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Food is any substance consumed to provide support for an . Food is usually of or origin, and contains essential , such as , , proteins, , or minerals. The substance is by an and assimilated by the organism's cells to provide , maintain life, or stimulate growth.

Historically, secured food through two methods: and , which gave modern humans a mainly diet. Worldwide, humanity has created numerous and , including a wide array of , , , techniques, and dishes.

Today, the majority of the required by the ever-increasing is supplied by the . and are monitored by agencies like the International Association for Food Protection, World Resources Institute, World Food Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Food Information Council. They address issues such as , biological diversity, , nutritional economics, population growth, , and .

The right to food is a derived from the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (), recognizing the "right to an adequate standard of living, including adequate food", as well as the "fundamental right to be free from ".


Food sources
Most food has its origin in plants. Some food is obtained directly from plants; but even animals that are used as food sources are raised by feeding them food derived from plants. grain is a that provides more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop. , , and – in all of their varieties – account for 87% of all grain production worldwide.
(2020). 9788178330389, Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.. .
Most of the grain that is produced worldwide is fed to livestock.

Some foods not from animal or plant sources include various edible , especially . Fungi and ambient are used in the preparation of fermented and foods like leavened , , , , , and . Another example is such as Spirulina.McGee, 333–34. Inorganic substances such as , baking soda and cream of tartar are used to preserve or chemically alter an ingredient.


Plants
Many plants and plant parts are eaten as food and around 2,000 plant species are cultivated for food. Many of these plant species have several distinct .McGee, 253.

of plants are a good source of food for animals, including humans, because they contain the nutrients necessary for the plant's initial growth, including many healthful fats, such as omega fats. In fact, the majority of food consumed by human beings are seed-based foods. Edible seeds include cereals (, , , ), (, , , et cetera), and nuts. are often pressed to produce rich oils - , , (including ), , .McGee, Chapter 9.

Seeds are typically high in and, in moderation, are considered a . However, not all seeds are edible. Large seeds, such as those from a , pose a choking hazard, while seeds from and contain which could be poisonous only if consumed in large volumes.

are the ripened ovaries of plants, including the seeds within. Many plants and animals have such that the fruits of the former are an attractive food source to the latter, because animals that eat the fruits may the seeds some distance away. Fruits, therefore, make up a significant part of the diets of most cultures. Some botanical fruits, such as , , and , are eaten as vegetables.McGee, Chapter 7. (For more information, see list of fruits.)

are a second type of plant matter that is commonly eaten as food. These include ( and ), bulbs ( family), ( and ), ( shoots and ), and ( and and other vegetables such as or ).McGee, Chapter 6.


Animals
Animals are used as food either directly or indirectly by the products they produce. is an example of a direct product taken from an animal, which comes from systems or from organs ().

Food products produced by animals include produced by , which in many cultures is drunk or processed into (cheese, butter, etc.). In addition, birds and other animals lay eggs, which are often eaten, and produce , a reduced from flowers, which is a popular sweetener in many cultures. Some cultures consume blood, sometimes in the form of , as a thickener for sauces, or in a cured, salted form for times of food scarcity, and others use in stews such as .Davidson, 81–82.

Some cultures and people do not consume meat or animal food products for cultural, dietary, health, ethical, or ideological reasons. choose to forgo food from animal sources to varying degrees. do not consume any foods that are or contain from an animal source.


Classifications and types of food
Broad classifications are covered below. For regional types, see Cuisine.


Adulterated food
is a legal term meaning that a food product fails to meet the legal standards. One form of adulteration is an addition of another substance to a food item in order to increase the quantity of the food item in raw form or prepared form, which may result in the loss of actual quality of food item. These substances may be either available food items or non-food items. Among meat and meat products some of the items used to adulterate are water or ice, carcasses, or carcasses of animals other than the animal meant to be consumed.


Camping food
includes ingredients used to prepare food suitable for backcountry and backpacking. The foods differ substantially from the ingredients found in a typical home kitchen. The primary differences relate to campers' and backpackers' special needs for foods that have appropriate cooking time, perishability, weight, and nutritional content.

To address these needs, camping food is often made up of either , precooked or ingredients. Many campers use a combination of these foods.

requires the use of heavy machinery and is not something that most campers are able to do on their own. Freeze-dried ingredients are often considered superior to dehydrated ingredients however, because they rehydrate at camp faster and retain more flavor than their dehydrated counterparts. Freeze-dried ingredients take so little time to rehydrate that they can often be eaten without cooking them first and have a texture similar to a crunchy chip.

can reduce the weight of the food by sixty to ninety percent by removing water through evaporation. Some foods dehydrate well, such as onions, peppers, and tomatoes. Dehydration often produces a more compact, albeit slightly heavier, end result than freeze-drying.

Surplus precooked military Meals, Meals, Ready-to-Eat (MREs) are sometimes used by campers. These meals contain precooked foods in . A retort pouch is a plastic and metal foil laminate pouch that is used as an alternative to traditional industrial methods.


Diet food
(or "dietetic food") refers to any food or beverage whose recipe is altered to reduce fat, carbohydrates, abhor/adhore sugar in order to make it part of a weight loss program or Such foods are usually intended to assist in weight loss or a change in body type, although bodybuilding supplements are designed to aid in gaining weight or muscle.

The process of making a diet version of a food usually requires finding an acceptable low-food-energy substitute for some high-food-energy ingredient. This can be as simple as replacing some or all of the food's with a as is common with diet soft drinks such as (for example ). In some snacks, the food may be baked instead of fried thus reducing the food energy. In other cases, low-fat ingredients may be used as replacements.

In foods, the higher fiber content effectively displaces some of the starch component of the flour. Since certain fibers have no food energy, this results in a modest energy reduction. Another technique relies on the intentional addition of other reduced-food-energy ingredients, such as or , to replace part of the flour and achieve a more significant energy reduction.


Finger food
is food meant to be eaten directly using the , in contrast to food eaten with a and , , , or other .
(1999). 9789625934440, Tuttle Publishing. .
In some cultures, food is almost always eaten with the hands; for example, Ethiopian cuisine is eaten by rolling various dishes up in .J.H. Arrowsmith-Brown (trans.), Prutky's Travels in Ethiopia and other Countries with notes by Richard Pankhurst (London: Hakluyt Society, 1991) Foods considered are frequently, though not exclusively, finger foods.

In the western world, finger foods are often either (hors d'œuvres) or / items. Examples of these are miniature meat pies, , sausages on sticks, cheese and olives on sticks, chicken drumsticks or , , miniature , , , Merenda or other such based foods, such as or items in , , , vol au vents, several other such small items and balls (). Other well-known foods that are generally eaten with the hands include , , Chips, , and .

