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In , a fruit is the -bearing structure in (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after .

Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate . Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a as a means for and ; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food.

(2002). 9780849323270, . .
Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's output, and some (such as the and the ) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings.

In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, and edible in the raw state, such as , , , , oranges, and . On the other hand, in botanical usage, "fruit" includes many structures that are not commonly called "fruits", such as pods, , , and grains.

(2003). 9781560229506, Haworth Press. .
(2003). 9780763721343, Jones and Bartlett. .
The section of a that produces is also called a fruiting body.


Botanic fruit and culinary fruit
Many common terms for seeds and fruit do not correspond to the botanical classifications. In culinary terminology, a fruit is usually any sweet-tasting plant part, especially a botanical fruit; a nut is any hard, oily, and shelled plant product; and a is any or less sweet plant product.For a Supreme Court of the United States ruling on the matter, see Nix v. Hedden. However, in botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary or carpel that contains seeds, a nut is a type of fruit and not a seed, and a seed is a ripened ovule.

Examples of culinary "vegetables" and nuts that are botanically fruit include , (e.g., , , and squash), , (, , and ), sweet , and . In addition, some , such as and , are fruits, botanically speaking.

(2004). 9780684800011, Simon & Schuster. .
In contrast, is often referred to as a fruit, because it is used to make sweet desserts such as pies, though only the petiole (leaf stalk) of the rhubarb plant is edible,
(2004). 9780684800011 .
and edible seeds are often given fruit names, e.g., nuts and .

Botanically, a grain, such as , , or , is also a kind of fruit, termed a . However, the fruit wall is very thin and is fused to the seed coat, so almost all of the edible grain is actually a seed.

(2017). 9780849323270 .


Structure
The outer, often edible layer, is the pericarp, formed from the ovary and surrounding the seeds, although in some species other tissues contribute to or form the edible portion. The pericarp may be described in three layers from outer to inner, the epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp.

Fruit that bears a prominent pointed terminal projection is said to be beaked.


Development

A fruit results from maturation of one or more flowers, and the of the flower(s) forms all or part of the fruit.Esau, K. 1977. Anatomy of seed plants. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Inside the ovary/ovaries are one or more where the contains the egg cell.[1] After double fertilization, these ovules will become seeds. The ovules are fertilized in a process that starts with , which involves the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma of flowers. After pollination, a tube grows from the pollen through the stigma into the ovary to the ovule and two sperm are transferred from the pollen to the megagametophyte. Within the megagametophyte one of the two sperm unites with the egg, forming a , and the second sperm enters the central cell forming the endosperm mother cell, which completes the double fertilization process.

(2017). 9780763721343, Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
(1979). 9780471021148, Wiley.
Later the zygote will give rise to the embryo of the seed, and the endosperm mother cell will give rise to , a nutritive tissue used by the embryo.

As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy (as in berries or ), or form a hard outer covering (as in nuts). In some multiseeded fruits, the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules.

(2003). 9780763721343 .
The pericarp is often differentiated into two or three distinct layers called the exocarp (outer layer, also called epicarp), mesocarp (middle layer), and endocarp (inner layer). In some fruits, especially simple fruits derived from an , other parts of the flower (such as the floral tube, including the , , and ), fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. In other cases, the sepals, petals and/or stamens and of the flower fall off. When such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called an . Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms.

There are three general modes of fruit development:

  • Apocarpous fruits develop from a single flower having one or more separate carpels, and they are the simplest fruits.
  • Syncarpous fruits develop from a single gynoecium having two or more carpels fused together.
  • Multiple fruits form from many different flowers.

Plant scientists have grouped fruits into three main groups, simple fruits, aggregate fruits, and composite or multiple fruits.

(2017). 9781578083510, Science Publishers. .
The groupings are not evolutionarily relevant, since many diverse plant may be in the same group, but reflect how the flower organs are arranged and how the fruits develop.


Simple fruit

Simple fruits can be either dry or fleshy, and result from the ripening of a simple or compound ovary in a flower with only one . Dry fruits may be either (they open to discharge seeds), or indehiscent (they do not open to discharge seeds).

(2003). 9781560229506 .
Types of dry, simple fruits, and examples of each, include: Fruits in which part or all of the pericarp (fruit wall) is fleshy at maturity are simple fleshy fruits. Types of simple, fleshy, fruits (with examples) include:

An aggregate fruit, or etaerio, develops from a single flower with numerous simple pistils.
(2003). 9781560229506 .

The fruits of the family , (including , , , and ) are a syncarpous fleshy fruit, a simple fruit, developing from a half-inferior ovary.

(1991). 9780231073288, Columbia University Press. .

fruits form from a syncarpous ovary and do not really dehisce, but rather split into segments with one or more seeds; they include a number of different forms from a wide range of families. Carrot seed is an example.


Aggregate fruit
Aggregate fruits form from single flowers that have multiple carpels which are not joined together, i.e. each pistil contains one carpel. Each pistil forms a fruitlet, and collectively the fruitlets are called an etaerio. Four types of aggregate fruits include etaerios of achenes, follicles, drupelets, and berries. Ranunculaceae species, including and have an etaerio of achenes, has an etaerio of follicles, and species like raspberry, have an etaerio of drupelets. have an etaerio of berries.
(2017). 9788171338962, Rastogi Publication. .
http://www.rkv.rgukt.in/content/Biology/47Module/47fruit.pdf

The , whose pistils are termed drupelets because each is like a small attached to the receptacle. In some fruits (such as ) the receptacle is elongated and part of the ripe fruit, making the blackberry an aggregate-accessory fruit.

