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Odisha (, The 'sha' spelling comes about from the historical or Sanskritic letter śa (ଶ), however all Odia sibilants today are realised as sa (ସ). ;

(2019). 9783125396838, Cambridge University Press.
ଓଡ଼ିଶା, ; formerly known as Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India. Located in eastern India, it is surrounded by the states of to the northeast, to the north, to the west and northwest, and to the south. Odisha has of coastline along the Bay of Bengal on its east, from to . It is the 9th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. The state also has the third largest population of in India. is the official and most widely spoken language, spoken by 36.6 million according to the 2016 Census.

The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the emperor in 261 BCE resulting in the , coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha. The modern state of Odisha was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in , and consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions. 1 April is celebrated as Utkala Dibasa. The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana". was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in 1135, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, became the capital of Odisha.

(1994). 9780809318766, SIU Press. .

The economy of Odisha is the 16th-largest state economy in India with in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of . Odisha ranks 25th among Indian states in human development index.


Etymology
The term "Odisha" is derived from the ancient word "Odda Visaya" (also " Udra Bibhasha" or " Odra Bibhasha") as in the Tirumalai inscription of Rajendra Chola I, which is dated to 1025. , who translated the into the in the 15th century, calls the region Odra Rashtra and Odisha. The inscriptions of of the (1435–67) on the walls of temples in call the region Odisha or Odisha Rajya.
(2008). 9788132100010, SAGE Publications. .

The name of the state was changed from Orissa to Odisha, and the name of its language from Oriya to Odia, in 2011, by the passage of the Orissa (Alteration of Name) Bill, 2010 and the Constitution (113th Amendment) Bill, 2010 in the Parliament. After a brief debate, the lower house, , passed the bill and amendment on 9 November 2010. On 24 March 2011, , the upper house of Parliament, also passed the bill and the amendment.


History
Prehistoric tools dating to Lower Paleolithic era have been discovered in various places in the region, implying an early settlement by humans. Kalinga has been mentioned in ancient texts like , and Mahagovinda Suttanta. The of Odisha have also been mentioned in the Mahabharata.
(2008). 9788131303528, APH Publishing. .
mentions Kalinga as not yet being influenced by traditions, implying it followed mostly tribal traditions.
(1998). 9788175330832, M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd.. .
of the dynasty conquered Kalinga in the bloody in 261 BCE, which was the eighth year of his reign.
(1995). 9788120805828, Motilal Banarsidass. .
According to his own , in that war about 100,000 people were killed, 150,000 were captured and more were affected. The resulting bloodshed and suffering of the war is said to have deeply affected Ashoka. He turned into a pacifist and converted to Buddhism.
(1999). 9788122411980, New Age International. .

By c. 150 BCE, emperor , who was possibly a contemporary of Demetrius I of Bactria,

(2006). 9780199775071, Oxford University Press. .
conquered a major part of the Indian sub-continent. Kharavela was a ruler. He also built the monastery atop the Udayagiri hill.
(2006). 9780070635777, Tata McGraw-Hill Education. .
Subsequently, the region was ruled by monarchs, such as
9788184245684, Allied Publishers. .
and .
(2013). 9780231501026, Columbia University Press. .
It was also a part of 's empire.
(1996). 9788120611948, Asian Educational Services. .

Later, the kings of the Somavamsi dynasty began to unite the region. By the reign of Yayati II, c. 1025 CE, they had integrated the region into a single kingdom. Yayati II is supposed to have built the at . They were replaced by the Eastern Ganga dynasty. Notable rulers of the dynasty were Anantavarman Chodaganga, who began re-construction on the present-day Shri Jagannath Temple in (c. 1135), and , who constructed the (c. 1250).

(2014). 9788184753967, Penguin Books Limited. .
9780071329231, Tata McGraw-Hill Education. .

The Eastern Ganga Dynasty was followed by the . The region resisted integration into the until 1568, when it was conquered by Sultanate of Bengal.

(2019). 9789380607344, Primus Books.
Mukunda Deva, who is considered the last independent king of Kalinga, was defeated and was killed in battle by a rebel Ramachandra Bhanja. Ramachandra Bhanja himself was killed by Bayazid Khan Karrani.
9788171995745, Bright Publications. .
In 1591, Man Singh I, then governor of , led an army to take Odisha from the Karranis of Bengal. They agreed to treaty because their leader Qutlu Khan Lohani had recently died. But, they then broke the treaty by attacking the temple town of . Man Singh returned in 1592 and pacified the region.
(2007). 9788172681388, Concept Publishing Company. .