In East Asia, foods like pancakes or flatbreads ( bing 饼) and street foods such as (串, also pronounced chuan) are often eaten with the hands.


Fresh food
is food which has not been preserved and has not yet. For and , this means that they have been recently harvested and treated properly ; for , it has recently been and ; for fish, it has been recently caught or harvested and kept cold.

are fresh and will spoil quickly. Thus, is cheese which has not been dried or salted for aging. may be considered "fresh" (crème fraîche).

Fresh food has not been , smoked, salted, , , , or otherwise preserved. Oxford English Dictionary s.v. 'fresh'


Frozen food
food preserves it from the time it is prepared to the time it is eaten. Since early times, farmers, fishermen, and trappers have preserved grains and produce in unheated buildings during the winter season.Tressler, Evers. The Freezing Preservation of Foods pp. 213–17 Freezing food slows down decomposition by turning residual moisture into ice, inhibiting the growth of most bacterial species. In the , there are two processes: mechanical and cryogenic (or ). The kinetics of the freezing is important to preserve the food quality and texture. Quicker freezing generates smaller ice crystals and maintains cellular structure. Cryogenic freezing is the quickest freezing technology available utilizing the extremely low temperature of liquid nitrogen .Sun, Da-Wen (2001). Advances in food refrigeration. Leatherhead Food Research Association Publishing. p. 318. (Cryogenic refrigeration)

Preserving food in domestic kitchens during modern times is achieved using household . Accepted advice to householders was to freeze food on the day of purchase. An initiative by a supermarket group in 2012 (backed by the UK's Waste & Resources Action Programme) promotes the freezing of food "as soon as possible up to the product's 'use by' date". The Food Standards Agency was reported as supporting the change, providing the food had been stored correctly up to that time.


Functional food
A is a food given an additional (often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention) by adding new ingredients or more of existing ingredients. What are Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals? Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada The term may also apply to traits purposely into existing edible plants, such as purple or gold potatoes having enriched or contents, respectively. Functional foods may be "designed to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions, and may be similar in appearance to conventional food and consumed as part of a regular diet".

The term was first used in in the 1980s where there is a government approval process for functional foods called Foods for Specified Health Use (FOSHU).


Health food
is food marketed to provide effects beyond a normal required for . Foods marketed as health foods may be part of one or more categories, such as , , , or dietary supplements. These products may be sold in health food stores or in the health food or organic sections of .


Healthy food
A is a that helps to maintain or improve overall . A healthy diet provides the body with essential : fluid, , , and adequate .
(2020). 9789241546126, World Health Organization. .

For people who are healthy, a healthy diet is not complicated and contains mostly fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and includes little to no and sweetened beverages. The requirements for a healthy diet can be met from a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods, although a non-animal source of vitamin B12 is needed for those following a . Various nutrition guides are published by medical and governmental institutions to educate individuals on what they should be eating to be healthy. Nutrition facts labels are also mandatory in some countries to allow consumers to choose between foods based on the components relevant to health.

A healthy lifestyle includes getting exercise every day along with eating a healthy diet. A healthy lifestyle may lower disease risks, such as , , type 2 diabetes, and .

There are specialized healthy diets, called medical nutrition therapy, for people with various diseases or conditions. There are also prescientific ideas about such specialized diets, as in dietary therapy in traditional Chinese medicine.

The World Health Organization (WHO) makes the following 5 recommendations with respect to both populations and individuals:

  1. Maintain a healthy weight by eating roughly the same number of calories that your body is using.
  2. Limit intake of fats. Not more than 30% of the total calories should come from fats. Prefer to . Avoid .
  3. Eat at least 400 grams of and per day (potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava and other starchy roots do not count). A healthy diet also contains (e.g. lentils, beans), and nuts.
  4. Limit the intake of simple to less than 10% of calorie (below 5% of calories or 25 grams may be even better)
  5. Limit / from all sources and ensure that . Less than 5 grams of salt per day can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.


Kosher foods
are those that conform to the dietary regulations of (), primarily derived from and . Food that may be consumed according to (law) is termed kosher () in English, from the pronunciation of the term kashér (), meaning "fit" (in this context, fit for consumption). Food that is not in accordance with law is called (; טרײף, derived from טְרֵפָה trāfáh) meaning "torn."


Live food
is living food for or animals kept in captivity; in other words, small animals such as or fed to larger carnivorous or omnivorous species kept in either in a or as .

Live food is commonly used as feed for a variety of species of exotic pets and zoo animals, ranging from to various , and , but also including other, non-, non- carnivores and omnivores (for instance, , which are omnivorous , can be technically be fed a limited amount of live food, though this is not known to be a common practice). Common live food ranges from crickets (used as an inexpensive form of feed for carnivorous and omnivorous reptiles such as and commonly available in for this reason), , and to a lesser extent and , to small and such as mice or .


Medical food
are foods that are specially formulated and intended for the dietary management of a disease that has distinctive nutritional needs that cannot be met by normal diet alone. In the United States they were defined in the Food and Drug Administration's 1988 Orphan Drug Act Amendments and are subject to the general food and safety labeling requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. In Europe the European Food Safety Authority established definitions for "foods for special medical purposes" (FSMPs) in 2015.

Medical foods, called "food for special medical purposes" in Europe, are distinct from the broader category of foods for special dietary use, from traditional foods that bear a , and from dietary supplements. In order to be considered a medical food the product must, at a minimum:

  • be a food for oral ingestion or tube feeding ()
  • be labeled for the dietary management of a specific medical disorder, disease or condition for which there are distinctive nutritional requirements, and
  • be intended to be used under medical supervision.

Medical foods can be classified into the following categories:

  • Nutritionally complete formulas
  • Nutritionally incomplete formulas
  • Formulas for metabolic disorders
  • Oral rehydration products


Natural foods
and "all natural foods" are widely used terms in and marketing with a variety of definitions, most of which are vague. The term is often assumed to imply foods that are not processed and whose ingredients are all (in the chemist's sense of that term), thus conveying an appeal to nature. But the lack of standards in most jurisdictions means that the term assures nothing. In some countries, the term "natural" is defined and enforced. In others, such as the , it is not enforced.

“Natural foods” are often assumed to be foods that are not , or do not contain any , or do not contain particular additives such as , , , , or that were not originally in the food.Ikerd, John. The New American Food Economy. In fact, many people (63%) when surveyed showed a preference for products labeled "natural" compared to the unmarked counterparts, based on the common belief (86% of polled consumers) that the term "natural" indicated that the food does not contain any artificial ingredients.Weaver, A. (2014). "Natural" Foods: Inherently Confusing. Journal of Corporation Law, 39(3), 657–74. http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/99055404/natural-foods-inherently-confusing The terms are variously used and misused on labels and in advertisements.

