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Food is any substance consumed to provide support for an . Food is usually of , , or origin, and contains essential , such as , , proteins, , or minerals. The substance is by an and assimilated by the organism's cells to provide , maintain life, or stimulate growth. Different species of animals have different feeding behaviours that satisfy the needs of their unique , often evolved to fill a specific within specific geographical contexts.

humans are highly adaptable and have adapted to obtain food in many different ecosystems. Historically, secured food through two main methods: and . As agricultural technologies increased, humans settled into with diets shaped by the agriculture opportunities in their geography. Geographic and cultural differences has led to creation of numerous and , including a wide array of , , , techniques, and dishes. As cultures have mixed through forces like international trade and , ingredients have become more widely available beyond their geographic and cultural origins, creating a cosmopolitan exchange of different food traditions and practices.

Today, the majority of the required by the ever-increasing is supplied by the industrial , which produces food with intensive agriculture and distributes it through complex and food distribution systems. This system of conventional agriculture relies heavily on , which means that the food and agricultural system is one of the major contributors to climate change, accountable for as much as 37% of total greenhouse gas emissions.

(2022). 9783982030173, Science Advice for Policy by European Academies. .
Addressing the carbon intensity of the and are important mitigation measures in the global response to climate change.

The food system has significant impacts on a wide range of other social and political issues including: , biological diversity, economics, population growth, , and . The right to food is a derived from the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (), recognizing the "right to an adequate standard of living, including adequate food", as well as the "fundamental right to be free from ". Because of these fundamental rights, is often a priority international policy activity; for example Sustainable Development Goal 2 "Zero hunger" is meant to eliminate by 2030. and are monitored by international agencies like the International Association for Food Protection, World Resources Institute, World Food Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Food Information Council, and are often subject to national regulation by institutions, like the Food and Drug Administration in the United States.


Definition and classification
Food is any substance consumed to provide support and energy to an . It can be raw, processed or formulated and is consumed orally by animals for growth, health or pleasure. Food is mainly composed of water, , and . (e.g. salts) and organic substances (e.g. ) can also be found in food. Plants, and some microorganisms use to make their own food molecules. Water is found in many foods and has been defined as a food by itself. Water and have low energy densities, or , while fat is the most energy dense component. Some inorganic (non-food) elements are also essential for plant and animal functioning.

Human food can be classified in various ways, either by related content or by how the food is processed. The number and composition of can vary. Most systems include four basic groups that describe their origin and relative nutritional function: Vegetables and Fruit, Cereals and Bread, Dairy, and Meat.

(2022). 9780520275966, University of California Press.
Studies that look into diet quality often group food into whole grains/cereals, refined grains/cereals, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, eggs, dairy products, fish, red meat, processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages. The Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization use a system with nineteen food classifications: cereals, roots, pulses and nuts, milk, eggs, fish and shellfish, meat, insects, vegetables, fruits, fats and oils, sweets and sugars, spices and condiments, beverages, foods for nutritional uses, food additives, composite dishes and savoury snacks.


Food sources
In a given ecosystem, food forms a of interlocking with primary producers at the bottom and at the top. Other aspects of the web include (that eat ) and (that break down dead organisms). Primary producers include algae, plants, bacteria and protists that acquire their energy from sunlight.
(2022). 9781402055836, Springer Netherlands.
Primary consumers are the herbivores that consume the pants and secondary consumers are the carnivores that consume those herbivores. Some organisms, including most mammals and birds, diets consist of both animals and plants and they are considered omnivores. The chain ends with the apex predators, the animals that have no known predators in its ecosystem. Humans are often considered apex predators.

Humans are omnivores finding sustenance in vegetables, fruits, cooked meat, milk, eggs, mushrooms and seaweed. grain is a that provides more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop. , , and account for 87% of all grain production worldwide.

(2022). 9788178330389, Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.. .
Just over half of the worlds crops are used to feed humans (55 percent), with 36 percent grown as animal feed and 9 percent for . Fungi and bacteria are also used in the preparation of fermented foods like bread, wine, and .


Sunlight
is the ultimate source of energy and food for nearly all life on earth. It is the main food source for plants, algae and certain bacteria. Without this all organisms which depend on these organisms further up the food chain would be unable to exist, from coral to lions. Energy from the sun is absorbed and used to transform water and carbon dioxide in the air or soil into oxygen and glucose. The oxygen is then released and the glucose stored as an energy reserve.


