Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland" or "The land of forest") is a state in eastern India. The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of . It is the 15th largest state by area, and the 14th largest by population. Hindi is the official language of the state. The city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka its sub capital. The state is known for its waterfalls, hills and holy places; Baidyanath Dham, Parasnath and Rajrappa are major religious sites.
The region has been inhabited since the Mesolithic-Chalcolithic period, as shown by several ancient cave paintings.
In the 16th century Mughal Empire influence reached the region, and it finally came under the East India Company in the 18th century.
After the Independence of India, the region became part of Bihar state. There was demand for a separate state in the region and the Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000 passed in Parliament, giving rise to the new state of Jharkhand.
Jharkhand suffers from what is sometimes termed a resource curse: it accounts for more than 40% of the mineral resources of India, but 39.1% of its population is below the poverty line and 19.6% of children under five years of age are malnourished. The state is primarily rural, with only 24% of the population living in cities. Jharkhand is among the leading states in economic growth. In 2017–18, the GSDP growth rate of state was at 10.22%.
During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, Jharkhand state was a part of Magadha and Anga . In the Mauryan period, this region was ruled by a number of states, which were collectively known as the Atavika (forest) states. These states accepted the suzerainty of the Maurya empire during Ashoka's reign (c. 232 BCE). Samudragupta, while marching through the present-day Chotanagpur region, directed the first attack against the kingdom of Dakshina Kosala in the Mahanadi valley.
In the 7th century, Chinese traveller Xuanzang passed through the region. He described the kingdom as Karnasuvarna and Shashanka as its ruler. To the north of Karn-Suberna was Magadha, Champa was in east, Mahendra in the west and Orissa in the south.
During medieval period, the region ruled by Nagvanshi, Khayaravala and Chero dynasty ruler. The Mughal influence reached Palamu during the reign of Emperor Akbar when it was invaded by Raja Mansingh in 1574. Several invasion took place during Mughal rule. During region of Nagvanshi King Madhu Singh, Akbar' general invaded Khukhragarh. Also there was invasion during region of Durjan Sal.
The King Medini Ray, ruled from 1658 to 1674 in Palamau. His rule extended to areas in South Gaya district and Hazaribagh. He attacked Navratangarh and defeated the Nagvanshi Maharaja of Chhotanagpur. The Chero rule in Palamu division region lasted till 19th CE, until internal conflict between various factions weakened the Cheros and they were defeated by the East India Company. Later Palamu estate was sold by the British. Region under Kings of Chero dynasty, Nagvanshi dynasty, Ramgarh Raj and Kharagdiha became parts of territories of East India Company. Ramgarh Raj along with estates of other chiefs in the regions was permanently settled as Zamindari estate. The Kharagdiha Rajas were settled as Rajas of Raj Dhanwar in 1809, and the Kharagdiha gadis were separately settled as zamindari estates. Some of the notable Kharagdiha Zamindari estates were Koderma, Parasnath and Baghochia.
The subjugation and colonisation of Jharkhand region by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people. The first revolt against the British East India Company was led by Raghunath Mahato, in 1769.
In 1771, the revolt against the landlords and the British government was led by Tilka Manjhi, a Paharia leader in Rajmahal Hills. Soon after in 1779, the Bhumij tribes rose in arms against the British rule in Manbhum. In 1807, the Oraons in Barway murdered their landlord from Srinagar. Munda tribe rose in revolt in 1811 and 1813. Bakhtar Say and Mundal Singh, two landowners, fought against the British East India company in 1812.
The Princely states in Chota Nagpur Plateau, came within the sphere of influence of the Maratha Empire, but they became tributary states of British East India Company as a result of the Anglo-Maratha Wars known as Chota Nagpur Tributary States.
The Hos in Singhbhum revolted in 1820, Kol revolt in 1832 West Bengal. against Zamindari system during British Company Raj in 1855]] The Santhal rebellion broke out in 1855 under the leadership of two brothers Sidhu and Kanhu.
