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Hinduism (; hindoo dharm) is an and , or way of life. It is the world's third-largest religion, with over 1.25 billion followers, or 15–16% of the global population, known as . The word is an , and while Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, many practitioners refer to their religion as Sanātana Dharma (सनातन धर्म: ), which refers to the idea that its origins lie beyond human history, as revealed in the . Another, though less fitting, self-designation is Vaidika dharma, the 'dharma related to the .'

Hinduism includes a range of , and is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, , pilgrimage to sacred sites and shared textual resources that discuss theology, philosophy, , Vedic , , agamic , and , among other topics. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings ( Ahiṃsā), patience, forbearance, self-restraint, virtue, and compassion, among others. See also Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life; namely, dharma (ethics/duties), (prosperity/work), (desires/passions) and (liberation/freedom from the cycle of death and /salvation),; see also . as well as (action, intent and consequences) and saṃsāra (cycle of death and rebirth).

Hindu practices include rituals such as puja (worship) and recitations, , meditation (dhyāna), family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, and occasional pilgrimages. Along with the practice of various yogas, some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions and engage in lifelong (monasticism) in order to achieve Moksha.

(1996). 9781563381614, Bloomsbury Academic. .

Hindu texts are classified into Śruti ("heard") and ("remembered"), the major scriptures of which are the Vedas, the , the , the , the , and the Āgamas.

(1992). 9780679410782, Penguin Random House.
There are six āstika schools of Hindu philosophy, who recognise the authority of the Vedas, namely , Yoga, , , Mimāmsā and .
(2021). 9780857930736, Edward Elgar Publishing. .
(2021). 9780852297605, Encyclopædia Britannica India.
(2021). 9780231149877, Columbia University Press.

While the Puranic chronology presents a geneaology of thousands of years, starting with the Vedic rishis, scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of Brahmanical orthopraxy with various Indian cultures,; ; having diverse roots and no specific founder. This emerged after the Vedic period, between ca. 500–200 BCE and ca. 300 CE, in the period of the Second Urbanisation and the early classical period of Hinduism, when the Epics and the first Purānas were composed. It flourished in the , with the decline of Buddhism in India.

Currently, the four largest denominations of Hinduism are the , , and . Sources of authority and eternal truths in the Hindu texts play an important role, but there is also a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition.

(2021). 9780826499660, Continuum. .
Hinduism is the most widely professed faith in India, Nepal and Mauritius. Significant numbers of Hindu communities are found in including in , , the , , , , , and other regions.
(2021). 9781136367052, Routledge. .

Hinduism is the second fastest-growing religion in the world, after with a growth of 17%.


Etymology
The word Hindū is derived from Indo-Aryan/ root Sindhu. The Proto-Iranian sound change *s > h occurred between 850 and 600 BCE, according to .: "In Iranian languages, Proto-Iranian *s became h before a following vowel at a relatively late period, perhaps around 850–600 BCE."

The use of the English term "Hinduism" to describe a collection of practices and beliefs is a fairly recent construction: it was first used by Raja Ram Mohun Roy in 1816–17. The term "Hinduism" was coined in around 1830 by those Indians who opposed British colonialism, and who wanted to distinguish themselves from other religious groups. Before the British began to categorise communities strictly by religion, Indians generally did not define themselves exclusively through their religious beliefs; instead identities were largely segmented on the basis of locality, language, varṇa, jāti, occupation and sect.

The word "Hindu" is much older, and it is believed that it was used as the name for the in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. According to , "The actual term Hindu first occurs as a geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus (Sanskrit: Sindhu)", more specifically in the 6th-century BCE inscription of (550–486 BCE). The term Hindu in these ancient records is a geographical term and did not refer to a religion. Among the earliest known records of 'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by , and 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by 'Abd al-Malik Isami.

Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in – equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu, while hndstn (pronounced Hindustan) is found in a inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia.

(2021). 9780520242258, University of California Press.
The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people who live across the River Indus. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus".

The term Hindu was later used occasionally in some Sanskrit texts such as the later of Kashmir (Hinduka, c. 1450) and some 16th- to 18th-century Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas (foreigners) or (barbarians), with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase " Hindu dharma". It was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus.

The term Hinduism, then spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious, philosophical, and cultural traditions native to India.

(2021). 9783931479497, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag.


Definitions
Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s) nor any binding holy book; Hindus can choose to be , , , , , , , , or . Quote: "... one need not be religious in the minimal sense described to be accepted as a Hindu by Hindus, or describe oneself perfectly validly as Hindu. One may be polytheistic or monotheistic, monistic or pantheistic,henotheistic, panentheistic ,pandeistic, even an agnostic, humanist or atheist, and still be considered a Hindu."
(2021). 9780123695031, Academic Press.
MK Gandhi, The Essence of Hinduism , Editor: VB Kher, Navajivan Publishing, see page 3; According to Gandhi, "a man may not believe in God and still call himself a Hindu." According to Doniger, "ideas about all the major issues of faith and lifestyle – vegetarianism, nonviolence, belief in rebirth, even caste – are subjects of debate, not ."

Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, and "a way of life". From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India, the term dharma is preferred, which is broader than the Western term religion.

The study of India and its cultures and religions, and the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by the interests of colonialism and by Western notions of religion. Since the 1990s, those influences and its outcomes have been the topic of debate among scholars of Hinduism, and have also been taken over by critics of the Western view on India.


Typology
Hinduism as it is commonly known can be subdivided into a number of major currents. Of the historical division into six (philosophies), two schools, and Yoga, are currently the most prominent. Classified by primary deity or deities, four major Hinduism modern currents are (Vishnu), (Shiva), (Devi) and (five deities treated as same). Hinduism also accepts numerous divine beings, with many Hindus considering the deities to be aspects or manifestations of a single impersonal absolute or ultimate reality or God, while some Hindus maintain that a specific deity represents the supreme and various deities are lower manifestations of this supreme. Other notable characteristics include a belief in the existence of ātman (soul, self), of one's ātman, and karma as well as a belief in dharma (duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and right way of living).

McDaniel (2007) classifies Hinduism into six major kinds and numerous minor kinds, in order to understand the expression of emotions among the Hindus.June McDaniel "Hinduism", in

(2021). 9780195170214, Oxford University Press.
The major kinds, according to McDaniel are , based on local traditions and cults of local and is the oldest, non-literate system; Vedic Hinduism based on the earliest layers of the Vedas traceable to 2nd millennium BCE; Vedantic Hinduism based on the philosophy of the , including , emphasizing knowledge and wisdom; Yogic Hinduism, following the text of Yoga Sutras of Patanjali emphasizing introspective awareness; Dharmic Hinduism or "daily morality", which McDaniel states is stereotyped in some books as the "only form of Hindu religion with a belief in karma, cows and caste"; and or devotional Hinduism, where intense emotions are elaborately incorporated in the pursuit of the spiritual.

Michaels distinguishes three Hindu religions and four forms of Hindu religiosity. The three Hindu religions are "Brahmanic-Sanskritic Hinduism", "folk religions and tribal religions", and "founded religions". The four forms of Hindu religiosity are the classical "karma-marga", , , and "heroism", which is rooted in militaristic traditions. These militaristic traditions include Ramaism (the worship of a hero of epic literature, , believing him to be an incarnation of Vishnu) and parts of political Hinduism. "Heroism" is also called virya-marga. According to Michaels, one out of nine Hindu belongs by birth to one or both of the Brahmanic-Sanskritic Hinduism and Folk religion typology, whether practicing or non-practicing. He classifies most Hindus as belonging by choice to one of the "founded religions" such as Vaishnavism and Shaivism that are salvation-focussed and often de-emphasize Brahman priestly authority yet incorporate ritual grammar of Brahmanic-Sanskritic Hinduism. He includes among "founded religions" Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism that are now distinct religions, movements such as and the Theosophical Society, as well as various "-isms" and new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and .

Inden states that the attempt to classify Hinduism by typology started in the imperial times, when proselytizing missionaries and colonial officials sought to understand and portray Hinduism from their interests. Hinduism was construed as emanating not from a reason of spirit but fantasy and creative imagination, not conceptual but symbolical, not ethical but emotive, not rational or spiritual but of cognitive mysticism. This stereotype followed and fit, states Inden, with the imperial imperatives of the era, providing the moral justification for the colonial project. From tribal Animism to Buddhism, everything was subsumed as part of Hinduism. The early reports set the tradition and scholarly premises for the typology of Hinduism, as well as the major assumptions and flawed presuppositions that have been at the foundation of . Hinduism, according to Inden, has been neither what imperial religionists stereotyped it to be, nor is it appropriate to equate Hinduism to be merely the monist pantheism and philosophical idealism of Advaita Vedanta.Ronald Inden (2001), Imagining India, Indiana University Press, , pages 117–122, 127–130


Hindu views

To its adherents, Hinduism is a traditional way of life.
(2021). 9780415221559, . .
Many practitioners refer to the "orthodox" form of Hinduism as , "the eternal law" or the "eternal way".; Hindus regard Hinduism to be thousands of years old. The Puranic chronology, the timeline of events in ancient Indian history as narrated in the , the , and the , envisions a chronology of events related to Hinduism starting well before 3000 BCE. The Sanskrit word dharma has a much broader meaning than and is not its equivalent. All aspects of a Hindu life, namely acquiring wealth (artha), fulfillment of desires (kama), and attaining liberation (moksha), are part of dharma, which encapsulates the "right way of living" and eternal harmonious principles in their fulfillment.

