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History (from ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past, specifically how it relates to humans. It is an that relates to past events as well as the discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of about these events. The term includes , , and , but is often generically implied to mean . Scholars who write about history are called . Events occurring prior to written record are considered .

History can also refer to the which uses a to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. ξ1 p 52 ξ2 ξ2

Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the tales surrounding ) are usually classified as or , because they do not support the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history. ξ2 ξ2 Events occurring prior to written record are considered . , a 5th-century BC is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", and, along with his contemporary , helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history. Their work continues to be read today and the divide between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In the Eastern tradition, a state chronicle the was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd century BC texts survived.

Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today. The modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a in University studies.


Etymology
A derivation from *weid- "know" or "see" is attested as "the reconstructed etymon wid-tor "one (compare to English wit) a suffixed zero-grade form of the root *weid- 'see' and so is related to Greek eidénai, to know". ξ3

( hístōr) means "inquiry","knowledge from inquiry", or "judge". It was in that sense that used the word in his Περὶ Τὰ Ζῷα Ἱστορίαι]]Ferrater-Mora, José. Diccionario de Filosofia. Barcelona: Editorial Ariel, 1994. ( Perì Tà Zôa Ηistoríai "Inquiries about Animals"). The ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in , , the ' oath, and in inscriptions (in a legal sense, either "judge" or "witness", or similar).

The word entered the in 1390 with the meaning of "relation of incidents, story". In , the meaning was "story" in general. The restriction to the meaning "record of past events" arose in the late 15th century. It was still in the Greek sense that used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about "". For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by (while was provided by , and was provided by ).

In an expression of the linguistic , English like Chinese (史 vs. 诌) now designates separate words for human history and in general. In modern German, French, and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are solidly synthetic and highly inflected, the same word is still used to mean both "history" and "story".

The adjective historical is attested from 1661, and historic from 1669.Whitney, W. D. The Century dictionary; an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language. New York: The Century Co, 1889.

Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" is attested from 1531. In all , the substantive "history" is still used to mean both "what happened with men", and "the scholarly study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished with a capital letter, "History", or the word .


Description
Historians write in the context of their own time, and with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, and sometimes write to provide lessons for their own society. In the words of , "All history is contemporary history". History is facilitated by the formation of a 'true discourse of past' through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating to the human race.Whitney, W. D. (1889). The Century dictionary; an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language. New York: The Century Co. Page 2842. The modern discipline of history is dedicated to the institutional production of this discourse.

All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record. WordNet Search – 3.0, "History". The task of historical discourse is to identify the sources which can most usefully contribute to the production of accurate accounts of past. Therefore, the constitution of the historian's archive is a result of circumscribing a more general archive by invalidating the usage of certain texts and documents (by falsifying their claims to represent the 'true past').

The study of history has sometimes been classified as part of the and at other times as part of the .Scott Gordon and James Gordon Irving, The History and Philosophy of Social Science. Routledge 1991. Page 1. ISBN 0-415-05682-9 It can also be seen as a bridge between those two broad areas, incorporating methodologies from both. Some individual historians strongly support one or the other classification.Ritter, H. (1986). Dictionary of concepts in history. Reference sources for the social sciences and humanities, no. 3. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. Page 416. In the 20th century, French revolutionized the study of history, by using such outside disciplines as , , and in the study of global history.

Traditionally, historians have recorded events of the past, either in writing or by passing on an , and have attempted to answer historical questions through the study of written documents and oral accounts. From the beginning, historians have also used such sources as monuments, inscriptions, and pictures. In general, the sources of historical knowledge can be separated into three categories: what is written, what is said, and what is physically preserved, and historians often consult all three.Michael C. Lemon (1995).The Discipline of History and the History of Thought. Routledge. Page 201. ISBN 0-415-12346-1 But writing is the marker that separates history from what comes before.

is a discipline that is especially helpful in dealing with buried sites and objects, which, once unearthed, contribute to the study of history. But archaeology rarely stands alone. It uses narrative sources to complement its discoveries. However, archaeology is constituted by a range of methodologies and approaches which are independent from history; that is to say, archaeology does not "fill the gaps" within textual sources. Indeed, Historical Archaeology is a specific branch of archaeology, often contrasting its conclusions against those of contemporary textual sources. For example, Mark Leone, the excavator and interpreter of historical , USA has sought to understand the contradiction between textual documents and the material record, demonstrating the possession of slaves and the inequalities of wealth apparent via the study of the total historical environment, despite the ideology of "liberty" inherent in written documents at this time.