Plants
Plants as a food source are often divided into seeds, fruits, vegetables, legumes, grains and nuts. Where plants fall within these categories can vary with botanically described fruits such as the tomato, squash, pepper and eggplant or seeds like peas commonly considered vegetables. Food is a fruit if the part eaten is derived from the reproductive tissue, so seeds, nuts and grains are technically fruit. From a culinary perspective fruits are generally considered the remains of botanically described fruits after grains, nuts, seeds and fruits used as vegetables are removed. Grains can be defined as seeds that humans eat or harvest, with cereal grains (oats, wheat, rice, corn, barley, rye, sorghum and millet) belonging to the (grass) family and pulses coming from the (legume) family. are foods that contain all the elements of the original seed (bran, germ, and ). Nuts are dry fruits distinguishable by their woody shell.

Fleshy fruits (distinguishable from dry fruits like grain, seeds and nuts) can be further classified as (cherries and peaches), (apples, pears), (blackberry, strawberry), (oranges, lemon), (watermelon, cantaloupe), Mediterranean fruits (grapes, fig), (banana, pineapple). Vegetables refer to any other part of the plant that can be eaten, including roots, stems, leaves, flowers, bark or the entire plant itself. These include ( and ), bulbs ( family), flowers (cauliflower and broccoli), ( and ) and (celery and ).

Plants have high , and content, with carbohydrates mainly in the form of starch, fructose, glucose and other sugars. Most vitamins are found from plant sources, with the notable exceptions of and vitamin B12. Minerals are also plentiful, although the presence of can prevent their release. Fruit can consist of up to 90% water, contain high levels of that contribute to their sweet taste and have a high content. Compared to fleshy fruit (excepting Bananas) vegetables are high in starch, , , and vitamins and low in fat and calories. Grains are more starch based and nuts have a high protein, fibre, vitamin E and B content. Seeds are a good source of food for animals because they are abundant and contain fibre and healthful fats, such as omega-3 fats.

Animals that only eat plants are called ; with those that mostly just eat fruits known as , leaves, while shoot eaters are (pandas) and wood eaters termed (termites). Frugivores include a diverse range of species from annelids to elephants, chimpanzees and many birds. About 182 fish consume seeds or fruit. There are many types of grasses, adapted to different locations, that animals (domesticated and wild) use as their main source of nutrients.

Humans only eat about 200 out of the worlds 400 000 plant species, despite at least half of them being edible. Most human plant-based food comes from maize, rice, and wheat. Plants can be processed into breads, pasta, cereals, juices and jams or raw ingredients such as sugar, herbs, spices and oils can be extracted. are often pressed to produce rich oils - , , (including ) and .McGee, Chapter 9.

Many plants and animals have in such a way that the fruit is good source of nutrition to the animal who then excretes the seeds some distance away allowing greater dispersal. Even can be mutually beneficial as some seeds can survive the digestion process. Insects are major eaters of seeds, with ants being the only real seed dispersers. Birds, although being major dispersers, only rarely eat seeds as a source of food and can be identified by their thick beak that is used to crack open the seed coat. Mammals eat a more diverse range of seeds as they are able to crush harder and larger seeds with their teeth.


Animals
Animals are used as food either directly or indirectly. This includes meat, eggs, shellfish and dairy products like milk and cheese. They are an important source or protein and are considered complete proteins for human consumption as they contain all the essential amino acids that the human body needs. One steak, chicken breast or pork chop contains about 30 grams of protein. One large egg has 7 grams of protein, a serving of cheese about 15 grams and 1 cup of milk about 8. Other nutrients found in animal products include calories, fat, essential vitamins (including B12) and minerals (including zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium).

Food products produced by animals include produced by , which in many cultures is drunk or processed into (cheese, butter, etc.). In addition, birds and other animals lay eggs, which are often eaten, and produce , a reduced from flowers, which is a popular sweetener in many cultures. Some cultures consume blood, sometimes in the form of , as a thickener for sauces, or in a cured, salted form for times of food scarcity, and others use in stews such as .Davidson, 81–82.

Some cultures and people do not consume meat or animal food products for cultural, dietary, health, ethical, or ideological reasons. choose to forgo food from animal sources to varying degrees. do not consume any foods that are or contain from an animal source.


Taste perception
Animals, specifically humans, have five different types of tastes: , , , bitter, and . As animals have , the tastes that provide the most energy ( and ) are the most pleasant to eat while others, such as bitter, are not enjoyable. Water, while important for survival, has no taste. Fats, on the other hand, especially , are thicker and rich and are thus considered more enjoyable to eat.


Sweet
Generally regarded as the most pleasant taste, is almost always caused by a type of simple such as or , or such as , a molecule combining glucose and fructose.New Oxford American Dictionary Complex carbohydrates are long chains and thus do not have the sweet taste. Artificial sweeteners such as are used to mimic the sugar molecule, creating the sensation of sweet, without the calories. Other types of sugar include , which is known for its amber color, as it is unprocessed. As sugar is vital for energy and survival, the taste of sugar is pleasant.