According to the editors of the Encyclopædia Britannica, historically referred to the "eternal" duties religiously ordained in Hinduism, duties such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings ( ), purity, goodwill, mercy, patience, forbearance, self-restraint, generosity, and asceticism. These duties applied regardless of a Hindu's class, caste, or sect, and they contrasted with svadharma, one's "own duty", in accordance with one's class or caste (varṇa) and stage in life (puruṣārtha). In recent years, the term has been used by Hindu leaders, reformers, and nationalists to refer to Hinduism. Sanatana dharma has become a synonym for the "eternal" truth and teachings of Hinduism, that transcend history and are "unchanging, indivisible and ultimately nonsectarian".

According to other scholars such as Kim Knott and Brian Hatcher, Sanātana Dharma refers to "timeless, eternal set of truths" and this is how Hindus view the origins of their religion. It is viewed as those eternal truths and tradition with origins beyond human history, truths divinely revealed () in the – the most ancient of the world's scriptures. To many Hindus, the Western term "religion" to the extent it means "dogma and an institution traceable to a single founder" is inappropriate for their tradition, states Hatcher. Hinduism, to them, is a tradition that can be traced at least to the ancient Vedic era.


Vaidika dharma
Some have referred to Hinduism as the Vaidika dharma. The word 'Vaidika' in Sanskrit means 'derived from or conformable to the Veda' or 'relating to the Veda'. Traditional scholars employed the terms Vaidika and Avaidika, those who accept the Vedas as a source of authoritative knowledge and those who do not, to differentiate various Indian schools from Jainism, Buddhism and Charvaka. According to Klaus Klostermaier, the term Vaidika dharma is the earliest self-designation of Hinduism. According to , the historical evidence suggests that "the Hindus were referring to their religion by the term vaidika dharma or a variant thereof" by the 4th-century CE. According to Brian K. Smith, "it is 'debatable at the very least' as to whether the term Vaidika Dharma cannot, with the proper concessions to historical, cultural and ideological specificity, be comparable to and translated as 'Hinduism' or 'Hindu religion'."

According to Alexis Sanderson, the early Sanskrit texts differentiate between Vaidika, Vaishnava, Shaiva, Shakta, Saura, Buddhist and Jaina traditions. However, the late 1st-millennium CE Indic consensus had "indeed come to conceptualize a complex entity corresponding to Hinduism as opposed to Buddhism and Jainism excluding only certain forms of Shakta-Shaiva" from its fold. Some in the school of Hindu philosophy considered the Agamas such as the Pancaratrika to be invalid because it did not conform to the Vedas. Some Kashmiri scholars rejected the esoteric tantric traditions to be a part of Vaidika dharma. The Atimarga Shaivism ascetic tradition, datable to about 500 CE, challenged the Vaidika frame and insisted that their Agamas and practices were not only valid, they were superior than those of the Vaidikas. However, adds Sanderson, this Shaiva ascetic tradition viewed themselves as being genuinely true to the Vedic tradition and "held unanimously that the Śruti and Smṛti of Brahmanism are universally and uniquely valid in their own sphere, ... and that as such they Vedas are man's sole means of valid knowledge ...".

The term Vaidika dharma means a code of practice that is "based on the Vedas", but it is unclear what "based on the Vedas" really implies, states Julius Lipner. The Vaidika dharma or "Vedic way of life", states Lipner, does not mean "Hinduism is necessarily religious" or that Hindus have a universally accepted "conventional or institutional meaning" for that term. To many, it is as much a cultural term. Many Hindus do not have a copy of the Vedas nor have they ever seen or personally read parts of a Veda, like a Christian, might relate to the Bible or a Muslim might to the Quran. Yet, states Lipner, "this does not mean that their Hindus whole life's orientation cannot be traced to the Vedas or that it does not in some way derive from it".

Though many religious Hindus implicitly acknowledge the authority of the Vedas, this acknowledgment is often "no more than a declaration that someone considers himself or a Hindu," and "most Indians today pay lip service to the Veda and have no regard for the contents of the text."; see also ; and Some Hindus challenge the authority of the Vedas, thereby implicitly acknowledging its importance to the history of Hinduism, states Lipner.


Hindu modernism
Beginning in the 19th century, Indian modernists re-asserted Hinduism as a major asset of Indian civilisation, meanwhile "purifying" Hinduism from its Tantric elements and elevating the Vedic elements. Western stereotypes were reversed, emphasizing the universal aspects, and introducing modern approaches of social problems. This approach had a great appeal, not only in India, but also in the west. Major representatives of are Raja Rammohan Roy, , Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and . [Raja Rammohan Roy is known as the father of the Hindu Renaissance.
(2021). 9780761421160, Marshall Cavendish. .
He was a major influence on Swami Vivekananda (1863–1902), who, according to Flood, was "a figure of great importance in the development of a modern Hindu self-understanding and in formulating the West's view of Hinduism". Central to his philosophy is the idea that the divine exists in all beings, that all human beings can achieve union with this "innate divinity", and that seeing this divine as the essence of others will further love and social harmony. According to Vivekananda, there is an essential unity to Hinduism, which underlies the diversity of its many forms. According to Flood, Vivekananda's vision of Hinduism "is one generally accepted by most English-speaking middle-class Hindus today". Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan sought to reconcile western rationalism with Hinduism, "presenting Hinduism as an essentially rationalistic and humanistic religious experience".

