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Nutrition is the that interprets the and other substances in in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, , and .

The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the availability and of foods. For humans, a includes and storage methods that preserve nutrients from oxidation, heat or leaching, and that reduces risk of foodborne illnesses. The seven major classes of human nutrients are , , , , , , and . Nutrients can be grouped as either or (needed in small quantities).

In humans, an unhealthy diet can cause deficiency-related diseases such as , , , , and ,

(2020). 9781133587521, Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
or nutrient excess health-threatening conditions such as Obesity, Weight Linked to Prostate Cancer Deaths – National Cancer Institute . Cancer.gov. Retrieved on 2011-10-17. Obesity and Overweight for Professionals: Causes | DNPAO | CDC . Cdc.gov (16 May 2011). Retrieved on 2011-10-17. and metabolic syndrome; Metabolic syndrome – PubMed Health. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved on 2011-10-17. and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, Omega-3 fatty acids. Umm.edu (5 October 2011). Retrieved on 2011-10-17. , What I need to know about Eating and Diabetes – National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. Diabetes.niddk.nih.gov. Retrieved on 2011-10-17. Diabetes Diet and Food Tips: Eating to Prevent and Control Diabetes . Helpguide.org. Retrieved on 2011-10-17. and . Osteoporosis & Vitamin D: Deficiency, How Much, Benefits, and More. Webmd.com (7 July 2005). Retrieved on 2011-10-17. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin D. Ods.od.nih.gov. Retrieved on 2011-10-17. Undernutrition can lead to in acute cases, and the of in chronic cases of .


Animal nutrition
and diets are contrasting, with basic and proportions vary for their particular foods. Many herbivores rely on bacterial fermentation to create digestible nutrients from indigestible plant cellulose, while obligate carnivores must eat animal meats to obtain certain vitamins or nutrients their bodies cannot otherwise synthesize.

Animal intestines contain a large population of , the populations of which can have a substantial effect on absorption of nutrients.


Plant nutrition
Plant nutrition is the study of the that are necessary for plant growth. There are several principles that apply to plant nutrition. Some elements are directly involved in plant . However, this principle does not account for the so-called beneficial elements, whose presence, while not required, has clear positive effects on plant growth.

A nutrient that is able to limit plant growth according to Liebig's law of the minimum is considered an essential plant nutrient if the plant cannot complete its full life cycle without it. There are 16 essential plant soil nutrients, besides the three major elemental nutrients carbon and oxygen that are obtained by photosynthetic plants from carbon dioxide in air, and , which is obtained from water.

Plants uptake essential elements from the through their and from the air (consisting of mainly nitrogen and oxygen) through their . Green plants obtain their carbohydrate supply from the carbon dioxide in the air by the process of . Carbon and oxygen are absorbed from the air, while other nutrients are absorbed from the soil. Nutrient uptake in the soil is achieved by , wherein pump (H+) into the soil through . These hydrogen ions displace attached to negatively charged soil particles so that the cations are available for uptake by the root. In the leaves, open to take in carbon dioxide and expel . The carbon dioxide molecules are used as the carbon source in photosynthesis.

Although is plentiful in the Earth's atmosphere, very few plants can use this directly. Most plants, therefore, require nitrogen compounds to be present in the soil in which they grow. This is made possible by the fact that largely inert atmospheric nitrogen is changed in a nitrogen fixation process to biologically usable forms in the soil by bacteria.Lindemann, W.C. and Glover C.R. (2003) Nitrogen Fixation by Legumes. New Mexico State University/

Plant nutrition is a difficult subject to understand completely, partially because of the variation between different plants and even between different species or individuals of a given . Elements present at low levels may cause deficiency symptoms, and toxicity is possible at levels that are too high. Furthermore, deficiency of one element may present as symptoms of toxicity from another element, and vice versa.


See also


Bibliography
  • (1994). 9780521452090, Cambridge University Press.
  • Curley, S., and Mark (1990). The Natural Guide to Good Health, Lafayette, Louisiana, Supreme Publishing
  • (2020). 9780199205639, Oxford University Press.
  • (2020). 9780721679044, W.B. Saunders Harcourt Brace.


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