The plant contains a compound known as which, when extracted, has 300 times the sweetness of sugar while having minimal impact on blood sugar.The multiplier "300 times" comes from subjective evaluations by a panel of test subjects tasting various dilutions compared to a standard dilution of . Sources referenced in this article say steviosides have up to 250 times the sweetness of sucrose, but others, including stevioside brands such as SweetLeaf, claim 300 times. 1/3 to 1/2 teaspoon (1.6–2.5 ml) of stevioside powder is claimed to have equivalent sweetening power to 1 cup (237 ml) of sugar.


Sour
Sourness is caused by the taste of , such as in alcoholic beverages. Sour foods include , specifically , limes, and to a lesser degree oranges. Sour is evolutionarily significant as it is a sign for a food that may have gone due to bacteria.States "having an acid taste like lemon or vinegar: she sampled the wine and found it was sour. (of food, esp. milk) spoiled because of fermentation." New Oxford American Dictionary Many foods, however, are slightly acidic, and help stimulate the taste buds and enhance flavor.


Salty
is the taste of such as and . It is found in almost every food in low to moderate proportions to enhance flavor, although to eat pure salt is regarded as highly unpleasant. There are many different types of salt, with each having a different degree of saltiness, including , fleur de sel, , mined salt, and grey salt. Other than enhancing flavor, its significance is that the body needs and maintains a delicate balance, which is the 's function. Salt may be iodized, meaning has been added to it, a necessary nutrient that promotes function. Some canned foods, notably or packaged , tend to be high in salt as a means of preserving the food longer. Historically salt has long been used as a meat preservative as salt promotes water excretion. Similarly, dried foods also promote food safety.


Bitter
Bitterness is a sensation often considered unpleasant characterized by having a sharp, pungent taste. Unsweetened dark , , lemon rind, and some types of fruit are known to be bitter.


Umami

Cuisine
Many scholars claim that the rhetorical function of food is to represent the culture of a country, and that it can be used as a form of communication. According to Goode, Curtis and Theophano, food "is the last aspect of an ethnic culture to be lost".

Many cultures have a recognizable cuisine, a specific set of traditions using various spices or a combination of flavors unique to that culture, which evolves over time. Other differences include preferences (hot or cold, spicy, etc.) and practices, the study of which is known as . Many cultures have diversified their foods by means of preparation, cooking methods, and manufacturing. This also includes a complex food trade which helps the cultures to economically survive by way of food, not just by consumption.

Some popular types of include , , , , American, , , , and . Various cultures throughout the world study the dietary analysis of food habits. While speaking, as opposed to culturally, humans are , religion and social constructs such as , , or will often affect which foods they will consume. Food is eaten and typically enjoyed through the sense of , the perception of flavor from eating and drinking. Certain tastes are more enjoyable than others, for evolutionary purposes.


Presentation
Aesthetically pleasing and eye-appealing food presentations can encourage people to consume foods. A common saying is that people "eat with their eyes". Food presented in a clean and appetizing way will encourage a good flavor, even if unsatisfactory.Food Texture, Andrew J. Rosenthal

Texture plays a crucial role in the enjoyment of eating foods. Contrasts in textures, such as something crunchy in an otherwise smooth dish, may increase the appeal of eating it. Common examples include adding to , adding to a or , and toasting bread to enhance its crunchiness for a smooth topping, such as jam or butter.

(1999). 9780834212381 .

Another universal phenomenon regarding food is the appeal of contrast in taste and presentation. For example, such opposite flavors as and tend to go well together, as in and nuts.


Food preparation
While many foods can be eaten raw, many also undergo some form of preparation for reasons of safety, , , or . At the simplest level this may involve washing, cutting, trimming, or adding other foods or ingredients, such as spices. It may also involve mixing, heating or cooling, , fermentation, or combination with other food. In a home, most food preparation takes place in a . Some preparation is done to enhance the or aesthetic appeal; other preparation may help to preserve the food; others may be involved in cultural identity. A is made up of food which is prepared to be eaten at a specific time and place.Mead, 11–19


Animal preparation
The preparation of animal-based food usually involves slaughter, evisceration, hanging, portioning, and rendering. In developed countries, this is usually done outside the home in , which are used to process animals en masse for meat production. Many countries regulate their slaughterhouses by law. For example, the United States has established the Humane Slaughter Act of 1958, which requires that an animal be stunned before killing. This act, like those in many countries, exempts slaughter in accordance with religious law, such as , , and dhabīḥah halal. Strict interpretations of require the animal to be fully aware when its carotid artery is cut.McGee, 142–43.