This "Global Hinduism" has a worldwide appeal, transcending national boundaries and, according to Flood, "becoming a world religion alongside Christianity, Islam and Buddhism", both for the Hindu diaspora communities and for westerners who are attracted to non-western cultures and religions. It emphasizes universal spiritual values such as social justice, peace and "the spiritual transformation of humanity". It has developed partly due to "re-enculturation", or the , in which elements of Hindu culture have been exported to the West, gaining popularity there, and as a consequence also gained greater popularity in India. This globalization of Hindu culture brought "to the West teachings which have become an important cultural force in western societies, and which in turn have become an important cultural force in India, their place of origin".


Legal definitions
The definition of Hinduism in Indian Law is: "Acceptance of the Vedas with reverence; recognition of the fact that the means or ways to salvation are diverse; and realization of the truth that the number of gods to be worshipped is large".
(1973). 9783447015196, Harrassowitz.


Scholarly views
The term Hinduism was coined in Western ethnography in the 18th century, and refers to the fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This emerged after the Vedic period, between c. 500–200 BCE and c. 300 CE, in the period of the Second Urbanisation and the early classical period of Hinduism, when the Epics and the first Puranas were composed. It flourished in the , with the decline of Buddhism in India. Hinduism's tolerance to variations in belief and its broad range of traditions make it difficult to define as a religion according to traditional Western conceptions.

Some academics suggest that Hinduism can be seen as a category with "fuzzy edges" rather than as a well-defined and rigid entity. Some forms of religious expression are central to Hinduism and others, while not as central, still remain within the category. Based on this idea Gabriella Eichinger Ferro-Luzzi has developed a 'Prototype Theory approach' to the definition of Hinduism.


Diversity and unity

Diversity
Hindu beliefs are vast and diverse, and thus Hinduism is often referred to as a family of religions rather than a single religion. Within each religion in this family of religions, there are different theologies, practices, and sacred texts. Hinduism does not have a "unified system of belief encoded in a declaration of faith or a ", but is rather an umbrella term comprising the plurality of religious phenomena of India.
(1962). 9780791403617, Harper and Row. .
According to the Supreme Court of India,

Part of the problem with a single definition of the term Hinduism is the fact that Hinduism does not have a founder. It is a synthesis of various traditions,; the "Brahmanical orthopraxy, the renouncer traditions and popular or local traditions".

is also difficult to use as a unifying doctrine for Hinduism, because while some Hindu philosophies postulate a theistic of creation, other Hindus are or have been atheists.


Sense of unity
Despite the differences, there is also a sense of unity. Most Hindu traditions revere a body of religious or , the Vedas, although there are exceptions. These texts are a reminder of the ancient cultural heritage and point of pride for Hindus,
(2021). 9780415600293, Routledge.
with stating that "even in the most orthodox domains, the reverence to the Vedas has come to be a simple raising of the hat".
(2021). 9780415635035, Routledge.

Halbfass states that, although Shaivism and Vaishnavism may be regarded as "self-contained religious constellations", there is a degree of interaction and reference between the "theoreticians and literary representatives" of each tradition that indicates the presence of "a wider sense of identity, a sense of coherence in a shared context and of inclusion in a common framework and horizon".


Classical Hinduism
Brahmins played an essential role in the development of the post-Vedic Hindu synthesis, disseminating Vedic culture to local communities, and integrating local religiosity into the trans-regional Brahmanic culture. In the post- Vedanta developed in southern India, where orthodox Brahmanic culture and the Hindu culture were preserved, building on ancient Vedic traditions while "accommodating the multiple demands of Hinduism."


Medieval developments
The notion of common denominators for several religions and traditions of India further developed from the 12th century CE.; Lorenzen traces the emergence of a "family resemblance", and what he calls as "beginnings of medieval and modern Hinduism" taking shape, at c. 300–600 CE, with the development of the early Puranas, and continuities with the earlier Vedic religion. Lorenzen states that the establishment of a Hindu self-identity took place "through a process of mutual self-definition with a contrasting Muslim Other". According to Lorenzen, this "presence of the Other" is necessary to recognise the "loose family resemblance" among the various traditions and schools.