In 1751, the Nawab of Bengal ceded the region to the .

The had occupied the , comprising the southern coast of Odisha, as a result of the 2nd by 1760, and incorporated them into the Madras Presidency gradually.

(2019). 9780230328853, Macmillan India. .
In 1803, the British ousted the Marathas from the Puri-Cuttack region of Odisha during the Second Anglo-Maratha War. The northern and western districts of Odisha were incorporated into the Bengal Presidency.
(1992). 9788171880720, Academic Foundation. .

The Orissa famine of 1866 caused an estimated 1 million deaths.

(2012). 9781598847314, ABC-CLIO. .
Following this, large-scale projects were undertaken.
(1996). 9788170173229, Abhinav Publications. .
There was a view among some sections of population that Odia was not a separate language rather a dialect of Bengali.This view ultimately precipitated Odia nationalism. A Comparative Grammar of the Modern Indo-Aryan Languages, Vol. I, 1872, pp. 117-18. In 1903, the organisation was founded to demand the unification of regions into one state.
(2011). 9788120343054, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.. .
On 1 April 1912, the Bihar and Orissa Province was formed.
(2003). 9788187879077, Aakar Books. .
On 1 April 1936, and Orissa were split into separate provinces.
(1992). 9788171880720, Academic Foundation. .
The new came into existence on a linguistic basis during the British rule in India, with Sir John Austen Hubback as the first governor. Following India's independence, on 15 August 1947, 27 signed the document to join Orissa.
(2019). 9788188569144, Indus Source. .


Geography
Odisha lies between the 17.780N and 22.730N, and between 81.37E and 87.53E. The state has an area of 155,707 km2, which is 4.87% of total area of India, and a coastline of 450 km. In the eastern part of the state lies the coastal plain. It extends from the Subarnarekha River in the north to the river in the south. The lake is part of the coastal plains. The plains are rich in fertile deposited by the six major rivers flowing into the Bay of Bengal: Subarnarekha, , , , and . The Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), a Food and Agriculture Organization-recognised rice and research institute, is situated on the banks of Mahanadi in . Three-quarters of the state is covered in mountain ranges. Deep and broad valleys have been made in them by rivers. These valleys have fertile soil and are densely populated. Odisha also has and , which have lower elevation than the plateaus. The highest point in the state is Deomali at 1,672 metres. The other high peaks are: Sinkaram (1,620 m), Golikoda (1,617 m), and Yendrika (1,582 metres).
(2019). 9788180697234, Concept Publishing Company. .


Climate
The state experiences four meteorological seasons: winter (January to February), pre-monsoon season (March to May), south-west monsoon season (June to September) and (October–December). However, locally the year is divided into six traditional seasons (or rutus): Basanta (spring), Grishma (summer), Barsha (rainy season), Sharad (autumn), Hemant (winter), and Sheeta(cool season).
14.2
28.0
20.9
14.2
22.7
218.9
459.0
487.5
243.5
56.6
17.6
4.8


Biodiversity
According to a Forest Survey of India report released in 2012, Odisha has 48,903 km2 of forests which cover 31.41% of the state's total area. The forests are classified into: dense forest (7,060 km2), medium dense forest (21,366 km2), open forest (forest without closed canopy; 20,477 km2) and (4,734 km2). The state also has (10,518 km2) and (221 km2). The state is losing its forests to , , industrialisation and . There have been attempts at conservation and .

Due to the climate and good rainfall, Odisha's evergreen and moist forests are suitable habitats for wild . Around 130 species have been reported from the state.

(2007). 9788189422608, New India Publishing. .
97 of them are found in Mayurbhanj district alone. The Orchid House of Nandakanan Biological Park hosts some of these species.