There are varieties of ways in which history can be organized, including chronologically, , territorially, and thematically. These divisions are not mutually exclusive, and significant overlaps are often present, as in "The International Women's Movement in an Age of Transition, 1830–1975." It is possible for historians to concern themselves with both the very specific and the very general, although the modern trend has been toward specialization. The area called resists this specialization, and searches for universal patterns or trends. History has often been studied with some practical or aim, but also may be studied out of simple intellectual curiosity.


History and prehistory
The is the memory of the past of around the world, as that experience has been preserved, largely in written records. By "prehistory", historians mean the recovery of knowledge of the past in an area where no written records exist, or where the writing of a culture is not understood. By studying painting, drawings, carvings, and other artifacts, some information can be recovered even in the absence of a written record. Since the 20th century, the study of prehistory is considered essential to avoid history's implicit exclusion of certain civilizations, such as those of and America. Historians in the West have been criticized for focusing disproportionately on the . (2007) Goody 2007&sig=g0N7ZF9nz_Uy8nrQTiGdsc0N3sI#PPA12,M1 The Theft of History (from ) In 1961, British historian wrote:

This definition includes within the scope of history the strong interests of peoples, such as and New Zealand in the past, and the oral records maintained and transmitted to succeeding generations, even before their contact with European civilization.


Historiography
Historiography has a number of related meanings. Firstly, it can refer to how history has been produced: the story of the development of and practices (for example, the move from short-term biographical narrative towards long-term thematic analysis). Secondly, it can refer to what has been produced: a specific body of historical writing (for example, "medieval historiography during the 1960s" means "Works of medieval history written during the 1960s"). Thirdly, it may refer to why history is produced: the . As a analysis of descriptions of the past, this third conception can relate to the first two in that the analysis usually focuses on the narratives, , , use of , or method of presentation of other . Professional historians also debate the question of whether history can be taught as a single coherent narrative or a series of competing narratives.


Philosophy of history
History's philosophical questions
  • What is the proper unit for the study of the human past—the individual? The polis? The civilization? The culture? Or the nation state?
  • Are there broad patterns and progress? Are there cycles? Is human history random and devoid of any meaning?

Philosophy of history is a branch of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. Furthermore, it speculates as to a possible teleological end to its development—that is, it asks if there is a design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in the processes of human history. Philosophy of history should not be confused with historiography, which is the study of history as an academic discipline, and thus concerns its methods and practices, and its development as a discipline over time. Nor should philosophy of history be confused with the , which is the study of the development of philosophical ideas through time.


Historical methods
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Historical method basics

The following questions are used by historians in modern work.

  1. When was the source, written or unwritten, produced ()?
  2. Where was it produced ()?
  3. By whom was it produced ()?
  4. From what pre-existing material was it produced ()?
  5. In what original form was it produced ()?
  6. What is the evidential value of its contents ()?
The first four are known as ; the fifth, ; and, together, external criticism. The sixth and final inquiry about a source is called internal criticism.

The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which use and other evidence to research and then to .

of (484 BC – ca.425 BC) ξ4 has generally been acclaimed as the "father of history". However, his contemporary (ca. 460 BC – ca. 400 BC) is credited with having first approached history with a well-developed historical method in his work the . Thucydides, unlike Herodotus, regarded history as being the product of the choices and actions of human beings, and looked at cause and effect, rather than as the result of divine intervention. In his historical method, Thucydides emphasized chronology, a neutral point of view, and that the human world was the result of the actions of human beings. Greek historians also viewed history as , with events regularly recurring. ξ4

There were historical traditions and sophisticated use of historical method in ancient and medieval . The groundwork for professional historiography in was established by the court historian known as (145–90 BC), author of the (). For the quality of his written work, Sima Qian is posthumously known as the Father of . Chinese historians of subsequent dynastic periods in China used his Shiji as the official format for , as well as for biographical literature.

was influential in and at the beginning of the medieval period. Through the Medieval and periods, history was often studied through a or religious perspective. Around 1800, German philosopher and historian brought and a more approach in historical study.