On the local level, a butcher may commonly break down larger animal meat into smaller manageable cuts, and pre-wrap them for commercial sale or wrap them to order in butcher paper. In addition, fish and may be fabricated into smaller cuts by a fishmonger. However, fish butchery may be done on board a fishing vessel and quick-frozen for the preservation of quality.McGee, 202–06


Raw food preparation
Certain cultures highlight animal and vegetable foods in a . consisting of raw vegetables or fruits are common in many cuisines. in consists of raw sliced or other meat, and often incorporates raw fish or seafood. and salmon tartare are dishes made from diced or ground raw beef or salmon, mixed with various ingredients and served with , , or .Davidson, 786–87. In Italy, is a dish of very thinly sliced raw , drizzled with a made with olive oil.Robuchon, 224. The health food movement known as promotes a mostly diet of raw fruits, vegetables, and grains prepared in various ways, including juicing, food dehydration, sprouting, and other methods of preparation that do not heat the food above .Davidson, 656 An example of a raw meat dish is , a Latin American dish made with raw meat that is "cooked" from the highly acidic citric juice from lemons and limes along with other aromatics such as garlic.


Cooking
The term "cooking" encompasses a vast range of methods, tools, and combinations of ingredients to improve the flavor or digestibility of food. Cooking technique, known as , generally requires the selection, measurement, and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure in an effort to achieve the desired result. Constraints on success include the variability of ingredients, ambient conditions, , and the skill of the individual cook.McGee Chapter 14. The diversity of cooking worldwide is a reflection of the myriad nutritional, aesthetic, agricultural, economic, cultural, and religious considerations that affect it.Mead, 11–19.

Cooking requires applying heat to a food which usually, though not always, chemically changes the molecules, thus changing its flavor, , appearance, and nutritional properties.McGee Cooking certain proteins, such as egg whites, meats, and fish, denatures the protein, causing it to firm. There is archaeological evidence of roasted foodstuffs at campsites dating from 420,000 years ago.Campbell, 312. Boiling as a means of cooking requires a container, and has been practiced at least since the 10th millennium BC with the introduction of .McGee, 784.


Cooking equipment
There are many different types of equipment used for cooking.

are mostly hollow devices that get very hot (up to ) and are used for baking or roasting and offer a dry-heat cooking method. Different cuisines will use different types of ovens. For example, Indian culture uses a oven, which is a cylindrical clay oven which operates at a single high temperature.Davidson, 782–83 Western kitchens use variable temperature , conventional ovens, , or non-radiant heat ovens like the . Classic Italian cuisine includes the use of a brick oven containing burning wood. Ovens may be wood-fired, coal-fired, , electric, or oil-fired.McGee, 539,784.

Various types of cook-tops are used as well. They carry the same variations of fuel types as the ovens mentioned above. Cook-tops are used to heat vessels placed on top of the heat source, such as a sauté pan, sauce pot, , or . These pieces of equipment can use either a moist or dry cooking method and include methods such as , , , and poaching for moist methods, while the dry methods include sautéing, , and .McGee, 771–91

In addition, many cultures use grills for cooking. A grill operates with a radiant heat source from below, usually covered with a metal grid and sometimes a cover. An open-pit barbecue in the American south is one example along with the American style outdoor grill fueled by wood, liquid propane, or charcoal along with soaked wood chips for smoking.Davidson, 356. A style of barbecue is called , which involves the cooking of meats such as whole sheep over an open fire. In Argentina, an (Spanish for "grilled") is prepared on a grill held over an open pit or fire made upon the ground, on which a whole animal or smaller cuts are grilled.Asado Argentina


Restaurants
Restaurants employ to prepare the food, and to serve customers at the table. The term restaurant comes from an old term for a restorative ; this broth (or bouillon) was served in elegant outlets in Paris from the mid 18th century. These refined "restaurants" were a marked change from the usual basic eateries such as inns and taverns, and some had developed from early Parisian cafés, such as Café Procope, by first serving bouillon, then adding other cooked food to their menus.Davidson, 660–61.

Commercial eateries existed during the , with evidence of 150 "thermopolia", a form of fast food restaurant, found in , and urban sales of prepared foods may have existed in during the .

In 2005, the population of the United States spent $496 billion on out-of-home dining. Expenditures by type of out-of-home dining were as follows: 40% in full-service restaurants, 37.2% in limited service restaurants (), 6.6% in schools or colleges, 5.4% in bars and , 4.7% in hotels and motels, 4.0% in recreational places, and 2.2% in others, which includes military bases.United States Department of Agriculture


Economy
by country]] have complex economic and social value chains that effect many parts of the global economy.


Production
Most food has always been obtained through agriculture. With increasing concern over both the methods and products of modern industrial agriculture, there has been a growing trend toward sustainable agricultural practices. This approach, partly fueled by consumer demand, encourages , local self-reliance and methods.Mason Major influences on food production include international organizations (e.g. the World Trade Organization and Common Agricultural Policy), national government policy (or law), and war.Messer, 53–91.

