Wildlife traditionally refers to domestication animal species, but has come to include all that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by .
Wildlife can be found in all . Desert, Forest, rain forests, Plain, Grassland and other areas including the most developed , all have distinct forms of wildlife. While the term in popular culture usually refers to animals that are untouched by human factors, most scientists agree that much wildlife is affected by human activities.
Humans have historically tended to separate civilization from wildlife in a number of ways including the legal, social, and moral sense. Some animals, however, have adapted to suburban environments. This includes such animals as domesticated cats, dogs, mice, and gerbils. Some religions declare certain animals to be sacred, and in modern times concern for the natural environment has provoked activism to protest against the exploitation of wildlife for human benefit or entertainment.
The global wildlife population decreased by 52 percent between 1970 and 2014, according to a report by the World Wildlife Fund.
Use for food, as pets, and in medicinal ingredients
relied on wildlife, both plants and animals, for their food. In fact, some species may have been hunted to extinction
by early human hunters. Today, hunting
, and gathering wildlife is still a significant food source in some parts of the world. In other areas, hunting and non-commercial fishing are mainly seen as a sport
, with the edible meat as mostly a side benefit of it. Meat sourced from wildlife that is not traditionally regarded as game is known as bush meat
. The increasing demand for wildlife as a source of traditional food in East Asia
is decimating populations of
and other animals, which they believe have aphrodisiac
In November 2008, almost 900 plucked and "oven-ready" owls and other protected wildlife species were confiscated by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks in Malaysia, according to TRAFFIC. The animals were believed to be bound for China, to be sold in wild meat restaurants. Most are listed in CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) which prohibits or restricts such trade.
A November 2008 report from biologist and author Sally Kneidel, PhD, documented numerous wildlife species for sale in informal markets along the Amazon River, including wild-caught sold for as little as $1.60 (5 Peruvian soles).
[ Veggie Revolution: Monkeys and parrots pouring from the jungle ] Many Amazon species, including peccary, , , turtle eggs, , are sold primarily as food.
As pets and in medicinal ingredients
Others in these informal markets, such as
, are destined for the pet trade, often smuggled into the United States. Still other Amazon species are popular ingredients in traditional medicines sold in local markets. The medicinal value of animal parts is based largely on superstition.
Many animal species have spiritual significance in different cultures around the world, and they and their products may be used as sacred
objects in religious
rituals. For example,
have great cultural
value to Native Americans as religious objects. In Hinduism
is regarded sacred.
Muslims conduct sacrifices on Eid al-Adha, to commemorate the sacrificial spirit of Ibrāhīm (إِبـرَاهِـيـم, Abraham) in love of God. , sheep, , and may be offered as sacrifice during the three days of Eid.
Many nations have established their tourism sector around their natural wildlife. South Africa
has, for example, many opportunities for tourists to see the country's wildlife in its National park
parks, such as the Kruger Park
. In South India
, the Periar Wildlife Sanctuary, Bandipur National Park and Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary are situated around and in forests. India
is home to many national parks and wildlife sanctuaries showing the diversity of its wildlife, much of its unique fauna, and excels in the range. There are 89 national parks, 13 bio reserves and more than 400 wildlife sanctuaries across India which are the best places to go to see
, Indian rhinoceroses,
, and other wildlife which reflect the importance that the country places on nature and wildlife conservation.
This subsection focuses on anthropogenic forms of wildlife destruction. The loss of animals from ecological communities is also known as defaunation.
Exploitation of wild populations has been a characteristic of modern man since our exodus from Africa 130,000 – 70,000 years ago. The rate of of entire species of plants and animals across the planet has been so high in the last few hundred years it is widely believed that we are in the sixth great extinction event on this planet; the Holocene Mass Extinction.
Destruction of wildlife does not always lead to an extinction of the species in question, however, the dramatic loss of entire species across Earth dominates any review of wildlife destruction as extinction is the level of damage to a wild population from which there is no return.
The four most general reasons that lead to destruction of wildlife include overkill, habitat destruction and fragmentation, impact of introduced species and chains of extinction.