Thakur Vishwanath Shahdeo, Pandey Ganpat Rai rebelled against Brithish East India Company in 1857 rebellion. In Battle of Chatra conflict took place between rebel and East India company. Tikait Umrao Singh, Sheikh Bhikhari, Nadir Ali, Jai Mangal Singh played pivotal role in the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, who, in 1876, was proclaimed Empress of India. The and again rebelled against the British in 1882 but the attack was repulsed. Then Birsa Munda revolt,Birsa Munda and His Movement 1874–1901: A Study of a Millenarian Movement in Chotanagpur, by Kumar Suresh Singh. Oxford University Press, 1983 broke out in 1895 and lasted till 1900. The revolt though mainly concentrated in the Munda belt of Khunti, Tamar, Sarwada and Bandgaon.
In October 1905, the exercise of British influence over the predominantly Hindi-speaking states of Chang Bhakar, Jashpur State, Korea State, Surguja State, and Udaipur was transferred from the Bengal government to that of the Central Provinces, while the two Oriya language-speaking states of Gangpur State and Bonai were attached to the Orissa Tributary States, leaving only Kharsawan State and Saraikela State answerable to the Bengal governor.Hunter, William Wilson, Sir, et al. (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 12. 1908–1931; Clarendon Press, Oxford
In 1936, all nine states were transferred to the Eastern States Agency, the officials of which came under the direct authority of the Governor-General of India, rather than under that of any provinces.
In March 1940, INC 53rd SessionDanik jagran Ranchi Page No.14, 2 October 2011 was accomplished under the presidency of Maulana Abul Qalam Azad at Jhanda Chowk, Ramgarh now Ramgarh Cantonment. Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Patel, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Sarojini Naidu, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Acharya J.B. Kripalani, Industrialist Jamnalal Bajaj and others greats leaders of Indian freedom movement attended the Ramgarh Session. Mahatma Gandhi also opened khadi and village Industries Exhibition at Ramgarh.
At that time, under the leadership of Netajee Subhas Chandra Bose conference against Samjhauta was also completed. In Ramgarh, Subhash Chandra Bose was seen as president of All India Forward Block and M.N. Roy was seen as leader of Radical democratic party.
After Indian independence in 1947, the rulers of the states chose to accede to the Dominion of India. Changbhakar, Jashpur, Koriya, Surguja and Udaipur later became part of Madhya Pradesh state, but Gangpur and Bonai became part of Orissa state, and Kharsawan and Saraikela part of Bihar state.Eastern States Agency. List of ruling chiefs & leading personages Delhi: Agent to Governor-General, Eastern States, 1936 In 1912, the state of Jharkhand was first proposed by a student of St.Columba's College in Hazaribagh. Initially, in 1928, it was demand of Unnati Samaj, political wing of Christian Tribals Association, which submitted a memorandum to Simon Commission to constitute a tribal state in eastern India. Prominent leader like Jaipal Singh Munda and Ram Narayan Singh demanded a separate state. Jharkhand Party led by Jaipal Singh Munda submitted memorandum to States Reorganization Commission for Jharkhand state, but it was rejected due to there was many languages and no link language in the region, tribal were not in majority and adverse effects on economy after separation from Bihar. In 1972, Binod Bihari Mahato, Shibu Soren and A. K. Roy founded Jharkhand Mukti Morcha. Nirmal Mahto founded All Jharkhand Students Union. They spearheaded movement for separate state of Jharkhand. AJSU introduced elements of violence in the movement and called for boycott of election while JMM opposed it. Due to differences these party parted away from each other. There was a provision for limited internal autonomy in the hill area of Assam. Other tribal area were covered by the fifth schedule of the constitution. Chotanagpur and Santal Pargana development board constituted under the chairmanship of then Chief minister of Bihar under the provinsion of fifth schedule in 1972. It failed to meet desire result. Jharkhand co-ordination committee (JCC) led by Ram Dayal Munda, Dr. B.P. Keshri, Binod Bihari Mahato, Santosh Rana and Suraj Singh Besra started fresh initiative in the matter. Dr. B.P Keshri sent memoradum to form Jharkhand state. Centre government formed a committee on Jharkhand matter in 1989. It stressed the need of greater allocation of the development funds for the area. Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council (JAAC) Bill passed in Bihar legislative assembly in December 1994. Jharkhand Area Autnomous Council (JAAC) have given charge of 40 subjects including Agriculture, rural health, public work, public health and minerals. The council has power to recommend for legislation to the Assembly through the state government and to frames bylaws and regulations.