The international Food and Agriculture Organization’s Codex Alimentarius does not recognize the term “natural” but does have a standard for .


Negative-calorie food
A negative-calorie food is food that supposedly requires more to be than the food provides. Its thermic effect or specific dynamic action – the caloric "cost" of digesting the food – would be greater than its food energy content. Despite its recurring popularity in guides, there is no scientific evidence supporting the idea that any food is calorically negative. While some chilled beverages are calorically negative, the effect is minimal and drinking large amounts of water can be dangerous.


Organic food
is food produced by methods that comply with the standards of . Standards vary worldwide, but organic farming in general features practices that strive to cycle resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve . Organizations regulating organic products may restrict the use of certain and in farming. In general, organic foods are also usually not processed using , industrial solvents or synthetic .

Currently, the European Union, the United States, Canada, Mexico, Japan, and many other countries require producers to obtain special certification in order to market food as organic within their borders. In the context of these , organic food is produced in a way that complies with organic standards set by regional organizations, national governments and international organizations. Although the produce of may be organic, selling food with an organic label is regulated by governmental food safety authorities, such as the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) or European Commission (EC).

Fertilizing and the use of pesticides in conventional farming has caused, and is causing, enormous damage worldwide to local , biodiversity, and supplies, and sometimes farmer health and . These environmental, economic and health issues are intended to be minimized or avoided in organic farming. From a consumers perspective, there is not sufficient evidence in scientific and medical literature to support claims that organic food is or healthier to eat than conventionally grown food. While there may be some differences in the nutrient and contents of organically- and conventionally-produced food, the variable nature of and handling makes it difficult to generalize results.Blair, Robert. (2012). Organic Production and Food Quality: A Down to Earth Analysis. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford. pp. 72, 223. Claims that organic food tastes better are generally not supported by tests.


Peasant foods
are dishes specific to a particular culture, made from accessible and inexpensive ingredients, and usually prepared and seasoned to make them more palatable. They often form a significant part of the diets of people who live in , or have a lower income compared to the average for their society or country.

Peasant foods have been described as being the diet of , that is, or poorer farmers and their ,

(2020). 9780520927285, University of California Press. .
and by extension, of other cash-poor people. They may use ingredients, such as and less-tender cuts of meat, which are not as marketable as a . Characteristic recipes often consist of hearty one-dish meals, in which chunks of meat and various vegetables are eaten in a savory broth, with bread or other . are also amenable to varied readily available ingredients, and they themselves tend to contain offal and grains.

Peasant foods often involve skilled preparation by knowledgeable cooks using inventiveness and skills passed down from earlier generations. Such dishes are often prized as ethnic foods by other cultures and by descendants of the native culture who still desire these traditional dishes.


Prison food
is the term for meals served to prisoners while in correctional institutions. While some prisons prepare their own food, many use staff from on-site companies. Many prisons today support the requirements of specific religions, as well as . Do Prison Inmates Have a Right to Vegetarian Meals?. Vegetarian Journal Mar/Apr 2001. Retrieved 19 August 2015. It is said that prison food of many developed countries is adequate to maintain and . British Prison Cuisine Today . FoodReference.com. Retrieved 10 August 2015.


Seasonal food
"Seasonal" here refers to the times of year when the harvest or the flavour of a given type food is at its peak. This is usually the time when the item is harvested, with some exceptions; an example being which are best eaten quite a while after harvest. It also appeals to people who prefer a low carbon diet that reduces the greenhouse gas emissions resulting from food consumption ().


Shelf-stable food
Shelf-stable food (sometimes ) is food of a type that can be safely stored at room temperature in a sealed container. This includes foods that would normally be stored refrigerated but which have been so that they can be safely stored at room or ambient temperature for a usefully long .

Various food preservation and techniques are used to extend a food's shelf life. Decreasing the amount of in a product, increasing its acidity, or or otherwise sterilizing the food and then sealing it in an air-tight container are all ways of depriving of suitable conditions in which to thrive. All of these approaches can all extend a food's shelf life without unacceptably changing its taste or texture.

For some foods alternative ingredients can be used. Common and become relatively quickly if not refrigerated; replacing them with delays the onset of rancidity, increasing shelf life. This is a common approach in industrial food production, but recent concerns about health hazards associated with have led to their strict control in several jurisdictions. Even where trans fats are not prohibited, in many places there are new labeling laws (or rules), which require information to be printed on packages, or to be published elsewhere, about the amount of trans fat contained in certain products.


Space food
is a type of food product created and for consumption by in . The food has specific requirements of providing balanced nutrition for individuals working in space, while being easy and safe to store, prepare and consume in the machinery-filled environments of crewed .

In recent years, space food has been used by various nations engaging on space programs as a way to share and show off their cultural identity and facilitate intercultural communication. Although astronauts consume a wide variety of foods and beverages in space, the initial idea from The Man in Space Committee of the Space Science Board in 1963 was to supply astronauts with a formula diet that would supply all the needed vitamins and nutrients.

(1963). 9780309123839, The National Academies Press. .


Traditional food
are foods and dishes that are passed through
(2020). 9781489976482, Springer US. .
or which have been consumed many generations. Traditional foods and dishes are in nature, and may have a historic precedent in a , or local . Traditional foods and beverages may be produced as homemade, by restaurants and small manufacturers, and by large food processing plant facilities.
(2020). 9789290215905, World Health Organization. .

Some traditional foods have geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union designations per European Union schemes of geographical indications and traditional specialties: Protected designation of origin (PDO), Protected geographical indication (PGI) and Traditional specialities guaranteed (TSG). These standards serve to promote and protect names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs.

This article also includes information about traditional .


Whole food
are plant foods that are and , or processed and refined as little as possible, before being consumed. Examples of whole foods include , , , , .

There is some confusion over the usage of the term surrounding the inclusion of certain foods, in particular animal foods. The modern usage of the term whole foods diet is now widely synonymous with "whole foods " with animal products, oil and salt no longer constituting whole foods.

(2020). 9781939529848, BenBella Books. .

The earliest use of the term in the post-industrial age appears to be in 1946 in The Farmer, a quarterly magazine published and edited from his farm by F. Newman Turner, a writer and pioneering organic farmer. The magazine sponsored the establishment of the Producer Consumer Whole Food Society Ltd, with Newman Turner as president and Derek Randal as vice-president.Conford, P.(2011) The Development of the Organic Network, p. 417. Edinburgh, Floris Books . Whole food was defined as "mature produce of field, orchard, or garden without subtraction, addition, or alteration grown from seed without chemical dressing, in fertile soil manured solely with animal and vegetable wastes, and composts therefrom, and ground, raw rock and without chemical manures, sprays, or insecticides," having intent to connect suppliers and the growing public demand for such food. Such diets are rich in whole and unrefined foods, like whole grains, dark green and yellow/orange-fleshed vegetables and fruits, , nuts and .