According to the Indologist , before Islam arrived in India, the "Sanskrit sources differentiated Vaidika, Vaiṣṇava, Śaiva, Śākta, Saura, Buddhist, and Jaina traditions, but they had no name that denotes the first five of these as a collective entity over and against Buddhism and Jainism". This absence of a formal name, states Sanderson, does not mean that the corresponding concept of Hinduism did not exist. By late 1st-millennium CE, the concept of a belief and tradition distinct from Buddhism and Jainism had emerged. This complex tradition accepted in its identity almost all of what is currently Hinduism, except certain tantric movements. Some conservative thinkers of those times questioned whether certain Shaiva, Vaishnava and Shakta texts or practices were consistent with the Vedas, or were invalid in their entirety. Moderates then, and most orthoprax scholars later, agreed that though there are some variations, the foundation of their beliefs, the ritual grammar, the spiritual premises, and the soteriologies were the same. "This sense of greater unity", states Sanderson, "came to be called Hinduism".

According to Nicholson, already between the 12th and the 16th centuries "certain thinkers began to treat as a single whole the diverse philosophical teachings of the Upanishads, epics, Puranas, and the schools known retrospectively as the 'six systems' ( saddarsana) of mainstream Hindu philosophy." The tendency of "a blurring of philosophical distinctions" has also been noted by Burley. Hacker called this "inclusivism" and Michaels speaks of "the identificatory habit". Lorenzen locates the origins of a distinct Hindu identity in the interaction between Muslims and Hindus, and a process of "mutual self-definition with a contrasting Muslim other", which started well before 1800. Michaels notes:


Colonial period and neo-Vedanta
This inclusivismHackel in was further developed in the 19th and 20th centuries by Hindu reform movements and Neo-Vedanta, and has become characteristic of modern Hinduism.

The notion and reports on "Hinduism" as a "single world religious tradition" was also popularised by 19th-century proselytizing missionaries and European Indologists, roles sometimes served by the same person, who relied on texts preserved by Brahmins (priests) for their information of Indian religions, and animist observations that the missionary Orientalists presumed was Hinduism. These reports influenced perceptions about Hinduism. Scholars such as Pennington state that the colonial polemical reports led to fabricated stereotypes where Hinduism was mere mystic paganism devoted to the service of devils, while other scholars state that the colonial constructions influenced the belief that the Vedas, , and such texts were the essence of Hindu religiosity, and in the modern association of 'Hindu doctrine' with the schools of Vedanta (in particular Advaita Vedanta) as a paradigmatic example of Hinduism's mystical nature". Pennington, while concurring that the study of Hinduism as a world religion began in the colonial era, disagrees that Hinduism is a colonial European era invention. He states that the shared theology, common ritual grammar and way of life of those who identify themselves as Hindus is traceable to ancient times.


Modern India
The movement has extensively argued for the unity of Hinduism, dismissing the differences and regarding India as a Hindu-country since ancient times.
(1999). 9781400823055, Princeton University Press. .
And there are assumptions of political dominence of Hindu nationalism in , also known as 'Neo-Hindutva'. There have also been increase in pre-dominance of in , similar to that of .


Beliefs
Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include (but are not restricted to) Dharma (ethics/duties), (the continuing cycle of birth, life, death, and rebirth), Karma (action, intent, and consequences), Moksha (liberation from saṃsāra or liberation in this life), and the various yogas (paths or practices).


Purusharthas (objectives of human life)
Classical Hindu thought accepts four proper goals or aims of human life, known as Puruṣārthas: , , and .


Dharma (righteousness, ethics)
Dharma is considered the foremost goal of a human being in Hinduism.
(1996). 9781896209302
The concept of dharma includes behaviors that are considered to be in accord with , the order that makes life and universe possible, "Dharma" , The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions: "In Hinduism, dharma is a fundamental concept, referring to the order and custom which make life and a universe possible, and thus to the behaviours appropriate to the maintenance of that order." and includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and "right way of living".
(2021). 9780787650155, Columbia University Press.
Hindu dharma includes the religious duties, moral rights and duties of each individual, as well as behaviors that enable social order, right conduct, and those that are virtuous. Dharma, according to Van Buitenen, is that which all existing beings must accept and respect to sustain harmony and order in the world. It is, states Van Buitenen, the pursuit and execution of one's nature and true calling, thus playing one's role in cosmic concert. The states it as:

In the , defines dharma as upholding both this-worldly and other-worldly affairs. (Mbh 12.110.11). The word Sanātana means eternal, perennial, or forever; thus, Sanātana Dharma signifies that it is the dharma that has neither beginning nor end.

(1986). 9780892132683, The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. .