In the preface to his book, the (1377), the and , , warned of seven mistakes that he thought that historians regularly committed. In this criticism, he approached the past as strange and in need of interpretation. The originality of Ibn Khaldun was to claim that the cultural difference of another age must govern the evaluation of relevant historical material, to distinguish the principles according to which it might be possible to attempt the evaluation, and lastly, to feel the need for experience, in addition to rational principles, in order to assess a culture of the past. Ibn Khaldun often criticized "idle and uncritical acceptance of historical data." As a result, he introduced a to the study of history, and he often referred to it as his "new science"., Franz Rosenthal, N. J. Dawood (1967), The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History, p. x, , ISBN 0-691-01754-9. His historical method also laid the groundwork for the observation of the role of , , and in history,H. Mowlana (2001). "Information in the Arab World", Cooperation South Journal 1. and he is thus considered to be the "father of historiography"Salahuddin Ahmed (1999). A Dictionary of Muslim Names. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 1-85065-356-9. ξ5 or the "father of the philosophy of history".Dr. S. W. Akhtar (1997). "The Islamic Concept of Knowledge", Al-Tawhid: A Quarterly Journal of Islamic Thought & Culture 12 (3).

In the West historians developed modern methods of historiography in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially in France and Germany. The 19th-century historian with greatest influence on methods was in Germany.

In the 20th century, academic historians focused less on epic nationalistic narratives, which often tended to glorify the nation or , to more objective and complex analyses of social and intellectual forces. A major trend of historical methodology in the 20th century was a tendency to treat history more as a rather than as an , which traditionally had been the case. Some of the leading advocates of history as a social science were a diverse collection of scholars which included , , , , , , , , , , and . Many of the advocates of history as a social science were or are noted for their multi-disciplinary approach. Braudel combined history with geography, Bracher history with political science, Fogel history with economics, Gay history with psychology, Trigger history with archaeology while Wehler, Bloch, Fischer, Stone, Febvre and Le Roy Ladurie have in varying and differing ways amalgamated history with sociology, geography, anthropology, and economics. More recently, the field of has begun to address ways of using computer technology to pose new questions to historical data and generate digital scholarship.

In opposition to the claims of history as a social science, historians such as , , , and argued that the key to the historians' work was the power of the , and hence contended that history should be understood as an art. French historians associated with the introduced quantitative history, using raw data to track the lives of typical individuals, and were prominent in the establishment of (cf. ). Intellectual historians such as , and have argued for the significance of ideas in history. American historians, motivated by the civil rights era, focused on formerly overlooked ethnic, racial, and socio-economic groups. Another genre of to emerge in the post-WWII era was (History of Everyday Life). Scholars such as , and sought to examine what everyday life was like for ordinary people in 20th-century Germany, especially in the period.

such as , , , , , , , , , and have sought to validate 's theories by analyzing history from a Marxist perspective. In response to the Marxist interpretation of history, historians such as , , , , and have offered anti-Marxist interpretations of history. historians such as , , , , , , , and have argued for the importance of studying the experience of women in the past. In recent years, have challenged the validity and need for the study of history on the basis that all history is based on the personal interpretation of sources. In his 1997 book In Defence of History, , a professor of modern history at , defended the worth of history. Another defence of history from post-modernist criticism was the Australian historian 's 1994 book, The Killing of History.