Production
Most food has always been obtained through . With increasing concern over both the methods and products of modern industrial agriculture, there has been a growing trend toward sustainable agricultural practices. This approach, partly fueled by consumer demand, encourages , local self-reliance and methods.Mason Major influences on food production include international organizations (e.g. the World Trade Organization and Common Agricultural Policy), national government policy (or law), and war.Messer, 53–91.

Several organisations have begun calling for a new kind of agriculture in which provide food but also support vital services so that soil fertility and are maintained rather than compromised. According to the International Water Management Institute and , well-managed agroecosystems not only provide food, fiber and animal products, they also provide services such as , groundwater recharge, and habitats for plants, birds, fish and other animals.Boelee, E. (Ed) Ecosystems for water and food security , 2011, ,


Taste perception
Animals, specifically humans, have five different types of tastes: , , , bitter, and . As animals have , the tastes that provide the most energy ( and ) are the most pleasant to eat while others, such as bitter, are not enjoyable. Water, while important for survival, has no taste. Fats, on the other hand, especially , are thicker and rich and are thus considered more enjoyable to eat.


Sweet
Generally regarded as the most pleasant taste, is almost always caused by a type of simple such as or , or such as , a molecule combining glucose and fructose.New Oxford American Dictionary Complex carbohydrates are long chains and thus do not have the sweet taste. Artificial sweeteners such as are used to mimic the sugar molecule, creating the sensation of sweet, without the calories. Other types of sugar include , which is known for its amber color, as it is unprocessed. As sugar is vital for energy and survival, the taste of sugar is pleasant.

The plant contains a compound known as which, when extracted, has 300 times the sweetness of sugar while having minimal impact on blood sugar.The multiplier "300 times" comes from subjective evaluations by a panel of test subjects tasting various dilutions compared to a standard dilution of . Sources referenced in this article say steviosides have up to 250 times the sweetness of sucrose, but others, including stevioside brands such as SweetLeaf, claim 300 times. 1/3 to 1/2 teaspoon (1.6–2.5 ml) of stevioside powder is claimed to have equivalent sweetening power to 1 cup (237 ml) of sugar.


Sour
Sourness is caused by the taste of , such as in alcoholic beverages. Sour foods include , specifically , limes, and to a lesser degree oranges. Sour is evolutionarily significant as it is a sign for a food that may have gone due to bacteria.States "having an acid taste like lemon or vinegar: she sampled the wine and found it was sour. (of food, esp. milk) spoiled because of fermentation." New Oxford American Dictionary Many foods, however, are slightly acidic, and help stimulate the taste buds and enhance flavor.


Salty
is the taste of such as and . It is found in almost every food in low to moderate proportions to enhance flavor, although to eat pure salt is regarded as highly unpleasant. There are many different types of salt, with each having a different degree of saltiness, including , fleur de sel, , mined salt, and grey salt. Other than enhancing flavor, its significance is that the body needs and maintains a delicate balance, which is the 's function. Salt may be iodized, meaning has been added to it, a necessary nutrient that promotes function. Some canned foods, notably or packaged , tend to be high in salt as a means of preserving the food longer. Historically salt has long been used as a meat preservative as salt promotes water excretion. Similarly, dried foods also promote food safety.


Bitter
Bitterness is a sensation often considered unpleasant characterized by having a sharp, pungent taste. Unsweetened dark , , lemon rind, and some types of fruit are known to be bitter.


Umami
, the Japanese word for delicious, is the least known in Western popular culture but has a long tradition in Asian cuisine. Umami is the taste of , especially monosodium glutamate (MSG). It is characterized as savory, meaty, and rich in flavor.
(2020). 9781612125749, Storey Publishing. .
and are foods high in umami.
(2020). 9781783726837, Summersdale Publishers Ltd. .


Cuisine
Many scholars claim that the rhetorical function of food is to represent the culture of a country, and that it can be used as a form of communication. According to Goode, Curtis and Theophano, food "is the last aspect of an ethnic culture to be lost".

Many cultures have a recognizable cuisine, a specific set of traditions using various spices or a combination of flavors unique to that culture, which evolves over time. Other differences include preferences (hot or cold, spicy, etc.) and practices, the study of which is known as . Many cultures have diversified their foods by means of preparation, cooking methods, and manufacturing. This also includes a complex food trade which helps the cultures to economically survive by way of food, not just by consumption.

Some popular types of ethnic foods include , , , , American, , , , and . Various cultures throughout the world study the dietary analysis of food habits. While speaking, as opposed to culturally, humans are , religion and social constructs such as , , or will often affect which foods they will consume. Food is eaten and typically enjoyed through the sense of , the perception of flavor from eating and drinking. Certain tastes are more enjoyable than others, for evolutionary purposes.


Presentation
Aesthetically pleasing and eye-appealing food presentations can encourage people to consume foods. A common saying is that people "eat with their eyes". Food presented in a clean and appetizing way will encourage a good flavor, even if unsatisfactory.Food Texture, Andrew J. Rosenthal


Contrast in texture
Texture plays a crucial role in the enjoyment of eating foods. Contrasts in textures, such as something crunchy in an otherwise smooth dish, may increase the appeal of eating it. Common examples include adding to , adding to a or , and toasting bread to enhance its crunchiness for a smooth topping, such as jam or butter.
(1999). 9780834212381 .


Contrast in taste
Another universal phenomenon regarding food is the appeal of contrast in taste and presentation. For example, such opposite flavors as and tend to go well together, as in and nuts.


Food preparation
While many foods can be eaten raw, many also undergo some form of preparation for reasons of safety, , , or . At the simplest level this may involve washing, cutting, trimming, or adding other foods or ingredients, such as spices. It may also involve mixing, heating or cooling, , fermentation, or combination with other food. In a home, most food preparation takes place in a . Some preparation is done to enhance the or aesthetic appeal; other preparation may help to preserve the food; others may be involved in cultural identity. A is made up of food which is prepared to be eaten at a specific time and place.Mead, 11–19


Animal preparation
The preparation of animal-based food usually involves slaughter, evisceration, hanging, portioning, and rendering. In developed countries, this is usually done outside the home in , which are used to process animals en masse for meat production. Many countries regulate their slaughterhouses by law. For example, the United States has established the Humane Slaughter Act of 1958, which requires that an animal be stunned before killing. This act, like those in many countries, exempts slaughter in accordance to religious law, such as , , and dhabīḥah halal. Strict interpretations of require the animal to be fully aware when its carotid artery is cut.McGee, 142–43.