Artha (livelihood, wealth)
Artha is objective and virtuous pursuit of wealth for livelihood, obligations, and economic prosperity. It is inclusive of political life, diplomacy, and material well-being. The artha concept includes all "means of life", activities and resources that enables one to be in a state one wants to be in, wealth, career and financial security. The proper pursuit of artha is considered an important aim of human life in Hinduism.Bruce Sullivan (1997), Historical Dictionary of Hinduism, , pp. 29–30


Kāma (sensual pleasure)
Kāma (Sanskrit, : काम) means desire, wish, passion, longing, pleasure of the , the aesthetic enjoyment of life, affection, or love, with or without sexual connotations.Monier Williams, काम, kāma Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary, pp 271, see 3rd column In Hinduism, kama is considered an essential and healthy goal of human life when pursued without sacrificing dharma, artha and moksha.See:
  • "The Hindu Kama Shastra Society" (1925), The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana, University of Toronto Archives, pp. 8;
  • A. Sharma (1982), The Puruṣārthas: a study in Hindu axiology, Michigan State University, , pp. 9–12; See review by Frank Whaling in Numen, Vol. 31, 1 (Jul. 1984), pp. 140–142;
  • A. Sharma (1999), "The Puruṣārthas: An Axiological Exploration of Hinduism" , The Journal of Religious Ethics, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Summer, 1999), pp. 223–256;
  • Chris Bartley (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy, Editor: Oliver Learman, , Routledge, Article on Purushartha, p. 443


Mokṣa (liberation, freedom from saṃsāra)
Moksha (Sanskrit: मोक्ष ') or mukti ' (Sanskrit: मुक्ति) is the ultimate, most important goal in Hinduism. In one sense, moksha is a concept associated with liberation from sorrow, suffering and saṃsāra (birth-rebirth cycle). A release from this eschatological cycle, in after life, particularly in theistic schools of Hinduism is called moksha.R.C. Mishra, "Moksha and the Hindu Worldview", Psychology & Developing Societies , Vol. 25, Issue 1, pp. 23, 27
J. Bruce Long (1980), "The concepts of human action and rebirth in the Mahabharata", in Wendy D. O'Flaherty, Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions'', University of California Press, , Chapter 2 Due to belief in the indestructibility of the soul,
(2021). 9781857431339, . .
death is deemed insignificant with respect to the cosmic self.
(1999). 9788876528187, Editrice Pontificia Università Gregoriana. .

The meaning of moksha differs among the various Hindu schools of thought. For example, Advaita Vedanta holds that after attaining moksha a person knows their "soul, self" and identifies it as one with Brahman and everyone in all respects. The followers of (dualistic) schools, in moksha state, identify individual "soul, self" as distinct from Brahman but infinitesimally close, and after attaining moksha expect to spend eternity in a (heaven). To theistic schools of Hinduism, moksha is liberation from saṃsāra, while for other schools such as the monistic school, moksha is possible in current life and is a psychological concept.Karl Potter, "Dharma and Mokṣa from a Conversational Point of View", Philosophy East and West, Vol. 8, No. 1/2 (Apr.–Jul. 1958), pp. 49–63Daniel H. H. Ingalls, "Dharma and Moksha", Philosophy East and West, Vol. 7, No. 1/2 (Apr.–Jul. 1957), pp. 41–48Klaus Klostermaier, "Mokṣa and Critical Theory", Philosophy East and West, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Jan. 1985), pp. 61–71 According to Deutsch, moksha is transcendental consciousness to the latter, the perfect state of being, of self-realization, of freedom and of "realizing the whole universe as the Self". Moksha in these schools of Hinduism, suggests Klaus Klostermaier, implies a setting free of hitherto fettered faculties, a removing of obstacles to an unrestricted life, permitting a person to be more truly a person in the full sense; the concept presumes an unused human potential of creativity, compassion and understanding which had been blocked and shut out. Moksha is more than liberation from life-rebirth cycle of suffering (saṃsāra); Vedantic school separates this into two: jivanmukti (liberation in this life) and videhamukti (liberation after death).Andrew Fort (1998), Jivanmukti in Transformation, State University of New York Press,


Karma and saṃsāra
Karma translates literally as action, work, or deed,
(1997). 9788120803008, Motilal Banarsidas. .
and also refers to a Vedic theory of "moral law of cause and effect".
(1991). 9780062507990, Harper. .
Karl Potter (1964), "The Naturalistic Principle of Karma", Philosophy East and West, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Apr. 1964), pp. 39–49 The theory is a combination of (1) causality that may be ethical or non-ethical; (2) ethicization, that is good or bad actions have consequences; and (3) rebirth.Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, , pp. xi–xxv (Introduction) and 3–37 Karma theory is interpreted as explaining the present circumstances of an individual with reference to his or her actions in the past. These actions and their consequences may be in a person's current life, or, according to some schools of Hinduism, in past lives.Karl Potter (1980), in Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions (O'Flaherty, Editor), University of California Press, , pp. 241–267 This cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth is called saṃsāra. Liberation from saṃsāra through moksha is believed to ensure lasting happiness and peace.
(2021). 9781425482886, Kessinger Publishing.
(8th Printing 1993)
Hindu scriptures teach that the future is both a function of current human effort derived from free will and past human actions that set the circumstances.Christopher Chapple (1986), Karma and Creativity, State University of New York Press, ; pp. 60–64


Concept of God
Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with a wide variety of beliefs;
(1991). 9788120808997, Motilal Banarsidass. .
its concept of God is complex and depends upon each individual and the tradition and philosophy followed. It is sometimes referred to as (i.e., involving devotion to a single god while accepting the existence of others), but any such term is an overgeneralization.