Several organisations have begun calling for a new kind of agriculture in which provide food but also support vital services so that soil fertility and are maintained rather than compromised. According to the International Water Management Institute and , well-managed agroecosystems not only provide food, fiber and animal products, they also provide services such as , groundwater recharge, and habitats for plants, birds, fish and other animals.Boelee, E. (Ed) Ecosystems for water and food security , 2011, ,


Food manufacturing
Packaged foods are manufactured outside the home for purchase. This can be as simple as a preparing meat, or as complex as a modern international . Early food processing techniques were limited by available food preservation, packaging, and transportation. This mainly involved salting, curing, curdling, drying, , fermenting, and smoking.Aguilera, 1–3. Food manufacturing arose during the industrial revolution in the 19th century.Miguel, 3. This development took advantage of new and emerging technology, such as milling, preservation, and labeling, and transportation. It brought the advantages of pre-prepared time-saving food to the bulk of ordinary people who did not employ domestic servants.Jango-Cohen

At the start of the 21st century, a two-tier structure has arisen, with a few international food processing giants controlling a wide range of well-known food brands. There also exists a wide array of small local or national food processing companies.Hannaford Advanced technologies have also come to change food manufacture. Computer-based control systems, sophisticated and packaging methods, and and distribution advances can enhance product quality, improve , and reduce costs.


International food imports and exports
The reported that the European Union was the top food importer in 2005, followed at a distance by the US and Japan. 's need for food was especially well-illustrated in World War II. Despite the implementation of food rationing, Britain remained dependent on food imports and the result was a long-term engagement in the Battle of the Atlantic.

Food is traded and marketed on a global basis. The variety and availability of food is no longer restricted by the diversity of locally grown food or the limitations of the local growing season.The Economic Research Service of the USDA Between 1961 and 1999, there was a 400% increase in worldwide food exports.Regmi Some countries are now economically dependent on food exports, which in some cases account for over 80% of all exports.CIA World Factbook

In 1994, over 100 countries became signatories to the of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in a dramatic increase in trade liberalization. This included an agreement to reduce subsidies paid to farmers, underpinned by the WTO enforcement of agricultural subsidy, tariffs, import , and settlement of trade disputes that cannot be bilaterally resolved.World Trade Organization, The Uruguay Round Where trade barriers are raised on the disputed grounds of public health and safety, the WTO refer the dispute to the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which was founded in 1962 by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization. Trade liberalization has greatly affected world food trade.Van den Bossche


Marketing and retailing
Food marketing brings together the producer and the consumer. The marketing of even a single food product can be a complicated process involving many producers and companies. For example, fifty-six companies are involved in making one of chicken noodle soup. These businesses include not only chicken and vegetable processors but also the companies that transport the ingredients and those who print labels and manufacture cans.Smith, 501–03. The food marketing system is the largest direct and indirect non-government employer in the United States.

In the pre-modern era, the sale of surplus food took place once a week when farmers took their wares on market day into the local village marketplace. Here food was sold to for sale in their local shops for purchase by local consumers. With the onset of industrialization and the development of the food processing industry, a wider range of food could be sold and distributed in distant locations. Typically early grocery shops would be counter-based shops, in which purchasers told the shop-keeper what they wanted, so that the shop-keeper could get it for them.Benson

In the 20th century, were born. Supermarkets brought with them a approach to shopping using , and were able to offer quality food at lower cost through economies of scale and reduced staffing costs. In the latter part of the 20th century, this has been further revolutionized by the development of vast warehouse-sized, out-of-town supermarkets, selling a wide range of food from around the world.Humphery

Unlike food processors, food retailing is a two-tier market in which a small number of very large control a large proportion of supermarkets. The supermarket giants wield great purchasing power over farmers and processors, and strong influence over consumers. Nevertheless, less than 10% of consumer spending on food goes to farmers, with larger percentages going to , transportation, and intermediate corporations.Magdoff, Fred (Ed.) "The farmer's share of the food dollar (after paying for input costs) has steadily declined from about 40 percent in 1910 to less than 10 percent in 1990."


Prices

As investment

Problems
Because of its centrality to human life, problems related to access, quality and production of food effect every aspect of human life.


Nutrition and dietary problems
Between the extremes of optimal health and death from or , there is an array of disease states that can be caused or alleviated by changes in diet. Deficiencies, excesses, and imbalances in diet can produce negative impacts on health, which may lead to various health problems such as , , or , diabetes, cardiovascular diseases as well as psychological and behavioral problems. The science of nutrition attempts to understand how and why specific dietary aspects influence health.

Nutrients in food are grouped into several categories. Macronutrients are fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Micronutrients are the minerals and . Additionally, food contains water and .