On the local level, a butcher may commonly break down larger animal meat into smaller manageable cuts, and pre-wrap them for commercial sale or wrap them to order in butcher paper. In addition, fish and may be fabricated into smaller cuts by a fish monger. However, fish butchery may be done on board a fishing vessel and quick-frozen for preservation of quality.McGee, 202–06


Cooking
The term "cooking" encompasses a vast range of methods, tools, and combinations of ingredients to improve the flavor or digestibility of food. Cooking technique, known as , generally requires the selection, measurement, and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure in an effort to achieve the desired result. Constraints on success include the variability of ingredients, ambient conditions, , and the skill of the individual cook.McGee Chapter 14. The diversity of cooking worldwide is a reflection of the myriad nutritional, aesthetic, agricultural, economic, cultural, and religious considerations that affect it.Mead, 11–19.

Cooking requires applying heat to a food which usually, though not always, chemically changes the molecules, thus changing its flavor, , appearance, and nutritional properties.McGee Cooking certain proteins, such as egg whites, meats, and fish, denatures the protein, causing it to firm. There is archaeological evidence of roasted foodstuffs at campsites dating from 420,000 years ago.Campbell, 312. Boiling as a means of cooking requires a container, and has been practiced at least since the 10th millennium BC with the introduction of .McGee, 784.


Cooking equipment
There are many different types of equipment used for cooking.

are mostly hollow devices that get very hot (up to ) and are used for baking or roasting and offer a dry-heat cooking method. Different cuisines will use different types of ovens. For example, Indian culture uses a oven, which is a cylindrical clay oven which operates at a single high temperature.Davidson, 782–83 Western kitchens use variable temperature , conventional ovens, , or non-radiant heat ovens like the . Classic Italian cuisine includes the use of a brick oven containing burning wood. Ovens may be wood-fired, coal-fired, , electric, or oil-fired.McGee, 539,784.

Various types of cook-tops are used as well. They carry the same variations of fuel types as the ovens mentioned above. Cook-tops are used to heat vessels placed on top of the heat source, such as a sauté pan, sauce pot, , or . These pieces of equipment can use either a moist or dry cooking method and include methods such as , , , and poaching for moist methods, while the dry methods include sautéing, , and .McGee, 771–91

In addition, many cultures use grills for cooking. A grill operates with a radiant heat source from below, usually covered with a metal grid and sometimes a cover. An open pit barbecue in the American south is one example along with the American style outdoor grill fueled by wood, liquid propane, or charcoal along with soaked wood chips for smoking.Davidson, 356. A style of barbecue is called , which involves the cooking of meats such as whole sheep over an open fire. In Argentina, an (Spanish for "grilled") is prepared on a grill held over an open pit or fire made upon the ground, on which a whole animal or smaller cuts are grilled.Asado Argentina


Raw food preparation
Certain cultures highlight animal and vegetable foods in a . consisting of raw vegetables or fruits are common in many cuisines. in consists of raw sliced or other meat, and often incorporates raw fish or seafood. and salmon tartare are dishes made from diced or ground raw beef or salmon, mixed with various ingredients and served with , , or .Davidson, 786–87. In Italy, is a dish of very thinly sliced raw , drizzled with a made with olive oil.Robuchon, 224. The health food movement known as promotes a mostly diet of raw fruits, vegetables, and grains prepared in various ways, including juicing, food dehydration, sprouting, and other methods of preparation that do not heat the food above .Davidson, 656 An example of a raw meat dish is , a Latin American dish made with raw meat that is "cooked" from the highly acidic citric juice from lemons and limes along with other aromatics such as garlic.


Restaurants
Restaurants employ to prepare the food, and to serve customers at the table. The term restaurant comes from an old term for a restorative ; this broth (or bouillon) was served in elegant outlets in Paris from the mid 18th century. These refined "restaurants" were a marked change from the usual basic eateries such as inns and taverns, and some had developed from early Parisian cafés, such as Café Procope, by first serving bouillon, then adding other cooked food to their menus.Davidson, 660–61.

Commercial eateries existed during the , with evidence of 150 "thermopolia", a form of fast food restaurant, found in , and urban sales of prepared foods may have existed in during the .

In 2005, the population of the United States spent $496 billion on out-of-home dining. Expenditures by type of out-of-home dining were as follows: 40% in full-service restaurants, 37.2% in limited service restaurants (), 6.6% in schools or colleges, 5.4% in bars and , 4.7% in hotels and motels, 4.0% in recreational places, and 2.2% in others, which includes military bases.United States Department of Agriculture


Food manufacturing
Packaged foods are manufactured outside the home for purchase. This can be as simple as a preparing meat, or as complex as a modern international . Early food processing techniques were limited by available food preservation, packaging, and transportation. This mainly involved salting, curing, curdling, drying, , fermenting, and smoking.Aguilera, 1–3. Food manufacturing arose during the industrial revolution in the 19th century.Miguel, 3. This development took advantage of new and emerging technology, such as milling, preservation, and labeling, and transportation. It brought the advantages of pre-prepared time-saving food to the bulk of ordinary people who did not employ domestic servants.Jango-Cohen

At the start of the 21st century, a two-tier structure has arisen, with a few international food processing giants controlling a wide range of well-known food brands. There also exists a wide array of small local or national food processing companies.Hannaford Advanced technologies have also come to change food manufacture. Computer-based control systems, sophisticated and packaging methods, and and distribution advances can enhance product quality, improve , and reduce costs.


Commercial trade

International food imports and exports
The reported that the European Union was the top food importer in 2005, followed at a distance by the US and Japan. 's need for food was especially well illustrated in World War II. Despite the implementation of food rationing, Britain remained dependent on food imports and the result was a long term engagement in the Battle of the Atlantic.

Food is traded and marketed on a global basis. The variety and availability of food is no longer restricted by the diversity of locally grown food or the limitations of the local growing season.The Economic Research Service of the USDA Between 1961 and 1999, there was a 400% increase in worldwide food exports.Regmi Some countries are now economically dependent on food exports, which in some cases account for over 80% of all exports.CIA World Factbook

In 1994, over 100 countries became signatories to the of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in a dramatic increase in trade liberalization. This included an agreement to reduce subsidies paid to farmers, underpinned by the WTO enforcement of agricultural subsidy, tariffs, import , and settlement of trade disputes that cannot be bilaterally resolved.World Trade Organization, The Uruguay Round Where trade barriers are raised on the disputed grounds of public health and safety, the WTO refer the dispute to the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which was founded in 1962 by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization. Trade liberalization has greatly affected world food trade.Van den Bossche


Marketing and retailing
brings together the producer and the consumer. The marketing of even a single food product can be a complicated process involving many producers and companies. For example, fifty-six companies are involved in making one of chicken noodle soup. These businesses include not only chicken and vegetable processors but also the companies that transport the ingredients and those who print labels and manufacture cans.Smith, 501–03. The food marketing system is the largest direct and indirect non-government employer in the United States.