In 1998, when the separate state movement was falling apart, Justice Lal Pingley Nath Shahdeo had led the movement. In 1998, the Union government decided to send the bill concerning formation of Jharkhand state to Bihar Legislative Assembly to which Lalu Prasad Yadav had said that the state would be divided over his dead body. A total of 16 political parties including BJP, JMM, AJSU and Congress came in one platform and formed the 'All Party Separate State Formation Committee' to start the movement. Shahdeo was elected as the convener of the committee. The voting on Jharkhand Act was to be done on 21 September 1998 in Bihar legislation. On that day the committee, under the leadership of Shahdeo called for Jharkhand Bandh and organised a protest march. Thousands of supporters of separate state took to streets in leadership of Shahdeo. He was arrested and detained in police station for hours along with many supporters.
After the last Assembly election in the state resulted in a hung assembly, RJD's dependence on the Congress extended support on the precondition that RJD would not pose a hurdle to the passage of the Bihar reorganisation Bill. Finally, with the support from both RJD and Congress, the ruling coalition at the Centre led by the BJP which had made statehood its main poll plank in the region in successive polls earlier, cleared the Bihar reorganisation Bill in the monsoon session of the Parliament this year, thus paving the way for the creation of a separate Jharkhand state. NDA formed the government and Babulal Marandi took the oath of chief minister on 15 November 2000 on the birth anniversary of tribal leader Birsa Munda.
Despite having a presence in almost 7.80% of India's geographical area (home to 5.50% of India's population), the state of Jharkhand is part of the "Naxal Belt" comprising 92,000 square kilometres, where the highest concentration of the groups estimated 20,000 combatants fight. Maoists who menace India , New York Times, 17 April 2006 Part of this is due to the fact that the state harbours an abundance of natural resources, while its people live in abject poverty and destitution. The impoverished state provides ample recruits for communist insurgents, who argue that they are fighting on behalf of the landless poor that see few benefits from the resource extractions. As the federal government holds a monopoly on sub-surface resources in the state, the tribal population is prevented from staking any claim on the resources extracted from their land. In response, the insurgents have recently begun a campaign of targeting infrastructure related to the extraction of resources vital for Indian energy needs, such as coal.
On 5 March 2007, Sunil Mahato, a member of the national parliament, was shot dead by Naxalite rebels near Kishanpur while watching a football match on the Hindu festival of Holi. His widow, Suman Mahato, the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha candidate, won the Jamshedpur Lok Sabha by-election in September 2007 and served in parliament until 2009.
Jharkhand envelops a geographical area of 79.70 lakh hectare. Much of Jharkhand lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau. Many rivers pass through the Chota Nagpur plateau. They are: Damodar River, North Koel, South Koel, Sankh River, Brahmani River and Subarnarekha rivers.
Part of the reason for the variety and diversity of flora and fauna found in Jharkhand state may be accredited to the Palamau Tiger Reserves under the Project Tiger. This reserve is abode to hundreds of species of flora and fauna, as indicated within brackets: mammals (39), snakes (8), lizards (4), fish (6), insects (21), birds (170), seed bearing plants and trees (97), shrubs and herbs (46), climbers, parasites and semi-parasites (25), and grasses and bamboos (17).
Hindus form majority in all of the districts in Jharkhand except Simdega district, where Christians form majority.
The head of the bureaucracy of the state is the chief secretary. Under this position, is a hierarchy of officials drawn from the Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service, Indian Forest Service, and different wings of the state civil services. The judiciary is headed by the Chief Justice. Jharkhand has a High Court which has been functioning since 2000. All the branches of the government are located in the state capital, Ranchi.
Agriculture is another sector in the economy of Jharkhand which helps the economy to grow. In Jharkhand, farmers produce several crops such as rice, wheat, maize, pulses, potatoes, and vegetables such as tomato, carrots, cabbage, brinjal, pumpkin, and papaya. The other Industries are cottage industry and IT industry.
Local alcoholic drinks include rice beer, originally known as Handi or Handia , named after the vessel handi (earthen pot) used to make it. Handiya is culturally associated with native i.e. Sadans and Tribal, this drink consumed by both men and women, on social occasions like marriage and other festivals. Another common liquor is called Mahua Desi daru, made from flowers of the "Mahua" tree (Madhuca longifolia).
Hindustan, Dainik Jagran, Prabhat Khabar, Ranchi Express are some of the Hindi newspapers and The Times of India, Hindustan Times, Navbharat Times, The Pioneer, The Telegraph are some English newspapers in Jharkhand.