Areas of study
Particular studies and fields
These are approaches to history; not listed are histories of other fields, such as , and .
  • : the study from the beginning of human history until the Early Middle Ages.
  • : the study of the history of people living on or near the Atlantic Ocean.
  • : the study of changes in and social context of art.
  • : study of history on a large scale across long time frames and through a multi-disciplinary approach.
  • : science of localizing historical events in time.
  • : historical analysis of social and cultural entities not confined to national boundaries.
  • : the study of historical events that are immediately relevant to the present time.
  • : the study of historical events as they might have happened in different causal circumstances.
  • : the study of culture in the past.
  • : the use of computing technologies to produce digital scholarship.
  • : the study of economies in the past.
  • : study of the future: researches the medium to long-term future of societies and of the physical world.
  • : the study of ideas in the context of the cultures that produced them and their development over time.
  • : the study of maritime transport and all the connected subjects.
  • : the study of the Modern Times, the era after the Middle Ages.
  • : the study of warfare and wars in history and what is sometimes considered to be a sub-branch of military history, .
  • : the study of the development of the , the , and interactions thereof.
  • : study of ancient texts.
  • : historical work from the perspective of common people.
  • : the study of politics in the past.
  • : study of the psychological motivations of historical events.
  • : study about the past that falls outside the domain of mainstream history (sometimes it is an equivalent of ).
  • : the study of the process of social change throughout history.
  • : basic to the Western tradition of historiography.
  • : the history of female human beings. is related and covers the perspective of gender.
  • : the study of history from a global perspective.


Periods
Historical study often focuses on events and developments that occur in particular blocks of time. Historians give these names in order to allow "organising ideas and classificatory generalisations" to be used by historians. The names given to a period can vary with geographical location, as can the dates of the start and end of a particular period. and are commonly used periods and the time they represent depends on the used. Most periods are constructed retrospectively and so reflect value judgments made about the past. The way periods are constructed and the names given to them can affect the way they are viewed and studied.


Geographical locations
Particular locations can form the basis of historical study, for example, , and . Understanding why historic events took place is important. To do this, historians often turn to . Weather patterns, the water supply, and the landscape of a place all affect the lives of the people who live there. For example, to explain why the ancient Egyptians developed a successful civilization, studying the is essential. Egyptian civilization was built on the banks of the Nile River, which flooded each year, depositing soil on its banks. The rich soil could help farmers grow enough crops to feed the people in the cities. That meant everyone did not have to farm, so some people could perform other jobs that helped develop the civilization.


World
World history is the study of major civilizations over the last 3000 years or so. It has led to highly controversial interpretations by and , among others. World history is especially important as a teaching field. It has increasingly entered the university curriculum in the U.S., in many cases replacing courses in Western Civilization, that had a focus on Europe and the U.S. World history adds extensive new material on Asia, Africa and Latin America.


Regions
  • begins with the first emergence of modern human beings on the continent, continuing into its modern present as a patchwork of diverse and politically developing nation states.
  • is the collective history of North and South America, including Central America and the Caribbean.
    • is the study of the past passed down from generation to generation on the continent in the Earth's northern and western hemisphere.
    • is the study of the past passed down from generation to generation on the continent in the Earth's western hemisphere.
    • begins with the oldest evidence where 7,000-year-old remains have been found.
    • is the study of the past passed down from generation to generation on the continent in the Earth's southern and western hemisphere.
  • emerges from early Western theories of a vast continent, known as Terra Australis, believed to exist in the far south of the globe.
  • start with the documentation of the Makassar trading with Indigenous Australians on Australia's north coast.
  • dates back at least 700 years to when it was discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed a distinct Māori culture centred on kinship links and land.
  • covers the history of the islands in the Pacific Ocean.
  • is the collective history of several distinct peripheral coastal regions: the Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Europe, linked by the interior mass of the Eurasian steppe of Central Asia and Eastern Europe.
    • describes the passage of time from humans inhabiting the European continent to the present day.
    • can be seen as the collective history of several distinct peripheral coastal regions, East Asia, South Asia, and the Middle East linked by the interior mass of the Eurasian steppe.
      • is the study of the past passed down from generation to generation in East Asia.
      • begins with the earliest civilizations in the region now known as the Middle East that were established around 3000 BC, in Mesopotamia (Iraq).
      • is the study of the past passed down from generation to generation in the Sub-Himalayan region.
      • has been characterized as interaction between regional players and foreign powers.