Simlipal National Park is a protected wildlife area and tiger reserve spread over 2750 km2 of the northern part of Mayurbhanj district. It has 1078 species of plants, including 94 orchids. The is the primary tree species there. The park has 55 mammals, including , , , four-horned antelope, , , Indian giant squirrel, , , , and . There are 304 species of birds in the park, such as the common hill myna, grey hornbill, Indian pied hornbill and Malabar pied hornbill. It also has 60 species of reptiles, notable among which are the and tricarinate hill turtle. There is also a breeding program in nearby Ramtirtha. The Chandaka Elephant Sanctuary is a 190 km2 protected area near the capital city, Bhubaneswar. However, urban expansion and over-grazing have reduced the forests and are driving herds of elephants to migration. In 2002, there were about 80 elephants. But by 2012, their numbers had been reduced to 20. Many of the animals have migrated toward the Barbara reserve forest, Chilika, Nayagarh district, and . Some elephants have died in conflicts with villagers, while some have died during migration from being electrocuted by power lines or hit by trains. Outside the protected area, they are killed by . Besides elephants, the sanctuary also has , and .

(1993). 9788185182889, Indus Publishing. .

The Bhitarkanika National Park in Kendrapara District covers 650 km2, of which 150 km2 are mangroves. The Gahiramatha beach in Bhitarkanika is the world's largest nesting site for olive ridley sea turtles.

(2019). 9789251055663, Food & Agriculture Org.. .
Other major nesting grounds for the turtle in the state are , in , and the mouth of the . The Bhitarkanika sanctuary is also noted for its large population of salt-water crocodiles. In winter, the sanctuary is also visited by migratory birds. Among the species of birds spotted in the sanctuary are the black-crowned night heron, , , , Oriental white ibis, , and . The possibly endangered is also found in this region.

is a brackish water lagoon on the east coast of Odisha with an area of 1105 km2. It is connected to the Bay of Bengal by a 35-km-long narrow channel and is a part of the Mahanadi delta. In the dry season, the tides bring in salt water. In the rainy season, the rivers falling into the lagoon decrease its salinity.

(2007). 9781402051807, Springer Science & Business Media. .
Birds from places like the , , other parts of , , , and the migrate to the lagoon in winter. Among the birds spotted there are , , , , , and . The lagoon also has a small population of the endangered Irrawaddy dolphins. The state's coastal region has also had sightings of , bottlenose dolphin, and in its waters.

is situated close to the northeast cape of Chilika Lake and Bay of Bengal. It is famous for dolphin watching in their natural habitat. There is a tiny island en-route for watching dolphins, where tourists often take a short stop. Apart from that, this island is also home for tiny red crabs.


Government and politics
All states in India are governed by a parliamentary system of government based on universal adult franchise.
(2013). 9781136198489, Routledge. .
India's parliament is . The lower house is called the . Odisha contributes 21 members to Lok Sabha. They are directly elected by the . The upper house is called the . Odisha contributes ten members to Rajya Sabha. They are elected by the state's legislature.

The main parties active in the politics of Odisha are the Biju Janata Dal, the Indian National Congress and Bhartiya Janata Party. Following the Odisha State Assembly Election in 2014, the -led Biju Janata Dal stayed in power for the fifth consecutive term.


Legislative assembly
The Odisha state has a legislature.
9788189597139, FK Publications. .
The Odisha Legislative Assembly consists of 147 elected members, and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, who are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker, or by the Deputy Speaker in the Speaker's absence.
9789350350119, Universal Law Publishing. .
Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister, although the titular head of government is the Governor of Odisha. The Governor is appointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the Governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly.
(1995). 9788173280689, New Age International. .
The 147 elected representatives are called Members of the Legislative Assembly, or MLAs. One MLA may be nominated from the community by the Governor.
(2019). 9788179752173, Anamika Pub. & distributors. .
The term of the office is for five years, unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term.


Administrative units
There are 30 districts in Odisha — , Balangir, Balasore, , , , , , Dhenkanal, Gajapati, , Jagatsinghpur, , Jharsuguda, , , Kendrapara, Keonjhar, , , Malkangiri, , Nabarangpur, Nayagarh, , , Rayagada, Sambalpur, Subarnapur, Sundargarh.

These 30 districts have been placed under three different revenue divisions to streamline their governance. The divisions are North, South and Central, with their headquarters at , and respectively. Each division consists of 10 districts, and has as its administrative head a Revenue Divisional Commissioner (RDC). The position of the RDC in the administrative hierarchy is that between that of the district administration and the state secretariat.