As previously discussed, the body is designed by natural selection to enjoy sweet and fattening foods for evolutionary diets, ideal for . Thus, sweet and fattening foods in nature are typically rare and are very pleasurable to eat. In modern times, with , enjoyable foods are easily available to consumers. Unfortunately, this promotes in adults and children alike.


Hunger and starvation
Food deprivation leads to malnutrition and ultimately . This is often connected with , which involves the absence of food in entire communities. This can have a devastating and widespread effect on human health and mortality. is sometimes used to distribute food in times of shortage, most notably during times of war.

Starvation is a significant international problem. Approximately 815 million people are undernourished, and over 16,000 children die per day from hunger-related causes.World Health Organization Food deprivation is regarded as a deficit need in Maslow's hierarchy of needs and is measured using .Howe, 353–72


Food waste

Policy

Legal definition
Some countries list a legal definition of food, often referring them with the word foodstuff. These countries list food as any item that is to be processed, partially processed, or unprocessed for consumption. The listing of items included as food includes any substance intended to be, or reasonably expected to be, ingested by humans. In addition to these foodstuffs, drink, , water, or other items processed into said food items are part of the legal definition of food. Items not included in the legal definition of food include , live animals (unless being prepared for sale in a market), plants prior to harvesting, medicinal products, , and tobacco products, or psychotropic substances, and residues and contaminants. Office of Public Sector Information


Right to food

Food security

International aid
can benefit people suffering from a shortage of food. It can be used to improve peoples' lives in the short term, so that a society can increase its standard of living to the point that food aid is no longer required.World Food Programme Conversely, badly managed food aid can create problems by disrupting local markets, depressing crop prices, and discouraging food production. Sometimes a cycle of food aid dependence can develop.Shah Its provision, or threatened withdrawal, is sometimes used as a political tool to influence the policies of the destination country, a strategy known as . Sometimes, food aid provisions will require certain types of food be purchased from certain sellers, and food aid can be misused to enhance the markets of donor countries.Kripke International efforts to distribute food to the neediest countries are often coordinated by the World Food Programme.United Nations World Food program


Safety
Foodborne illness, commonly called "food poisoning", is caused by , , , , and . Roughly 7 million people die of food poisoning each year, with about 10 times as many suffering from a non-fatal version.National Institute of Health, MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia The two most common factors leading to cases of bacterial foodborne illness are cross-contamination of ready-to-eat food from other uncooked foods and improper temperature control. Less commonly, acute adverse reactions can also occur if chemical contamination of food occurs, for example from improper storage, or use of non-food grade soaps and disinfectants. Food can also be adulterated by a very wide range of articles (known as "foreign bodies") during farming, manufacture, cooking, packaging, distribution, or sale. These foreign bodies can include pests or their droppings, hairs, cigarette butts, wood chips, and all manner of other contaminants. It is possible for certain types of food to become contaminated if stored or presented in an unsafe container, such as a ceramic pot with lead-based glaze.

has been recognized as a disease since as early as Hippocrates., . The sale of , contaminated, or adulterated food was commonplace until the introduction of , refrigeration, and vermin controls in the 19th century. Discovery of techniques for killing bacteria using heat, and other studies by scientists such as , contributed to the modern sanitation standards that are ubiquitous in developed nations today. This was further underpinned by the work of Justus von Liebig, which led to the development of modern and food preservation methods.Magner, 243–498 In more recent years, a greater understanding of the causes of food-borne illnesses has led to the development of more systematic approaches such as the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (), which can identify and eliminate many risks.USDA

Recommended measures for ensuring food safety include maintaining a clean preparation area with foods of different types kept separate, ensuring an adequate cooking temperature, and refrigerating foods promptly after cooking.

Foods that spoil easily, such as , , and , must be prepared a certain way to avoid contaminating the people for whom they are prepared. As such, the rule of thumb is that cold foods (such as dairy products) should be kept cold and hot foods (such as soup) should be kept hot until storage. Cold meats, such as chicken, that are to be cooked should not be placed at room temperature for thawing, at the risk of dangerous bacterial growth, such as or .


Allergies
Some people have or sensitivities to foods that are not problematic to most people. This occurs when a person's mistakes a certain food protein for a harmful foreign agent and attacks it. About 2% of adults and 8% of children have a food allergy.National Institute of Health The amount of the food substance required to provoke a reaction in a particularly susceptible individual can be quite small. In some instances, traces of food in the air, too minute to be perceived through smell, have been known to provoke lethal reactions in extremely sensitive individuals. Common food allergens are , , (mollusks), , and . Allergens frequently produce symptoms such as , , bloating, , and regurgitation. The digestive complaints usually develop within half an hour of ingesting the .