Military history
concerns warfare, strategies, battles, weapons, and the psychology of combat. The "new military history" since the 1970s has been concerned with soldiers more than generals, with psychology more than tactics, and with the broader impact of warfare on society and culture. ξ6


History of religion
The history of religion has been a main theme for both secular and religious historians for centuries, and continues to be taught in seminaries and academe. Leading journals include , , and . Topics range widely from political and cultural and artistic dimensions, to theology and liturgy.Eric Cochrane, "What Is Catholic Historiography?" Catholic Historical Review Vol. 61, No. 2 (April , 1975), pp. 169-190 in JSTOR Every major country is covered,For example see Sofia Boesch Gajano and Tommaso Caliò, "Italian religious historiography in the 1990s," Journal of Modern Italian Studies, Fall 1998, Vol. 3 Issue 3, pp 293-306 and most smaller ones as well.


Social history
Social history, sometimes called the new social history, is the field that includes history of ordinary people and their strategies and institutions for coping with life.Peter Stearns, ed. Encyclopedia of Social History (1994) In its "golden age" it was a major growth field in the 1960s and 1970s among scholars, and still is well represented in history departments. In two decades from 1975 to 1995, the proportion of professors of history in American universities identifying with social history rose from 31% to 41%, while the proportion of political historians fell from 40% to 30%.Diplomatic dropped from 5% to 3%, economic history from 7% to 5%, and cultural history grew from 14% to 16%. Based on full-time professors in U.S. history departments. Stephen H. Haber, David M. Kennedy, and Stephen D. Krasner, "Brothers under the Skin: Diplomatic History and International Relations," International Security, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Summer, 1997), pp. 34-43 at p. 4 2; online at JSTOR In the history departments of British universities in 2007, of the 5723 faculty members, 1644 (29%) identified themselves with social history while came next with 1425 (25%). Teachers of History in the Universities of the UK 2007 - listed by research interest The "old" social history before the 1960s was a hodgepodge of topics without a central theme, and it often included political movements, like Populism, that were "social" in the sense of being outside the elite system. Social history was contrasted with , and the history of . English historian saw it as the bridging point between economic and political history, reflecting that, "Without social history, economic history is barren and political history unintelligible." ξ7 While the field has often been viewed negatively as history with the politics left out, it has also been defended as "history with the people put back in." ξ8


Subfields
The chief subfields of social history include:


Cultural history
Cultural history replaced as the dominant form in the 1980s and 1990s. It typically combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at language, popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience. It examines the records and narrative descriptions of past knowledge, customs, and arts of a group of people. How peoples constructed their memory of the past is a major topic. Cultural history includes the study of as well is the study of images and human visual production .The first World Dictionnary of Images: Laurent Gervereau (ed.), "Dictionnaire mondial des images", Paris, Nouveau monde, 2006, 1120p, ISBN : 978-2-84736-185-8. (with 275 specialists from all continents, all specialities, all periods from Prehistory to nowadays) ; Laurent Gervereau, "Images, une histoire mondiale", Paris, Nouveau monde, 2008, 272p., ISBN : 978-2-84736-362-3


Diplomatic history
, sometimes referred to as " Rankian History"Burke, P. (1998). New perspectives on historical writing. University Park, Pa: . Page 3. in honor of , focuses on , politicians and other high rulers and views them as being the driving force of continuity and change in history. This type of political history is the study of the conduct of between states or across state boundaries over time. This is the most common form of history and is often the classical and popular belief of what history should be.


Economic history
Although economic history has been well established since the late 19th century, in recent years academic studies have shifted more and more toward economics departments and away from traditional history departments.Robert Whaples, "Is Economic History a Neglected Field of Study?," Historically Speaking (April 2010) v. 11#2 pp 17-20, with responses pp 20-27


Environmental history
Environmental history is a new field that emerged in the 1980s to look at the history of the environment, especially in the long run, and the impact of human activities upon it.J. D. Hughes, What is Environmental History (2006) excerpt and text search


World history
World history is primarily a teaching field, rather than a research field. It gained popularity in the United States,Ainslie T. Embree and Carol Gluck, eds., Asia in Western and World History: A Guide for Teaching (M.E. Sharpe, 1997) JapanShigeru Akita, "World History and the Emergence of Global History in Japan," Chinese Studies in History, Spring 2010, Vol. 43 Issue 3, pp 84-96 and other countries after the 1980s with the realization that students need a broader exposure to the world as globalization proceeds.