The ( Creation Hymn) of the is one of the earliest texts which "demonstrates a sense of metaphysical speculation" about what created the universe, the concept of god(s) and The One, and whether even The One knows how the universe came into being.; * Original Sanskrit: Rigveda 10.129 Wikisource;

  • Translation 1:
  • Translation 2:
  • Translation 3: The Rig Veda praises various deities, none superior nor inferior, in a henotheistic manner.
    The hymns repeatedly refer to One Truth and Reality. The "One Truth" of Vedic literature, in modern era scholarship, has been interpreted as monotheism, monism, as well as a deified Hidden Principles behind the great happenings and processes of nature.

Hindus believe that all living creatures have a soul. This soul – the spirit or true "self" of every person, is called the ātman. The soul is believed to be eternal. According to the monistic/pantheistic () theologies of Hinduism (such as Advaita Vedanta school), this Atman is indistinct from , the supreme spirit. The goal of life, according to the Advaita school, is to realise that one's soul is identical to supreme soul, that the supreme soul is present in everything and everyone, all life is interconnected and there is oneness in all life.John Koller (2012), Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion (Editors: Chad Meister, Paul Copan), Routledge, , pages 99–107Lance Nelson (1996), "Living liberation in Shankara and classical Advaita", in Living Liberation in Hindu Thought (Editors: Andrew O. Fort, Patricia Y. Mumme), State University of New York Press, , pages 38–39, 59 (footnote 105) Dualistic schools (Dvaita and Bhakti) understand Brahman as a Supreme Being separate from individual souls.R Prasad (2009), A Historical-developmental Study of Classical Indian Philosophy of Morals, Concept Publishing, , pages 345–347 They worship the Supreme Being variously as , , , or , depending upon the sect. God is called , , Parameshwara, Deva or , and these terms have different meanings in different schools of Hinduism.

Hindu texts accept a polytheistic framework, but this is generally conceptualized as the divine essence or luminosity that gives vitality and animation to the inanimate natural substances. There is a divine in everything, human beings, animals, trees and rivers. It is observable in offerings to rivers, trees, tools of one's work, animals and birds, rising sun, friends and guests, teachers and parents.

(1988). 9780887066627, State University of New York Press. .
Taittiriya Upanishad Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Robert Hume (Translator), pages 281–282;
Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, , pages 229–231
It is the divine in these that makes each sacred and worthy of reverence. This seeing divinity in everything, state Buttimer and Wallin, makes the Vedic foundations of Hinduism quite distinct from . The animistic premise sees multiplicity, power differences and competition between man and man, man and animal, as well as man and nature. The Vedic view does not see this competition, rather sees a unifying divinity that connects everyone and everything.
(1999). 9780792356516, Springer. .
(2021). 9780819222381, New York: Morehouse. .
(2021). 9781305888067, Cengage. .

The Hindu scriptures name celestial entities called Devas (or in feminine form), which may be translated into English as gods or heavenly beings. The devas are an integral part of Hindu culture and are depicted in art, architecture and through , and stories about them are related in the scriptures, particularly in Indian epic poetry and the Puranas. They are, however, often distinguished from Ishvara, a personal god, with many Hindus worshipping Ishvara in one of its particular manifestations as their , or chosen ideal. The choice is a matter of individual preference, and of regional and family traditions. The multitude of Devas are considered as manifestations of Brahman.

  • . "Three gods, Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, and other deities are considered manifestations of and are worshipped as incarnations of Brahman."
  • . "The members of various Hindu sects worship a dizzying number of specific deities and follow innumerable rituals in honor of specific gods. Because this is Hinduism, however, its practitioners see the profusion of forms and practices as expressions of the same unchanging reality. The panoply of deities is understood by believers as symbols for a single transcendent reality."
  • . "The devas are powerful spiritual beings, somewhat like angels in the West, who have certain functions in the cosmos and live immensely long lives. Certain devas, such as Ganesha, are regularly worshiped by the Hindu faithful. Note that, while Hindus believe in many devas, many are monotheistic to the extent that they will recognise only one Supreme Being, a God or Goddess who is the source and ruler of the devas."