In the pre-modern era, the sale of surplus food took place once a week when farmers took their wares on market day into the local village marketplace. Here food was sold to for sale in their local shops for purchase by local consumers. With the onset of industrialization and the development of the food processing industry, a wider range of food could be sold and distributed in distant locations. Typically early grocery shops would be counter-based shops, in which purchasers told the shop-keeper what they wanted, so that the shop-keeper could get it for them.Benson

In the 20th century, were born. Supermarkets brought with them a approach to shopping using , and were able to offer quality food at lower cost through economies of scale and reduced staffing costs. In the latter part of the 20th century, this has been further revolutionized by the development of vast warehouse-sized, out-of-town supermarkets, selling a wide range of food from around the world.Humphery

Unlike food processors, food retailing is a two-tier market in which a small number of very large control a large proportion of supermarkets. The supermarket giants wield great purchasing power over farmers and processors, and strong influence over consumers. Nevertheless, less than 10% of consumer spending on food goes to farmers, with larger percentages going to , transportation, and intermediate corporations.Magdoff, Fred (Ed.) "The farmer's share of the food dollar (after paying for input costs) has steadily declined from about 40 percent in 1910 to less than 10 percent in 1990."


Prices
It is rare for price spikes to hit all major foods in most countries at once, but suffered all-time peaks in 2008 and 2011, posting a 15% and 12% deflated increase year-over-year, representing prices higher than any data collected. One reason for the increase in food prices may be the increase in oil prices at the same time.

In December 2007, 37 countries faced food crises, and 20 had imposed some sort of food-price controls. In China, the price of jumped 58% in 2007. In the 1980s and 1990s, farm subsidies and support programs allowed major grain exporting countries to hold large surpluses, which could be tapped during food shortages to keep prices down. However, new trade policies had made agricultural production much more responsive to market demands, putting global food reserves at their lowest since 1983."Food prices rising across the world", CNN. 24 March 2008

Rising food prices in those years have been linked with social unrest around the world, including rioting in Bangladesh and Mexico, and the . Food prices worldwide increased in 2008. One cause of rising food prices is wealthier Asian consumers are westernizing their diets, and farmers and nations of the third world are struggling to keep up the pace. The past five years have seen rapid growth in the contribution of Asian nations to the global fluid and powdered milk manufacturing industry, which in 2008 accounted for more than 30% of production, while China alone accounts for more than 10% of both production and consumption in the global fruit and vegetable processing and preserving industry. May 2008, Global Trends: – Food Production and Consumption: The China Effect , IBISWorld

In 2013 Overseas Development Institute researchers showed that has more than doubled in price since 2000, rising by 120% in real terms. This was as a result of shifts in trade policy and restocking by major producers. More fundamental drivers of increased prices are the higher costs of fertiliser, diesel and labour. Parts of Asia see rural wages rise with potential large benefits for the 1.3 billion (2008 estimate) of Asia's poor in reducing the poverty they face. However, this negatively impacts more vulnerable groups who don't share in the economic boom, especially in Asian and African coastal cities. The researchers said the threat means social-protection policies are needed to guard against price shocks. The research proposed that in the longer run, the rises present opportunities to export for Western African farmers with high potential for rice production to replace imports with domestic production. Steve Wiggins and Sharada Keats, August 2013, The end of cheap rice: a cause for celebration? ODI Briefings 82

Most recently, global food prices have been more stable and relatively low, after a sizable increase in late 2017, they are back under 75% of the nominal value seen during the all-time high in the 2011 food crisis.


As investment
Institutions such as , and like , and have been instrumental in pushing up prices in the last five years, with investment in food rising from $65bn to $126bn (£41bn to £79bn) between 2007 and 2012, contributing to 30-year highs. This has caused price fluctuations which are not strongly related to the actual supply of food, according to the United Nations. Financial institutions now make up 61% of all investment in futures. According to Olivier De Schutter, the UN special rapporteur on food, there was a rush by institutions to enter the food market following George W. Bush's Commodities Futures Modernization Act of 2000. De Schutter told the Independent in March 2012: "What we are seeing now is that these financial markets have developed massively with the arrival of these new financial investors, who are purely interested in the short-term monetary gain and are not really interested in the physical thing – they never actually buy the ton of wheat or ; they only buy a promise to buy or to sell. The result of this financialisation of the commodities market is that the prices of the products respond increasingly to a purely logic. This explains why in very short periods of time we see prices spiking or exploding, because prices are less and less determined by the real match between supply and demand." In 2011, 450 economists from around the world called on the G20 to regulate the commodities market more.

Some experts have said that speculation has merely aggravated other factors, such as , competition with and overall rising demand. However, some such as , professor of economics at Jawaharlal Nehru University in , have pointed out that prices have increased irrespective of supply and demand issues: Ghosh points to world wheat prices, which doubled in the period from June to December 2010, despite there being no fall in global supply.


Famine and hunger
Food deprivation leads to malnutrition and ultimately . This is often connected with , which involves the absence of food in entire communities. This can have a devastating and widespread effect on human health and mortality. is sometimes used to distribute food in times of shortage, most notably during times of war.

Starvation is a significant international problem. Approximately 815 million people are undernourished, and over 16,000 children die per day from hunger-related causes.World Health Organization Food deprivation is regarded as a deficit need in Maslow's hierarchy of needs and is measured using .Howe, 353–72


Food aid
can benefit people suffering from a shortage of food. It can be used to improve peoples' lives in the short term, so that a society can increase its standard of living to the point that food aid is no longer required.World Food Programme Conversely, badly managed food aid can create problems by disrupting local markets, depressing crop prices, and discouraging food production. Sometimes a cycle of food aid dependence can develop.Shah Its provision, or threatened withdrawal, is sometimes used as a political tool to influence the policies of the destination country, a strategy known as . Sometimes, food aid provisions will require certain types of food be purchased from certain sellers, and food aid can be misused to enhance the markets of donor countries.Kripke International efforts to distribute food to the neediest countries are often coordinated by the World Food Programme.United Nations World Food program