Rarely, food allergies can lead to a medical emergency, such as anaphylactic shock, (low blood pressure), and loss of consciousness. An allergen associated with this type of reaction is peanut, although products can induce similar reactions. Initial treatment is with epinephrine (adrenaline), often carried by known patients in the form of an or . About Epipen, Epipen.com About Twinject , Twinject.com


Other health issues
Human diet was estimated to cause perhaps around 35% of cancers in a human epidemiological analysis by and in 1981. These cancer may be caused by that are present in food naturally or as contaminants. Food contaminated with fungal growth may contain such as which may be found in contaminated corn and peanuts. Other carcinogens identified in food include heterocyclic amines generated in meat when cooked at high temperature, polyaromatic hydrocarbons in charred meat and smoked fish, and generated from nitrites used as food preservatives in such as .

that may help prevent cancer can also be found in many food especially fruit and vegetables. are important groups of compounds that may help remove potentially harmful chemicals. It is however often difficult to identify the specific components in diet that serve to increase or decrease cancer risk since many food, such as beef steak and broccoli, contain low concentrations of both carcinogens and anticarcinogens.

(1996). 9780309053914, National Academy Press. .
There are many international certifications in the cooking field, such as , A.A. Certification, iTQi. They use high-quality evaluation methods to make the food safer.


Diet
[File:FAO
These are supplied energy, intake energy are about 60-80% of supply.
Other area (Yr 2010)FAO Food Security
  • Africa, sub-Sahara - 2170 kcal/capita/day
  • N.E. and N. Africa - 3120 kcal/capita/day
  • South Asia - 2450 kcal/capita/day
  • East Asia - 3040 kcal/capita/day
  • Latin America / Caribbean - 2950 kcal/capita/day
  • Developed countries - 3470 kcal/capita/day]]


Cultural and religious diets
Many cultures hold some food preferences and some food . Dietary choices can also define cultures and play a role in religion. For example, only are permitted by , foods by , and in is restricted.Simoons In addition, the dietary choices of different countries or regions have different characteristics. This is highly related to a culture's .


Diet deficiencies
Dietary habits play a significant role in the health and mortality of all humans. Imbalances between the consumed fuels and expended energy results in either starvation or excessive reserves of tissue, known as body fat.Nicklas Poor intake of various vitamins and minerals can lead to diseases that can have far-reaching effects on health. For instance, 30% of the world's population either has, or is at risk for developing, iodine deficiency.Merson, 245 It is estimated that at least 3 million children are blind due to deficiency.Merson, 231. deficiency results in .Merson, 464. , , and are inter-related; the consumption of each may affect the absorption of the others. and are childhood disorders caused by lack of dietary protein.Merson, 224.


Moral, ethical, and health-conscious diets
Many individuals limit what foods they eat for reasons of morality or other habits. For instance, choose to forgo food from animal sources to varying degrees. Others choose a , avoiding sugars or animal fats and increasing consumption of dietary fiber and .Carpenter , a serious problem in the western world, leads to higher chances of developing , , cancer and many other diseases.Merson, 266–68. More recently, dietary habits have been influenced by the concerns that some people have about possible impacts on health or the environment from genetically modified food.Parekh, 187–206. Further concerns about the impact of industrial farming () on , human health, and the are also having an effect on contemporary human dietary habits. This has led to the emergence of a movement with a preference for and .Schor