9780071074667, McGraw-Hill Education (India) Pvt Limited. .
The RDCs report to the Board of Revenue, which is headed by a senior officer of the Indian Administrative Service.
+Division-wise list of districts

Each district is governed by a Collector and District Magistrate, who is appointed from the Indian Administrative Service.

(2009). 9788120339798, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.. .
(2019). 9781259003820, Tata McGraw Hill Education. .
The Collector & District Magistrate is responsible for collecting the revenue and maintaining law and order in the district. Each District is separated into Sub-Divisions, each governed by a Sub-Collector and Sub-Divisional Magistrate. The Sub-Divisions are further divided into Tahasils. The Tahasils are headed by Tahasildar. Odisha has 58 Sub-Divisions, 317 Tahasils and 314 Blocks. Blocks consists of (village councils) and town municipalities.

The capital and largest city of the state is . The other major cities are , , and . Municipal Corporations in Odisha include , , , and .

Other municipalities of Odisha include , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Dhenkanal, Gopalpur, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Sonepur, , and .

Auxiliary authorities known as , for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs.

The is composed of the Odisha High Court, located at Cuttack, and a system of lower courts.


Economy

Macro-economic trend
Odisha is experiencing steady economic growth. The impressive growth in gross domestic product of the state has been reported by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Odisha's growth rate is above the national average. The central Government's Urban Development Ministry has recently announced the names of 20 cities selected to be developed as smart cities. The state capital is the first city in the list of smart Cities released in January 2016, a pet project of the Indian Government. The announcement also marked with sanction of Rs 50,802 crore over the five years for development.


Industrial development
Odisha has abundant natural resources and a large coastline. Odisha has emerged as the most preferred destination for overseas investors with investment proposals. It contains a fifth of India's coal, a quarter of its iron ore, a third of its reserves and most of the . Rourkela Steel Plant was the first integrated steel plant in the public sector in India, built with collaboration of Germany.

Arcelor-Mittal has also announced plans to invest in another mega steel project amounting to $10 billion. Russian major Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Company (MMK) plans to set up a 10 MT steel plant in Odisha, too. is a major area of open cast coal mines in Odisha. The state is attracting an unprecedented amount of investment in aluminium, coal-based power plants, petrochemicals, and information technology as well. In power generation, (Anil Ambani Group) is putting up the world's largest power plant with an investment of US$13 billion at Hirma in Jharsuguda district.

In 2009 Odisha was the second top domestic investment destination with first and in third place according to an analysis of Investment Meter (AIM) study on corporate investments. Odisha's share was 12.6 percent in total investment in the country. It received investment proposal worth . 2,00,846 crore during the last year. Steel and power were among the sectors which attracted maximum investments in the state. Flood and cyclone are the major hurdles in Odisha's development as the important districts are situated near to the Bay of Bengal. In the five-year period between 2004 and 2005 and 2008–09, Odisha's GDP has grown by a stunning 8.74% way beyond the definition of 7% growth. All-India growth during this period was 8.49%. In this period, Odisha was the fourth fastest growing state, just behind Gujarat, , .


Transportation
Odisha has a network of roads, railways, airports and seaports. is well connected by air, rail and road with the rest of India. Some highways are getting expanded to four lanes. Plans for metro rail connecting Bhubaneshwar and Cuttack, a journey of 30 km, have also started.


Air
Odisha has a total of two operational airports, 17 airstrips and 16 helipads. The airport at Jharsuguda was upgraded to a full-fledged domestic airport in May 2018. The government of Odisha also plans five greenfield airports at , , , and in an effort to boost intra-state and inter-state civil aviation. Existing aerodromes at , , and were also to be upgraded. , is Odisha's sole company based in .


Seaports
There are many sea ports in the long seacoast of Odisha. some of them are:
  • Port of Dhamara
  • Port of Gopalpur
  • Port of Paradip
  • Port of Subarnarekha
  • Port of Astarang
  • Port of Chandipur


Railways
Major cities of Odisha are well connected to all the major cities of by direct daily trains and weekly trains. Most of the railway network in Odisha lies under the jurisdiction of the East Coast Railway (ECoR) with headquarters at and some parts under South Eastern Railway and South East Central Railway.


Demographics
According to the 2018 census of India, the total population of Odisha is 46,143,782, of which 21,201,678 (50.54%) are male and 20,745,680 (49.46%) are female, or 978 females per 1000 males. This represents a 13.97% increase over the population in 2001. The population density is 269 per km2.