The World History Association publishes the Journal of World History every quarter since 1990.http://www.historycooperative.org/jwhindex.html The H-World discussion listhttp://www.h-net.org/~world/ serves as a network of communication among practitioners of world history, with discussions among scholars, announcements, syllabi, bibliographies and book reviews.


People's history
A is a type of historical work which attempts to account for historical events from the . A people's history is the history of the world that is the story of mass movements and of the outsiders. Individuals or groups not included in the past in other type of writing about history are the primary focus, which includes the , the , the , the , and the otherwise forgotten people. This history also usually focuses on events occurring in the fullness of time, or when an overwhelming wave of smaller events cause certain developments to occur.


Historiometry
is a historical study of human progress or individual personal characteristics, by using statistics to analyze references to eminent persons, their statements, behavior and discoveries in relatively neutral texts.


Gender history
is a sub-field of History and , which looks at the past from the perspective of . It is in many ways, an outgrowth of . Despite its relatively short life, Gender History (and its forerunner Women's History) has had a rather significant effect on the general study of history. Since the 1960s, when the initially small field first achieved a measure of acceptance, it has gone through a number of different phases, each with its own challenges and outcomes. Although some of the changes to the study of history have been quite obvious, such as increased numbers of books on famous women or simply the admission of greater numbers of women into the historical profession, other influences are more subtle.


Public history
describes the broad range of activities undertaken by people with some training in the discipline of history who are generally working outside of specialized academic settings. Public history practice has quite deep roots in the areas of historic preservation, archival science, oral history, museum curatorship, and other related fields. The term itself began to be used in the U.S. and Canada in the late 1970s, and the field has become increasingly professionalized since that time. Some of the most common settings for public history are museums, historic homes and historic sites, parks, battlefields, archives, film and television companies, and all levels of government.


Historians

Professional and amateur historians discover, collect, organize, and present information about past events. In , historians can be grouped by order of the historical period in which they were writing, which is not necessarily the same as the period in which they specialized. Chroniclers and annalists, though they are not historians in the true sense, are also frequently included.


The judgement of history
Since the 20th century, Western historians have disavowed the aspiration to provide the "judgement of history."Curran, Vivian Grosswald (2000) Herder and the Holocaust: A Debate About Difference and Determinism in the Context of Comparative Law in F. C. DeCoste, Bernard Schwartz (eds.) Holocaust's Ghost: Writings on Art, Politics, Law and Education pp.413-5 The goals of historical judgements or interpretations are separate to those of , that need to be formulated quickly after the events and be final.Curran, Vivian Grosswald (2000) Herder and the Holocaust: A Debate About Difference and Determinism in the Context of Comparative Law in F. C. DeCoste, Bernard Schwartz (eds.) Holocaust's Ghost: Writings on Art, Politics, Law and Education p.415 A related issue to that of the judgement of history is that of .


Pseudohistory
is a term applied to texts which purport to be historical in nature but which depart from standard in a way which undermines their conclusions. Closely related to deceptive , works which draw controversial conclusions from new, speculative, or disputed historical evidence, particularly in the fields of national, political, military, and religious affairs, are often rejected as pseudohistory.


Teaching history
From the origins of national school systems in the 19th century, the teaching of history to promote national sentiment has been a high priority. In the United States after World War I, a strong movement emerged at the university level to teach courses in Western Civilization, so as to give students a common heritage with Europe. In the U.S. after 1980 attention increasingly moved toward teaching or requiring students to take courses in non-western cultures, to prepare students for life in a globalized economy.Jacqueline Swansinger, "Preparing Student Teachers for a World History Curriculum in New York," History Teacher, (November 2009), 43#1 pp 87-96

At the university level, historians debate the question of whether history belongs more to social science or to the humanities. Many view the field from both perspectives.

