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Tag Wiki 'Fiber'.

Fiber or fibre (from links=no) is a natural or artificial substance that is significantly longer than it is wide. Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. The strongest engineering materials often incorporate fibers, for example and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene.

Synthetic fibers can often be produced very cheaply and in large amounts compared to natural fibers, but for clothing natural fibers can give some benefits, such as comfort, over their synthetic counterparts.

Natural fibers
Natural fibers develop or occur in the fiber shape, and include those produced by plants, animals, and geological processes.
(2022). 9780130254436, .
They can be classified according to their origin:

Artificial fibers
Artificial or chemical fibers are fibers whose chemical composition, structure, and properties are significantly modified during the manufacturing process. In fashion, a fiber is a long and thin strand or thread of material that can be or into a fabric. Artificial fibers consist of regenerated fibers and synthetic fibers.

Semi-synthetic fibers
Semi-synthetic fibers are made from raw materials with naturally long-chain structure and are only modified and partially degraded by chemical processes, in contrast to completely synthetic fibers such as (polyamide) or (polyester), which the chemist synthesizes from low-molecular weight compounds by polymerization (chain-building) reactions. The earliest semi-synthetic fiber is the cellulose regenerated fiber, . Most semi-synthetic fibers are cellulose regenerated fibers.

Cellulose regenerated fibers
are a subset of artificial fibers, regenerated from natural . The cellulose comes from various sources: rayon from tree wood fiber, from bamboo, seacell from , etc. In the production of these fibers, the cellulose is reduced to a fairly pure form as a viscous mass and formed into fibers by extrusion through spinnerets. Therefore, the manufacturing process leaves few characteristics distinctive of the natural source material in the finished products.

Some examples of this fiber type are:

  • , a brand of rayon
  • Modal
  • diacetate fiber
  • triacetate fiber.

Historically, cellulose diacetate and -triacetate were classified under the term rayon, but are now considered distinct materials.

Synthetic fibers
come entirely from synthetic materials such as , unlike those artificial fibers derived from such natural substances as cellulose or protein.

Fiber classification in reinforced plastics falls into two classes: (i) short fibers, also known as discontinuous fibers, with a general aspect ratio (defined as the ratio of fiber length to diameter) between 20 and 60, and (ii) long fibers, also known as continuous fibers, the general aspect ratio is between 200 and 500.Serope Kalpakjian, Steven R Schmid. "Manufacturing Engineering and Technology". International edition. 4th Ed. Prentice Hall, Inc. 2001. .

Metallic fibers
can be drawn from ductile metals such as copper, gold or silver and extruded or deposited from more brittle ones, such as nickel, aluminum or iron.

Carbon fiber
Carbon fibers are often based on oxidized and via carbonized polymers like PAN, but the end product is almost pure carbon.

Silicon carbide fiber
fibers, where the basic polymers are not but polymers, where about 50% of the carbon atoms are replaced by silicon atoms, so-called poly-carbo-. The pyrolysis yields an amorphous silicon carbide, including mostly other elements like oxygen, titanium, or aluminium, but with mechanical properties very similar to those of carbon fibers.

, made from specific glass, and , made from purified natural , are also artificial fibers that come from natural raw materials, , made from (water glass) and made from melted basalt.

Mineral fibers
Mineral fibers can be particularly strong because they are formed with a low number of surface defects, is a common one.
(2022). 9780691125480, Princeton University Press. .

Polymer fibers
  • Polymer fibers are a subset of artificial fibers, which are based on synthetic chemicals (often from sources) rather than arising from natural materials by a purely physical process. These fibers are made from:
    • polyamide
    • PET or PBT
    • phenol-formaldehyde (PF)
    • polyvinyl chloride fiber (PVC)
    • polyolefins (PP and PE)
    • polyesters, pure PAN fibers are used to make by roasting them in a low oxygen environment. Traditional acrylic fiber is used more often as a synthetic replacement for wool. Carbon fibers and PF fibers are noted as two resin-based fibers that are not , most others can be melted.
    • (aramids) such as , and thermally degrade at high temperatures and do not melt. These fibers have strong bonding between polymer chains
    • (PE), eventually with extremely long chains / HMPE (e.g. Dyneema or Spectra).
    • can even be used, e.g. although urethane fibers are starting to replace spandex technology.
    • fiber
  • Coextruded fibers have two distinct polymers forming the fiber, usually as a core-sheath or side by side. Coated fibers exist such as nickel-coated to provide static elimination, silver-coated to provide anti-bacterial properties and aluminum-coated to provide RF deflection for radar chaff. Radar chaff is actually a spool of continuous glass tow that has been aluminum coated. An aircraft-mounted high speed cutter chops it up as it spews from a moving aircraft to confuse radar signals.