Safety
Foodborne illness, commonly called "food poisoning", is caused by , , , , and . Roughly 7 million people die of food poisoning each year, with about 10 times as many suffering from a non-fatal version.National Institute of Health, MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia The two most common factors leading to cases of bacterial foodborne illness are cross-contamination of ready-to-eat food from other uncooked foods and improper temperature control. Less commonly, acute adverse reactions can also occur if chemical contamination of food occurs, for example from improper storage, or use of non-food grade soaps and disinfectants. Food can also be adulterated by a very wide range of articles (known as "foreign bodies") during farming, manufacture, cooking, packaging, distribution, or sale. These foreign bodies can include pests or their droppings, hairs, cigarette butts, wood chips, and all manner of other contaminants. It is possible for certain types of food to become contaminated if stored or presented in an unsafe container, such as a ceramic pot with lead-based glaze.

has been recognized as a disease since as early as Hippocrates., . The sale of , contaminated, or adulterated food was commonplace until the introduction of , refrigeration, and vermin controls in the 19th century. Discovery of techniques for killing bacteria using heat, and other studies by scientists such as , contributed to the modern sanitation standards that are ubiquitous in developed nations today. This was further underpinned by the work of Justus von Liebig, which led to the development of modern and food preservation methods.Magner, 243–498 In more recent years, a greater understanding of the causes of food-borne illnesses has led to the development of more systematic approaches such as the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (), which can identify and eliminate many risks.USDA

Recommended measures for ensuring food safety include maintaining a clean preparation area with foods of different types kept separate, ensuring an adequate cooking temperature, and refrigerating foods promptly after cooking.

Foods that spoil easily, such as , , and , must be prepared a certain way to avoid contaminating the people for whom they are prepared. As such, the rule of thumb is that cold foods (such as dairy products) should be kept cold and hot foods (such as soup) should be kept hot until storage. Cold meats, such as chicken, that are to be cooked should not be placed at room temperature for thawing, at the risk of dangerous bacterial growth, such as or .


Allergies
Some people have or sensitivities to foods which are not problematic to most people. This occurs when a person's mistakes a certain food protein for a harmful foreign agent and attacks it. About 2% of adults and 8% of children have a food allergy.National Institute of Health The amount of the food substance required to provoke a reaction in a particularly susceptible individual can be quite small. In some instances, traces of food in the air, too minute to be perceived through smell, have been known to provoke lethal reactions in extremely sensitive individuals. Common food allergens are , , (mollusks), , and . Allergens frequently produce symptoms such as , , bloating, , and regurgitation. The digestive complaints usually develop within half an hour of ingesting the .

Rarely, food allergies can lead to a medical emergency, such as anaphylactic shock, (low blood pressure), and loss of consciousness. An allergen associated with this type of reaction is peanut, although products can induce similar reactions. Initial treatment is with (adrenaline), often carried by known patients in the form of an or . About Epipen, Epipen.com About Twinject, Twinject.com


Other health issues
Human diet was estimated to cause perhaps around 35% of cancers in a human epidemiological analysis by and in 1981. These cancer may be caused by that are present in food naturally or as contaminants. Food contaminated with fungal growth may contain such as which may be found in contaminated corn and peanuts. Other carcinogens identified in food include heterocyclic amines generated in meat when cooked at high temperature, polyaromatic hydrocarbons in charred meat and smoked fish, and generated from nitrites used as food preservatives in such as .

that may help prevent cancer can also be found in many food especially fruit and vegetables. are important groups of compounds that may help remove potentially harmful chemicals. It is however often difficult to identify the specific components in diet that serve to increase or decrease cancer risk since many food, such as beef steak and broccoli, contain low concentrations of both carcinogens and anticarcinogens.

(1996). 9780309053914, National Academy Press. .
There are many international certifications in cooking field, such as 、A.A. Certification、iTQi. They use the high quality evaluation methods to make the food become more safe.


Diet
[File:FAO
These are supplied energy, intake energy are about 60-80% of supply.
Other area (Yr 2010)FAO Food Security
  • Africa, sub-Sahara - 2170 kcal/capita/day
  • N.E. and N. Africa - 3120 kcal/capita/day
  • South Asia - 2450 kcal/capita/day
  • East Asia - 3040 kcal/capita/day
  • Latin America / Caribbean - 2950 kcal/capita/day
  • Developed countries - 3470 kcal/capita/day]]


Cultural and religious diets
Many cultures hold some food preferences and some food . Dietary choices can also define cultures and play a role in religion. For example, only are permitted by , foods by , and in is restricted.Simoons In addition, the dietary choices of different countries or regions have different characteristics. This is highly related to a culture's .


Diet deficiencies
Dietary habits play a significant role in the health and mortality of all humans. Imbalances between the consumed fuels and expended energy results in either starvation or excessive reserves of tissue, known as body fat.Nicklas Poor intake of various vitamins and minerals can lead to diseases that can have far-reaching effects on health. For instance, 30% of the world's population either has, or is at risk for developing, iodine deficiency.Merson, 245 It is estimated that at least 3 million children are blind due to deficiency.Merson, 231. deficiency results in .Merson, 464. , , and are inter-related; the consumption of each may affect the absorption of the others. and are childhood disorders caused by lack of dietary protein.Merson, 224.


Moral, ethical, and health-conscious diets
Many individuals limit what foods they eat for reasons of morality, or other habit. For instance, choose to forgo food from animal sources to varying degrees. Others choose a , avoiding sugars or animal fats and increasing consumption of dietary fiber and .Carpenter , a serious problem in the western world, leads to higher chances of developing , , cancer and many other diseases.Merson, 266–68. More recently, dietary habits have been influenced by the concerns that some people have about possible impacts on health or the environment from genetically modified food.Parekh, 187–206. Further concerns about the impact of industrial farming () on , human health, and the are also having an effect on contemporary human dietary habits. This has led to the emergence of a movement with a preference for and .Schor


Nutrition and dietary problems
Between the extremes of optimal health and death from or , there is an array of disease states that can be caused or alleviated by changes in diet. Deficiencies, excesses, and imbalances in diet can produce negative impacts on health, which may lead to various health problems such as , , or , diabetes, cardiovascular diseases as well as psychological and behavioral problems. The science of nutrition attempts to understand how and why specific dietary aspects influence health.

Nutrients in food are grouped into several categories. Macronutrients are fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Micronutrients are the minerals and . Additionally, food contains water and .

As previously discussed, the body is designed by natural selection to enjoy sweet and fattening foods for evolutionary diets, ideal for . Thus, sweet and fattening foods in nature are typically rare and are very pleasurable to eat. In modern times, with , enjoyable foods are easily available to consumers. Unfortunately, this promotes in adults and children alike.