(2004). 9780684800011 .
The is also an aggregate-accessory fruit, only one in which the seeds are contained in .
(2004). 9780684800011 .
In all these examples, the fruit develops from a single flower with numerous pistils.


Multiple fruits
A multiple fruit is one formed from a cluster of flowers (called an ). Each flower produces a fruit, but these mature into a single mass.
(2003). 9781560229506 .
Examples are the , , , , and .

In the photograph on the right, stages of flowering and fruit development in the or Indian mulberry ( Morinda citrifolia) can be observed on a single branch. First an inflorescence of white flowers called a head is produced. After fertilization, each flower develops into a drupe, and as the drupes expand, they become connate (merge) into a multiple fleshy fruit called a syncarp.


Berries
Berries are another type of fleshy fruit; they are simple fruit created from a single ovary. The ovary may be compound, with several carpels. Types include (examples follow in the table below):


Accessory fruit

Some or all of the edible part of accessory fruit is not generated by the ovary. Accessory fruit can be simple, aggregate, or multiple, i.e., they can include one or more pistils and other parts from the same flower, or the pistils and other parts of many flowers.


Table of fruit examples
+ Types of fleshy fruits
, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Lime, Orange, , , , , , , , ,


Seedless fruits
Seedlessness is an important feature of some fruits of commerce. Commercial of and are examples of . Some cultivars of fruits (especially , , navel oranges), , , and are valued for their seedlessness. In some species, seedlessness is the result of , where fruits set without fertilization. Parthenocarpic fruit set may or may not require pollination, but most seedless citrus fruits require a stimulus from pollination to produce fruit.

Seedless bananas and grapes are , and seedlessness results from the abortion of the plant that is produced by fertilization, a phenomenon known as , which requires normal pollination and fertilization.

(1996). 9780521333214, Cambridge University Press. .


Seed dissemination
Variations in fruit structures largely depend on their seeds' mode of dispersal. This dispersal can be achieved by animals, explosive dehiscence, water, or wind.
(2005). 9780881926552, Timber Press. .
Some fruits have coats covered with spikes or hooked burrs, either to prevent themselves from being eaten by , or to stick to the feathers, hairs, or legs of animals, using them as dispersal agents. Examples include and .
(2003). 9780881925623, Timber Press. .
(2003). 9780881925623 .

The sweet flesh of many fruits is "deliberately" appealing to animals, so that the seeds held within are eaten and "unwittingly" carried away and deposited (i.e., ) at a distance from the parent. Likewise, the nutritious, oily kernels of nuts are appealing to rodents (such as ), which them in the soil to avoid starving during the winter, thus giving those seeds that remain uneaten the chance to and grow into a new plant away from their parent.

Other fruits are elongated and flattened out naturally, and so become thin, like or blades, e.g., , , and . This is an mechanism to increase dispersal distance away from the parent, via wind. Other wind-dispersed fruit have tiny "parachutes", e.g., , , .

fruits can float thousands of miles in the ocean to spread seeds. Some other fruits that can disperse via water are and .

Some fruits fling seeds substantial distances (up to 100 m in ) via explosive dehiscence or other mechanisms, e.g., and squirting cucumber.

(2017). 9780881925623, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.


Uses
Many hundreds of fruits, including fleshy fruits (like , , , , , and ) are commercially valuable as food, eaten both fresh and as jams, marmalade and other preserves. Fruits are also used in manufactured foods (e.g., , , , , or ) or beverages, such as fruit juices (e.g., , , or ) or alcoholic beverages (e.g., , , or ).
(2004). 9780684800011 .
Fruits are also used for gift giving, e.g., in the form of and .

Many "vegetables" in culinary parlance are botanical fruits, including , , , , , , squash, , and .

(2004). 9780684800011 .
fruit is pressed for . Spices like , , , and are derived from berries.
(1999). 9780834213371, Springer. .


Nutritional value
Fresh fruits are generally high in , , and .

Regular consumption of fruit is generally associated with reduced risks of several diseases and functional declines associated with aging.


Nonfood uses
Because fruits have been such a major part of the human diet, various cultures have developed many different uses for fruits they do not depend on for food. For example:


Safety
For , the CDC recommends proper fruit handling and preparation to reduce the risk of food contamination and foodborne illness. Fresh fruits and vegetables should be carefully selected; at the store, they should not be damaged or bruised; and precut pieces should be refrigerated or surrounded by ice.

All fruits and vegetables should be rinsed before eating. This recommendation also applies to produce with rinds or skins that are not eaten. It should be done just before preparing or eating to avoid premature spoilage.

Fruits and vegetables should be kept separate from raw foods like meat, poultry, and seafood, as well as from utensils that have come in contact with raw foods. Fruits and vegetables that are not going to be cooked should be thrown away if they have touched raw meat, poultry, seafood, or eggs.

All cut, peeled, or cooked fruits and vegetables should be refrigerated within two hours. After a certain time, harmful bacteria may grow on them and increase the risk of foodborne illness.


Allergies
Fruit allergies make up about 10 percent of all food related allergies.
(2017). 9780980158441 .


Storage
All fruits benefit from proper post harvest care, and in many fruits, the plant hormone ethylene causes . Therefore, maintaining most fruits in an efficient is optimal for post harvest storage, with the aim of extending and ensuring shelf life.Why Cold Chain for Fruits:


See also


Further reading
Books
  • Gollner, Adam J. (2010). The Fruit Hunters: A Story of Nature, Adventure, Commerce, and Obsession. Scribner.
  • Watson, R.R. / Preedy, V.R. (2010, eds.). Bioactive Foods in Promoting Health: Fruits and Vegetables. Academic Press.


External links

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