The dominant ethnic group is the .A large percentage of the population is tribal. Some of the important tribes are , , , , , , and Kora.

The literacy rate is 73%, with 82% of males and 64% of females being literate, according to the 2011 census.

The proportion of people living below the poverty line in 2004–2005 was 57.15% which was nearly double the Indian average of 26.10%. Since 2005 the state has reduced poverty rate dramatically by 24.6 percentage points.According to current estimate proportion of people living under poverty line was 32.6%

Data of 1996–2001 showed the life expectancy in the state was 61.64 years, higher than the national value of years. The state has a of 23.2 per 1,000 people per year, a of 9.1 per 1,000 people per year, an infant mortality rate of 65 per 1000 live birth and a maternal mortality rate of 358 per 1,000,000 live births. Odisha has a Human Development Index of 0.442 as of 2011.


Religion
The majority (over 94%) of people in the state of Odisha are Hindu and there is also a rich cultural heritage in the state. For example, Odisha is home to several Hindu figures. was a leader of the . , a Hindu , was the translator of the epic in Odia. Chaitanya Das was a and writer of the Nirguna Mahatmya. was the author of the .

The Odisha Temple Authorisation Act of 1948 empowered the Government of Odisha to have Hindu temples open for all Hindus including the Harijans.P. 63 Case studies on human rights and fundamental freedoms: a world survey, Volume 4 By Willem Adriaan Veenhoven

Perhaps the oldest scripture of Odisha is the Madala Panji from the Puri Temple believed from 1042 AD. Famous Hindu Odia scripture includes the 16th-century Bhagabata of Jagannatha Dasa.P. 77 Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 30 By Scholastic Library Publishing In the modern times Madhusudan Rao was a major Odia writer, who was a and shaped modern Odia literature at the start of the 20th century. Madhusudan Rao By Jatindra Mohan Mohanty, Sahitya Akademi

Christians in Odisha account for about 2.8% of the population while account for 2.2% as per census figures of 2001. The , and communities together account for 0.1% of the population


Languages
is the official language along with English as center state communication. Odia is spoken as a native language by 82.7% of the population according to 2011 census. Other minority languages of the state are , , , Kui, , and .


Education

Educational Institutions
  • Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar(IIT BBS) at Bhubaneswar
  • National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER) at Bhubaneswar
  • at Rourkela
  • Indian Institute of Management (IIM-SB) at Sambalpur
  • Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISER) at Brahmapur
  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) at Bhubaneswar
  • Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology (VSSUT) at Burla
  • National Law University at Cuttack
  • International Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) at Bhubaneswar
  • Berhampur University at Brahmapur
  • Biju Patnaik University of Technology at Rourkela
  • Buxi Jagabandhu Bidyadhar College at Bhubaneswar
  • Central University of Orissa at Koraput
  • College of Agriculture, Bhawanipatna
  • College of Engineering and Technology at Bhubaneswar
  • Dharanidhar College at Keonjhar
  • Fakir Mohan University at Balasore
  • Gangadhar Meher University at Sambalpur
  • Government College of Engineering, Kalahandi at Bhawanipatna
  • Hi-Tech Medical College & Hospital, Bhubaneswar at Bhubaneswar
  • Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology at Sarang
  • KIIT University at Bhubaneswar
  • Khallikote University at Brahmapur
  • Maharaja Krishna Chandra Gajapati Medical College and Hospital at Brahmapur
  • National Institute of Science and Technology at Brahmapur
  • North Orissa University at Baripada
  • Odisha State Open University at Sambalpur
  • Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology at Bhubaneswar
  • Parala Maharaja Engineering College at Brahmapur
  • Rama Devi Women's University at Bhubaneswar
  • Ravenshaw University at Cuttack
  • Sambalpur University at Sambalpur
  • Shri Ramachandra Bhanj Medical College at Cuttack
  • Siksha O Anusandhan University at Bhubaneswar
  • at Bhubaneswar
  • Utkal University of Culture at Bhubaneswar
  • Veer Surendra Sai Medical College at Burla
  • Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar
  • Xavier University, Bhubaneswar
  • Institute of Mathematics and Applications, Bhubaneswar
  • Sri Sri University at Cuttack
  • Centurion University at Jatni, Bhubaneswar
  • National Institute of Rehabilitation Training and Research at Cuttack
  • National Institute of Social Work and Social Science, Bhubaneswar (NISWASS)
  • Pandit Raghunath Murmu Medical College and Hospital,
  • Saheed Laxman Nayak Medical College and Hospital,