The teaching of history in French schools was influenced by the as disseminated after the 1960s by Cahiers pédagogiques and Enseignement and other journals for teachers. Also influential was the Institut national de recherche et de documentation pédagogique, (INRDP). Joseph Leif, the Inspector-general of teacher training, said pupils children should learn about historians’ approaches as well as facts and dates. Louis François, Dean of the History/Geography group in the Inspectorate of National Education advised that teachers should provide historic documents and promote "active methods" which would give pupils "the immense happiness of discovery." Proponents said it was a reaction against the memorization of names and dates that characterized teaching and left the students bored. Traditionalists protested loudly it was a postmodern innovation that threatened to leave the youth ignorant of French patriotism and national identity.Abby Waldman, " The Politics of History Teaching in England and France during the 1980s," History Workshop Journal Issue 68, Autumn 2009 pp. 199-221 online


Bias in school teaching
In most countries history textbook are tools to foster nationalism and patriotism, and give students the official line about national enemies.Jason Nicholls, ed. School History Textbooks across Cultures: International Debates and Perspectives (2006)

In many countries history textbooks are sponsored by the national government and are written to put the national heritage in the most favorable light. For example, in Japan, mention of the has been removed from textbooks and the entire World War II is given cursory treatment. Other countries have complained.Claudia Schneider, "The Japanese History Textbook Controversy in East Asian Perspective," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, May 2008, Vol. 617, pp 107-122 It was standard policy in communist countries to present only a rigid Marxist historiography."Problems of Teaching Contemporary Russian History," Russian Studies in History, Winter 2004, Vol. 43 Issue 3, pp 61-62

Academic historians have often fought against the politicization of the textbooks, sometimes with success."Teaching History in Schools: the Politics of Textbooks in India," History Workshop Journal, April 2009, Issue 67, pp 99-110Tatyana Volodina, "Teaching History in Russia After the Collapse of the USSR," History Teacher, February 2005, Vol. 38 Issue 2, pp 179-188

In 21st-century Germany, the history curriculum is controlled by the 16 states, and is characterized not by superpatriotism but rather by an "almost pacifistic and deliberately unpatriotic undertone" and reflects "principles formulated by international organizations such as UNESCO or the Council of Europe, thus oriented towards human rights, democracy and peace." The result is that "German textbooks usually downplay national pride and ambitions and aim to develop an understanding of citizenship centred on democracy, progress, human rights, peace, tolerance and Europeanness."Simone Lässig and Karl Heinrich Pohl, "History Textbooks and Historical Scholarship in Germany," History Workshop Journal Issue 67, Spring 2009 pp 128-9 online at project MUSE


See also


Further reading
  • The American Historical Association's Guide to Historical Literature (ed. by and Pamela Gerardi (3rd ed. 2 vol, Oxford U.P. 1995) 2064 pages; annotated guide to 27,000 of the most important English language history books in all fields and topics
  • Benjamin, Jules R. A Student's Guide to History (2009)
  • Carr, E.H. with a new introduction by Richard J. Evans; What is History?; Basingstoke: , 2001, ISBN 0-333-97701-7.
  • Evans, Richard J.; In Defence of History; (2000), ISBN 0-393-31959-8.
  • Furay, Conal, and Michael J. Salevouris. The Methods and Skills of History: A Practical Guide (2010)
  • Kelleher, William. Writing History: A Guide for Students (2008) excerpt and text search
  • Presnell, Jenny L. The Information-Literate Historian: A Guide to Research for History Students (2006) excerpt and text search
  • Tosh, John; The Pursuit of History (2006), ISBN 1-4058-2351-8.
  • Woolf D. R. A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing (Garland Reference Library of the Humanities) (2 vol 1998) excerpt and text search
  • Williams, H. S. (1907). The historians' history of the world. (ed., This is Book 1 of 25 Volumes; PDF version is available)


External links


References
    ^ 9781405823517, Pearson Education Limited.
    ^ (2018). 9780814781418, New York University Press.
    ^ (2018). 9781405127479, Blackwell Publishing.
    ^ (1979). 9780881338348, Benjamin-Cummings Publishing.
    ^ (2018). 9789839541533, .
    ^ (2018). 9780745633909, Polity Press.
    ^ (1973). 058248488X, Book Club Associates. 058248488X
    ^ (2018). 9780300144246, .

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