Legal definition
Some countries list a legal definition of food, often referring them with the word foodstuff. These countries list food as any item that is to be processed, partially processed, or unprocessed for consumption. The listing of items included as food include any substance intended to be, or reasonably expected to be, ingested by humans. In addition to these foodstuffs, drink, , water, or other items processed into said food items are part of the legal definition of food. Items not included in the legal definition of food include , live animals (unless being prepared for sale in a market), plants prior to harvesting, medicinal products, , and tobacco products, or psychotropic substances, and residues and contaminants. Office of Public Sector Information


Types of food


See also


Sources
  • Aguilera, Jose Miguel and David W. Stanley. Microstructural Principles of Food Processing and Engineering. Springer, 1999. .
  • Asado Argentina. About Asado Argentina. Retrieved from http://www.asadoargentina.com/about-asado-argentina/ on 2007-05-28.
  • Campbell, Bernard Grant. Human Evolution: An Introduction to Man's Adaptations. Aldine Transaction: 1998. .
  • Carpenter, Ruth Ann; Finley, Carrie E. Healthy Eating Every Day. Human Kinetics, 2005. .
  • Davidson, Alan. The Oxford Companion to Food. 2nd ed. UK: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005. . Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/a0200e/a0200e00.htm on 2006-09-29.
  • Hannaford, Steve. Oligopoly Watch: Top 20 world food companies Https://web.archive.org/web/20090918101335/http://www.oligopolywatch.com/2005/10/06.html on 2006-09-23.
  • Howe, P. and S. Devereux. Famine Intensity and Magnitude Scales: A Proposal for an Instrumental Definition of Famine. 2004.
  • Humphery, Kim. Shelf Life: Supermarkets and the Changing Cultures of Consumption. Cambridge University Press, 1998. .
  • Jango-Cohen, Judith. The History Of Food. Twenty-First Century Books, 2005. .
  • Jurgens, Marshall H. Animal Feeding and Nutrition. Kendall Hunt, 2001. .
  • Kripke, Gawain. Food aid or hidden dumping? Https://web.archive.org/web/20060714133231/http://www.oxfam.org/en/policy/briefingpapers/bp71_food_aid_240305 on 2007-05-26.
  • Lawrie, Stephen; R.A. Lawrie. Lawrie's Meat Science. Woodhead Publishing: 1998. .
  • Magdoff, Fred; Foster, John Bellamy; and Hungry for Profit: The Agribusiness Threat to Farmers, Food, and the Environment. September 2000. .
  • Mason, John. Sustainable Agriculture. Landlinks Press: 2003. .
  • Merson, Michael H.; Black, Robert E.; Mills, Anne J. International Public Health: Disease, Programs, Systems, and Policies. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2005.
  • McGee, Harold. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004. .
  • Mead, Margaret. The Changing Significance of Food. In Carole Counihan and Penny Van Esterik (Ed.), Food and Culture: A Reader. UK: Routledge, 1997. .
  • Messer, Ellen; Derose, Laurie Fields and Sara Millman. Who's Hungry? and How Do We Know?: Food Shortage, Poverty, and Deprivation. United Nations University Press, 1998. .
  • National Institute of Health. Food poisoning Https://web.archive.org/web/20060928222906/http://www.niaid.nih.gov/publications/pdf/foodallergy.pdf on 2006-09-29.
  • Nicklas, Barbara J. Endurance Exercise and Adipose Tissue. CRC Press, 2002. .
  • Parekh, Sarad R. The Gmo Handbook: Genetically Modified Animals, Microbes, and Plants in Biotechnology. Humana Press,2004. .
  • Regmi, Anita (editor). Changing Structure of Global Food Consumption and Trade. Market and Trade Economics Division, Economic Research Service, USDA, May 30, 2001. stock #ERSWRS01-1.
  • Schor, Juliet; Taylor, Betsy (editors). Sustainable Planet: Roadmaps for the Twenty-First Century. Beacon Press, 2003. .
  • Shah, Anup. Food Dumping (Aid) Maintains Poverty. Causes of Poverty. Retrieved from http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Poverty/FoodDumping.asp on 2006-09-29.
  • Simoons, Frederick J. Eat Not This Flesh: Food Avoidances from Prehistory to the Present. .
  • Smith, Andrew (Editor). “Food Marketing,” in Oxford Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • The Economic Research Service of the USDA. Global Food Markets: Briefing Rooms Https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/international-markets-trade/global-food-markets.aspx on 2006-09-29.
  • United Kingdom Office of Public Sector Information. Food Safety Act 1990 (c. 16). Retrieved from http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1990/Ukpga_19900016_en_2.htm#mdiv1 on 2006-11-08.
  • United States Department of Agriculture, USDA Economic Research Service: The Economics of Food, Farming, Natural Resources, and Rural America. "Briefing Rooms, Food CPI, Prices and Expenditures: Food Expenditure Tables". Retrieved from http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-price-outlook.aspx on 2007-06-06.
  • Van den Bossche, Peter. The Law and Policy of the bosanac Trade Organization: Text, Cases and Materials. UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005. .
  • World Food Programme. Breaking out of the Poverty Trap: How We Use Food Aid Https://web.archive.org/web/20060928075506/http://www.wfp.org/food_aid/introduction/index.asp?section=12&sub_section=1 on 2006-09-29.
  • World Health Organization. WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/nutgrowthdb/en/ on 2006-09-29.
  • World Trade Organization. The Uruguay Round Https://web.archive.org/web/20060822200650/http://www.wto.org/trade_resources/history/wto/urug_round.htm on 2006-09-29.


Further reading
  • Collingham, E.M. (2011). The Taste of War: World War Two and the Battle for Food
  • Katz, Solomon (2003). The Encyclopedia of Food and Culture, Scribner
  • Nestle, Marion (2007). Food Politics: How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health, University Presses of California, revised and expanded edition,
  • Mobbs, Michael (2012). Sustainable Food Sydney: NewSouth Publishing,
  • The Future of Food (2015). A panel discussion at the 2015 Digital Life Design (DLD) Annual Conference. "How can we grow and enjoy food, closer to home, further into the future? MIT Media Lab’s Kevin Slavin hosts a conversation with food artist, educator, and entrepreneur Emilie Baltz, professor Caleb Harper from MIT Media Lab's CityFarm project, the Barbarian Group's Benjamin Palmer, and Andras Forgacs, the co-founder and CEO of Modern Meadow, who is growing 'victimless' meat in a lab. The discussion addresses issues of sustainable , ecosystems, technology, food supply chains and their broad environmental and humanitarian implications, and how these changes in food production may change what people may find delicious ... and the other way around." Posted on the official YouTube Channel of DLD


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