Entry to various institutes of higher education especially into engineering degrees is through a centralised Odisha Joint Entrance Examination, conducted by the Biju Patnaik University of Technology (BPUT), , since 2003, where seats are provided according to order of merit. Few of the engineering institutes enroll students by through Joint Entrance Examination. For medical courses, there is a corresponding All India Pre Medical Test.


Culture

Cuisine
Odisha has a culinary tradition spanning centuries. The kitchen of the Shri Jagannath Temple, Puri is reputed to be the largest in the world, with 1,000 chefs, working around 752 wood-burning clay hearths called chulas, to feed over 10,000 people each day.
(2006). 9788122309515, Pustak Mahal. .

The syrupy dessert made in Odisha is known throughout the world. is another major Odisha sweet cuisine, which originated in .

Except these Pakhala is considered as traditional food of every Odia family. Chhena Jhilipi of Nimapada, Mudhi Mansa of Baripada, Aloodum Dahibara of Cuttack, various pancakes prepared during festivals are some important cuisines of the state. With this Santula and Dalmaa are some of the cuisine of the state .


Festivals
The people of Odisha celebrate many festivals over the year. Few of the important ones are

  • Ratha Yatra

is a Hindu festival associated with Lord Jagannath held at Puri in the state of Odisha.

  • Raja

Raja is one of the major festivals of Odisha. It is celebrated on to celebrate and worship mother Earth.

  • Durga Puja

which is celebrated for worshiping Goddess Durga. It is observed in the lunar month of Ashwin , roughly in the month of October and coincides with harvest season.

  • Sitalsasthi

is a major festival of western Odisha that celebrates the wedding of Shiva and Parvati.

  • Nuakhai/Nuankhai

or Nuankhai is an agricultural festival to welcome the new rice of the season. Traditionally this festival marks the beginning of the consumption of a new rice harvest.

  • Karama

Karama is a festival dedicated to the worship of Karam-Devta (Karam-Lord/God), the god of power, youth, and youthfulness. It is celebrated mainly by the tribal groups.


Dance
Odissi (Orissi) dance and music are classical art forms. Odissi is the oldest surviving dance form in India on the basis of archaeological evidence. Odissi has a long, unbroken tradition of 2,000 years, and finds mention in the of , possibly written c. 200 BC. However, the dance form nearly became extinct during the British period, only to be revived after India's independence by a few gurus.

The variety of dances includes , , , , and .


Tourism
The Lingaraja Temple at has a high deula while the Jagannath Temple, Puri is about high and dominates the skyline. Only a portion of the Konark Sun Temple, the largest of the temples of the "Holy Golden Triangle" exists today, and it is still staggering in size. It stands out as a masterpiece in Odisha architecture. , regarded as one of the most spiritually elevated expressions of Shaktism is in Jagatsinghpur district. It is also one of the holiest places in Odisha and a major tourist attraction. Maa tarini temple situated in Kendujhar district is also a famous pilgrimage destination. Every day thousands of coconuts are given to Maa Tarini by devotees for fulfilling their wishes.
(2013). 9781400848324, Princeton University Press. .

Odisha's varying topography – from the wooded Eastern Ghats to the fertile river basin – has proven ideal for evolution of compact and unique ecosystems. This creates treasure troves of flora and fauna that are inviting to many migratory species of birds and reptiles. Bhitarkanika National Park is famous for its second largest mangrove ecosystem. The bird sanctuary in (Asia's largest brackish water lake) and the tiger reserve and waterfalls in Simlipal National Park are integral parts eco-tourism in Odisha, arranged by Odisha Tourism. is a hill station in the district of Odisha. Chandipur, a calm and serene site, is mostly unexplored by tourists. The unique specialty of this beach is the ebb tides that recede up to 4 km and tend to disappear rhythmically.

The share of foreign tourists’ arrival in the state is below one percent of total foreign tourist arrivals at all India level.


See also


External links
Government

General information

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