. Diseases of poverty are diseases that are associated with and low social status; diseases of affluence are diseases that are associated with high social and economic status. Which diseases are associated with which states varies according to time, place, and technology. Some diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, may be associated with both poverty (poor food choices) and affluence (long lifespans and sedentary lifestyles), through different mechanisms. The term lifestyle diseases describes diseases associated with longevity and that are more common among older people. For example, is far more common in societies in which most members live until they reach the age of 80 than in societies in which most members die before they reach the age of 50.


Language of disease
An illness narrative is a way of organizing a medical experience into a coherent story that illustrates the sick individual's personal experience.

People use to make sense of their experiences with disease. The metaphors move disease from an objective thing that exists to an experience. The most popular metaphors draw on concepts: Disease is an enemy that must be feared, fought, battled, and routed. The patient or the healthcare provider is a warrior, rather than a passive victim or bystander. The agents of communicable diseases are invaders; non-communicable diseases constitute internal insurrection or civil war. Because the threat is urgent, perhaps a matter of life and death, unthinkably radical, even oppressive, measures are society's and the patient's moral duty as they courageously mobilize to struggle against destruction. The War on Cancer is an example of this metaphorical use of language.

(1999). 9780521649643, Cambridge University Press.
This language is empowering to some patients, but leaves others feeling like they are failures.

Another class of metaphors describes the experience of illness as a journey: The person travels to or from a place of disease, and changes himself, discovers new information, or increases his experience along the way. He may travel "on the road to recovery" or make changes to "get on the right track" or choose "pathways". Some are explicitly immigration-themed: the patient has been exiled from the home territory of health to the land of the ill, changing identity and relationships in the process.

(2019). 9780816646975, University of Minnesota Press.
This language is more common among British healthcare professionals than the language of physical aggression.

Some metaphors are disease-specific. is a common metaphor for : The alcoholic is enslaved by drink, and the smoker is captive to nicotine. Some cancer patients treat the loss of their hair from as a or metaphor for all the losses caused by the disease.

Some diseases are used as metaphors for social ills: "Cancer" is a common description for anything that is endemic and destructive in society, such as poverty, injustice, or racism. AIDS was seen as a divine judgment for moral decadence, and only by purging itself from the "pollution" of the "invader" could society become healthy again. More recently, when AIDS seemed less threatening, this type of emotive language was applied to avian flu and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Authors in the 19th century commonly used tuberculosis as a symbol and a metaphor for transcendence. Victims of the disease were portrayed in literature as having risen above daily life to become ephemeral objects of spiritual or artistic achievement. In the 20th century, after its cause was better understood, the same disease became the emblem of poverty, squalor, and other social problems.


See also
  • Cryptogenic disease, a disease whose cause is currently unknown
  • Developmental disability, severe, lifelong disabilities attributable to mental or physical impairments
  • Environmental disease
  • Host-pathogen interaction
  • List of incurable diseases
  • Mitochondrial disease
  • , a disease that affects very few people
  • Sociology of health and illness
  • Philosophy of medicine


External links
  • Health Topics, descriptions of most diseases, with access to current research articles.
  • OMIM Comprehensive information on genes that cause disease at Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man
  • CTD The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database is a scientific resource connecting chemicals, genes, and human diseases.
  • NLM Comprehensive database from the US National Library of Medicine
  • Health Topics A–Z, fact sheets about many common diseases at Centers for Disease Control
  • The Merck Manual containing detailed description of most diseases
  • Report: The global burden of disease from World Health Organization (WHO), 2004
  • Free online health-risk assessment by Your Disease Risk at Washington University in St Louis
  • "Man and Disease", BBC Radio 4 discussion with Anne Hardy, David Bradley & Chris Dye ( In Our Time, Dec. 15, 2002)

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