See also


Sources
  • Aguilera, Jose Miguel and David W. Stanley. Microstructural Principles of Food Processing and Engineering. Springer, 1999. .
  • .
  • Asado Argentina. About Asado Argentina. Retrieved from http://www.asadoargentina.com/about-asado-argentina/ on 2007-05-28.
  • Campbell, Bernard Grant. Human Evolution: An Introduction to Man's Adaptations. Aldine Transaction: 1998. .
  • Carpenter, Ruth Ann; Finley, Carrie E. Healthy Eating Every Day. Human Kinetics, 2005. .
  • Davidson, Alan. The Oxford Companion to Food. 2nd ed. UK: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005. . Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/a0200e/a0200e00.htm on 2006-09-29.
  • Hannaford, Steve. Oligopoly Watch: Top 20 world food companies Https://web.archive.org/web/20090918101335/http://www.oligopolywatch.com/2005/10/06.html on 2006-09-23.
  • Howe, P. and S. Devereux. Famine Intensity and Magnitude Scales: A Proposal for an Instrumental Definition of Famine. 2004.
  • Humphery, Kim. Shelf Life: Supermarkets and the Changing Cultures of Consumption. Cambridge University Press, 1998. .
  • .
  • Jango-Cohen, Judith. The History Of Food. Twenty-First Century Books, 2005. .
  • Jurgens, Marshall H. Animal Feeding and Nutrition. Kendall Hunt, 2001. .
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  • Kripke, Gawain. Food aid or hidden dumping? Https://web.archive.org/web/20060714133231/http://www.oxfam.org/en/policy/briefingpapers/bp71_food_aid_240305 on 2007-05-26.
  • Lawrie, Stephen; R.A. Lawrie. Lawrie's Meat Science. Woodhead Publishing: 1998. .
  • Magdoff, Fred; Foster, John Bellamy; and Hungry for Profit: The Agribusiness Threat to Farmers, Food, and the Environment. September 2000. .
  • Mason, John. Sustainable Agriculture. Landlinks Press: 2003. .
  • Merson, Michael H.; Black, Robert E.; Mills, Anne J. International Public Health: Disease, Programs, Systems, and Policies. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2005.
  • McGee, Harold. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004. .
  • Mead, Margaret. The Changing Significance of Food. In Carole Counihan and Penny Van Esterik (Ed.), Food and Culture: A Reader. UK: Routledge, 1997. .
  • Messer, Ellen; Derose, Laurie Fields and Sara Millman. Who's Hungry? and How Do We Know?: Food Shortage, Poverty, and Deprivation. United Nations University Press, 1998. .
  • National Institute of Health. Food poisoning Https://web.archive.org/web/20060928222906/http://www.niaid.nih.gov/publications/pdf/foodallergy.pdf on 2006-09-29.
  • Nicklas, Barbara J. Endurance Exercise and Adipose Tissue. CRC Press, 2002. .
  • Parekh, Sarad R. The Gmo Handbook: Genetically Modified Animals, Microbes, and Plants in Biotechnology. Humana Press,2004. .
  • Regmi, Anita (editor). Changing Structure of Global Food Consumption and Trade. Market and Trade Economics Division, Economic Research Service, USDA, 30 May 2001. stock #ERSWRS01-1.
  • Schor, Juliet; Taylor, Betsy (editors). Sustainable Planet: Roadmaps for the Twenty-First Century. Beacon Press, 2003. .
  • Shah, Anup. Food Dumping (Aid) Maintains Poverty. Causes of Poverty. Retrieved from http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Poverty/FoodDumping.asp on 2006-09-29.
  • Simoons, Frederick J. Eat Not This Flesh: Food Avoidances from Prehistory to the Present. .
  • Smith, Andrew (Editor). "Food Marketing," in Oxford Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • .
  • The Economic Research Service of the USDA. Global Food Markets: Briefing Rooms Https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/international-markets-trade/global-food-markets.aspx on 2006-09-29.
  • United Kingdom Office of Public Sector Information. Food Safety Act 1990 (c. 16). Retrieved from http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1990/Ukpga_19900016_en_2.htm#mdiv1 on 2006-11-08.
  • .
  • .
  • United States Department of Agriculture, USDA Economic Research Service: The Economics of Food, Farming, Natural Resources, and Rural America. "Briefing Rooms, Food CPI, Prices and Expenditures: Food Expenditure Tables". Retrieved from http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-price-outlook.aspx on 2007-06-06.
  • Van den Bossche, Peter. The Law and Policy of the bosanac Trade Organization: Text, Cases and Materials. UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005. .
  • World Food Programme. Breaking out of the Poverty Trap: How We Use Food Aid Https://web.archive.org/web/20060928075506/http://www.wfp.org/food_aid/introduction/index.asp?section=12&sub_section=1 on 2006-09-29.
  • World Health Organization. WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition. Retrieved from [6] on 2006-09-29.
  • World Trade Organization. The Uruguay Round Https://web.archive.org/web/20060822200650/http://www.wto.org/trade_resources/history/wto/urug_round.htm on 2006-09-29.
  • .


Further reading
  • Collingham, E.M. (2011). The Taste of War: World War Two and the Battle for Food
  • Katz, Solomon (2003). The Encyclopedia of Food and Culture, Scribner
  • Nestle, Marion (2007). Food Politics: How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health, University Presses of California, revised and expanded edition,
  • Mobbs, Michael (2012). Sustainable Food Sydney: NewSouth Publishing,
  • The Future of Food (2015). A panel discussion at the 2015 Digital Life Design (DLD) Annual Conference. "How can we grow and enjoy food, closer to home, further into the future? MIT Media Lab's Kevin Slavin hosts a conversation with food artist, educator, and entrepreneur Emilie Baltz, professor Caleb Harper from MIT Media Lab's CityFarm project, the Barbarian Group's Benjamin Palmer, and Andras Forgacs, the co-founder and CEO of Modern Meadow, who is growing 'victimless' meat in a lab. The discussion addresses issues of sustainable , ecosystems, technology, food supply chains and their broad environmental and humanitarian implications, and how these changes in food production may change what people may find delicious ... and the other way around." Posted on the official YouTube Channel of DLD


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