[Diamond, J. M. (1989). Overview of recent extinctions. Conservation for the Twenty-first Century. D. Western and M. Pearl, New York, Oxford University Press: 37-41.]
Overkill happens whenever hunting occurs at rates greater than the reproductive capacity of the population is being exploited. The effects of this are often noticed much more dramatically in slow growing populations such as many larger species
of fish. Initially when a portion of a wild population is hunted, an increased availability of resources (food, etc.) is experienced increasing growth and reproduction as density dependent inhibition is lowered. Hunting, fishing
and so on, has lowered the competition between members of a population. However, if this hunting continues at rate greater than the rate at which new members of the population can reach breeding age and produce more young, the population will begin to decrease in numbers.
Populations that are confined to islands, whether literal islands or just areas of habitat that are effectively an "island" for the species concerned, have also been observed to be at greater risk of dramatic population declines following unsustainable hunting.
Habitat destruction and fragmentation
of any given species is considered its preferred area or territory. Many processes associated with human habitation of an area cause loss of this area and decrease the carrying capacity of the land for that species. In many cases these changes in land use cause a patchy break-up of the wild landscape. Agricultural land frequently displays this type of extremely fragmented, or relictual, habitat. Farms sprawl across the landscape with patches of uncleared woodland or forest dotted in-between occasional paddocks.
Examples of habitat destruction include grazing of bushland by farmed animals, changes to natural fire regimes, forest clearing for timber production and wetland draining for city expansion.
Impact of introduced species
and poison ivy
are all examples of species that have become invasive threats to wild species in various parts of the world. Frequently species that are uncommon in their home range become out-of-control invasions in distant but similar climates. The reasons for this have not always been clear and Charles Darwin
felt it was unlikely that exotic species would ever be able to grow abundantly in a place in which they had not evolved. The reality is that the vast majority of species exposed to a new habitat do not reproduce successfully. Occasionally, however, some populations do take hold and after a period of acclimation can increase in numbers significantly, having destructive effects on many elements of the native environment of which they have become part.
Chains of extinction
This final group is one of secondary effects. All wild populations of living things have many complex intertwining links with other living things around them. Large herbivorous
animals such as the hippopotamus
have populations of insectivorous
birds that feed off the many parasitic insects that grow on the hippo. Should the hippo die out, so too will these groups of birds
, leading to further destruction as other species dependent on the birds are affected. Also referred to as a domino effect
, this series of
is by far the most destructive process that can occur in any Biocoenosis
Another example is the and the found in India. These birds feed on insects on the back of cattle, which helps to keep them disease-free. Destroying the nesting habitats of these birds would cause a decrease in the cattle population because of the spread of insect-borne diseases.
Wildlife has long been a common subject for
. National Geographic specials appeared on CBS
beginning in 1965, later moving to ABC and then PBS. In 1963, NBC
debuted Wild Kingdom,
a popular program featuring zoologist Marlin Perkins
as host. The BBC natural history unit in the United Kingdom
was a similar pioneer, the first wildlife series LOOK presented by Sir Peter Scott, was a studio-based show, with filmed inserts. It was in this series that David Attenborough first made his appearance which led to the series Zoo Quest during which he and cameraman Charles Lagus went to many exotic places looking for and filming
elusive wildlife—notably the Komodo dragon
in Indonesia and lemurs
in Madagascar. Since 1984, the Discovery Channel and its spin off Animal Planet
in the US have dominated the market for shows about wildlife on cable television, while on PBS the NATURE strand made by WNET-13 in New York and NOVA by WGBH in Boston are notable. See also Nature documentary. Wildlife television is now a multimillion-dollar industry with specialist documentary film-makers in many countries including UK, US, New Zealand NHNZ
, Australia, Austria, Germany, Japan, and Canada.
There are many magazines and websites which cover wildlife including National Wildlife Magazine, Birds & Blooms, Birding (magazine), wildlife.net and Ranger Rick
Do not feed the animals
Ex situ conservation
In situ conservation
World Wildlife Day