Invented in Japan in the early 1980s, microfibers are also known as microdenier fibers. Acrylic, nylon, polyester, lyocell and rayon can be produced as microfibers. In 1986, Hoechst A.G. of Germany produced microfiber in Europe. This fiber made it way into the United States in 1990 by DuPont.
(2011). 9781609013806, Fairchild Books.

in refer to sub-denier fiber (such as drawn to 0.5 denier). Denier and Dtex are two measurements of fiber yield based on weight and length. If the fiber density is known, you also have a fiber diameter, otherwise it is simpler to measure diameters in micrometers. Microfibers in technical fibers refer to ultra-fine fibers (glass or meltblown ) often used in filtration. Newer fiber designs include extruding fiber that splits into multiple finer fibers. Most synthetic fibers are round in cross-section, but special designs can be hollow, oval, star-shaped or . The latter design provides more optically reflective properties. Synthetic textile fibers are often crimped to provide bulk in a woven, non woven or knitted structure. Fiber surfaces can also be dull or bright. Dull surfaces reflect more light while bright tends to transmit light and make the fiber more transparent.

Very short and/or irregular fibers have been called fibrils. Natural , such as or bleached , show smaller fibrils jutting out and away from the main fiber structure.Hans-J. Koslowski. "Man-Made Fibers Dictionary". Second edition. Deutscher Fachverlag. 2009

Typical properties of selected fibers
Fibers can be divided into natural and artificial (synthetic) substance, their properties can affect their performance in many applications. Synthetic fiber materials are increasingly replacing other conventional materials like glass and wood in a number of applications.
(1999). 9780412831003, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
This is because artificial fibers can be engineered chemically, physically, and mechanically to suit particular technical engineering.
(1990). 9780727715210, Bulter and Tanner Ltd.
In choosing a fiber type, a manufacturer would balance their properties with the technical requirements of the applications. Various fibers are available to select for manufacturing. Here are typical properties of the sample natural fibers as compared to the properties of artificial fibers.
+Table 1. Typical Properties of Selected Natural Fibers
(2022). 9780893122775, Portland Cement Association.
Fiber typeFiber Diameter


Specific GravityTensile Strength


Elastic Modulus


Elongation at Break


Water Absorption


Wood Fiber

(Kraft Pulp)

Sugar Cane 0.008-0.0161.2-1.326.7-422175-27501.1
(2022). 9781782421221, Elsevier Science & Technology.
a  Adapted from ACI 544. IR-96 P58, reference 12 P240 and 13

b  N/A means properties not readily available or not applicable

+Table 2. Properties of Selected Artificial FibersFiber typeFiber Diameter

(0.001 in)

Specific GravityTensile Strength (Ksi)Elasticity Modulus  


Elongation at Break


Water Absorption


Melting Point


Maximum Working

Temp (℃)

















a  Adapted from ACI 544. IR-96 P40, reference 12 P240, 11 P209 and 13

b  N/A means properties not readily available or not applicable

The tables above just show typical properties of fibers, in fact there are more properties which could be referred as follows (from a to z):

Arc Resistance, , Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion, Continuous Service Temperature, , / Transition Temperature, Elongation at Break, Elongation at Yield, Fire Resistance, Flexibility, Gamma Radiation Resistance, Gloss, , , Heat Deflection Temperature, Shrinkage, , Ultimate tensile strength, Thermal Insulation, , Transparency, UV Light Resistance, Volume Resistivity, Water absorption, Young's Modulus

See also

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