Since the formation of the new state, the Jharkhand Education Project Council (JEPC) has been implementing four projects to spread elementary education: DPEP, SSA, NPEGEL, and KGBV. The state has been moving towards the goal of universal elementary education but the target of 100% enrolment and retention of children in schools has not yet been attained. Jharkhand has made primary education so accessible that 95% of children of ages 6–11 are enrolled in school, as opposed to 56% in 1993–94; this will likely improve literacy a great deal.
The school system comprises various private and public schools. The government schools are abundant. Few notable schools are: Sainik School Tilaiya, Loyola School, Jamshedpur, Delhi Public School, Bokaro, Chinmaya Vidyalaya, Bokaro, Ramakrishna Mission Vidyapith, Deoghar and De Nobili School.
In May 2008, Jharkhand became the first in India to introduce free for poor students. 40,000 will be employed with a monthly salary of 1000 rupees (25 US dollars) which will cost the state government 40 million rupees (1 million US dollars). Under Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan 89 English medium senior secondary school named Model school have been established in about each block of the district in 2011.
Although several public and private health facilities are available in the state, overall infrastructure for dispensing health related services require improvements. An exception is the Tata Motors Hospital which is an example of an ISO 14001 and 18001 certified hospital with DNB teaching facilities.
Ranchi, the capital, has witnessed a sharp growth in the number of hospitals.
Fluoride in groundwater presents a public health problem in Jharkhand. A recent survey led by the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi in collaboration with UNICEF in the northwest districts of Palamau and Garhwa found fluoride levels above the drinking WHO drinking water guidelines. Excessive amounts of fluoride in drinking water can lead to dental fluorosis, prevalent bone fractures, and skeletal fluorosis, an irreversible disabling condition. Some work has focused on combating fluorosis through increased calcium intake by consuming local plants. Researchers at Princeton University and the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi are currently investigating defluoridation options, while performing an epidemiological survey to assess the extent of fluoride linked health problems and the impact of future interventions."Fluoride alert for groundwater," The Telegraph, Calcutta, Friday 11 January 2008. MacDonald, L. "Water and Health: An effective, sustainable treatment strategy to halt the fluorosis endemic in rural villages of Jharkhand State, India"
Almost 80% of Jharkhand's people are farmers, although it contains 40% of India's mineral reserves it has some of India's poorest people, in Summer 2009 the state was threatened by drought, with people criticising the government for not providing food aid or assistance.
Other notable cricketers from Jharkhand are Varun Aaron, India's fastest bowler, Shahbaz Nadeem, left arm spinner and Saurabh Tiwary, left hand hard-hitting batsman of India who represented Mumbai Indians from the 2008 Indian Premier League and currently playing for Delhi Daredevils in 2015. He was one of the key batsmen in the Indian team that won the 2008 U/19 Cricket World Cup in Malaysia. Ashunta Lakra, sister of Vimal Lakra is the Indian Hockey Captain currently. Another sport personality is Deepika Kumari, a young Indian athlete who competes in Archery. She won gold medal in the 2010 Commonwealth games in the women's individual recurve event. Nikki Pradhan currently a member of the national hockey team. Pradhan was the first female Hockey player from Jharkhand who represented India in the Olympic Games. An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. This international stadium has hosted an International Match between India and England on 19 January 2013. Apart from that, this stadium has hosted two IPL 6 matches for KKR and qualifier 2 of IPL 8 between CSK and RCB and Celebrity Cricket League Matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A tennis academy, which was inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik, also runs besides the cricket stadium. Ranchi is among six cities in Hockey India League to be played in January 2013. Ranchi franchise was bought by Patel-Uniexcel Group and the team named Ranchi Rhinos which is now being co-hosted by Mahendra Singh Dhoni and named as Ranchi Rays. JRD TATA Sports Complex, Jamshedpur hosts football matches of Indian Super League and is the home of ISL based football club Jamshedpur FC.
Itkhori Block is a holy place for Hindus, Buddhists and Jains. It is believed to be the place from where Gautama Buddha started his journey for Bodh Gaya. Many sculptures of Hindu, Jain and Buddhist art styles were found in 2018. There are several waterfalls in the state including Jonha Falls, Hundru Falls, Dassam Falls and Panchghagh Falls. Netarhat is a hill station in the state.