The word does not appear in the Vedic literature,

(1987). 9781349086429, Palgrave Macmillan. .
but appears in verb forms in post-Vedic literature, and as a noun particularly in the Puranic literature after the 6th century CE.
(1978). 9783447048606, Otto Harrassowitz.
Theologically, the reincarnation idea is most often associated with the avatars of Hindu god , though the idea has been applied to other deities.
(2021). 9780028657356, Thomson Gale.
Varying lists of avatars of Vishnu appear in Hindu scriptures, including the ten of the and the twenty-two avatars in the , though the latter adds that the incarnations of Vishnu are innumerable. The avatars of Vishnu are important in Vaishnavism theology. In the goddess-based Shaktism tradition, avatars of the Devi are found and all goddesses are considered to be different aspects of the same metaphysical Brahman
(2021). 9780195347135, Oxford University Press, USA. .
and Shakti (energy).
(2021). 9780520249141, University of California Press. .
(1998). 9788120815223, Motilal Banarsidass. .
While avatars of other deities such as and Shiva are also mentioned in medieval Hindu texts, this is minor and occasional."Shiva" in

Both theistic and atheistic ideas, for epistemological and metaphysical reasons, are profuse in different schools of Hinduism. The early school of Hinduism, for example, was non-theist/atheist,John Clayton (2010), Religions, Reasons and Gods: Essays in Cross-cultural Philosophy of Religion, Cambridge University Press, , page 150 but later Nyaya school scholars argued that God exists and offered proofs using its theory of logic.Sharma, C. (1997). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, , pages 209–10 Other schools disagreed with Nyaya scholars. , Mimamsa: "For the Mimamsa the ultimate reality is nothing other than the eternal words of the Vedas. They did not accept the existence of a single supreme creator god, who might have composed the Veda. According to the Mimamsa, gods named in the Vedas have no existence apart from the mantras that speak their names. The power of the gods, then, is nothing other than the power of the mantras that name them." and schools of Hinduism, were non-theist/atheist, arguing that "God was an unnecessary metaphysical assumption". Sāṁkhyapravacana Sūtra I.92.

(2021). 9780791447789 .
Its school started as another non-theistic tradition relying on naturalism and that all matter is eternal, but it later introduced the concept of a non-creator God.A Goel (1984), Indian philosophy: Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika and modern science, Sterling, , pages 149–151Collins, Randall (2000), The sociology of philosophies, Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, , p. 836 The school of Hinduism accepted the concept of a "personal god" and left it to the Hindu to define his or her god.
(2021). 9780415648875, Routledge.
;
(2021). 9788120832329, Motilal Banarsidass.
;
(2021). 9780486417929, Dover.
Advaita Vedanta taught a monistic, abstract Self and Oneness in everything, with no room for gods or deity, a perspective that Mohanty calls, "spiritual, not religious".Knut Jacobsen (2008), Theory and Practice of Yoga: Essays in Honour of Gerald James Larson, Motilal Banarsidass, , pages 77–78 Bhakti sub-schools of Vedanta taught a creator God that is distinct from each human being.

According to , Hinduism has the strongest presence of the divine feminine in world religion from ancient times to the present. The goddess is viewed as the heart of the most esoteric Saiva traditions.


Authority
Authority and eternal truths play an important role in Hinduism.
(2021). 9780826499660, Continuum. .
Religious traditions and truths are believed to be contained in its sacred texts, which are accessed and taught by sages, gurus, saints or avatars. But there is also a strong tradition of the questioning of authority, internal debate and challenging of religious texts in Hinduism. The Hindus believe that this deepens the understanding of the eternal truths and further develops the tradition. Authority "was mediated through ... an intellectual culture that tended to develop ideas collaboratively, and according to the shared logic of natural reason." Narratives in the present characters questioning persons of authority. The repeatedly asks kena, 'by what' power something is the case. The and Bhagavad Gita present narratives where the student criticizes the teacher's inferior answers. In the , Shiva questions Vishnu and Brahma. Doubt plays a repeated role in the Mahabharata. 's presents criticism via the character of .


Main traditions
Hinduism has no central doctrinal authority and many practising Hindus do not claim to belong to any particular denomination or tradition. Four major denominations are, however, used in scholarly studies: Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and Smartism. These denominations differ primarily in the central deity worshipped, the traditions and the outlook.SS Kumar (2010), Bhakti – the Yoga of Love, LIT Verlag Münster, , pages 35–36 The denominations of Hinduism, states Lipner, are unlike those found in major religions of the world, because Hindu denominations are fuzzy with individuals practicing more than one, and he suggests the term "Hindu polycentrism".

Vaishnavism is the devotional religious tradition that worships Vishnu and his avatars, particularly Krishna and Rama. The adherents of this sect are generally non-ascetic, monastic, oriented towards community events and devotionalism practices inspired by "intimate loving, joyous, playful" Krishna and other Vishnu avatars. These practices sometimes include community dancing, singing of and , with sound and music believed by some to have meditative and spiritual powers. Temple worship and festivals are typically elaborate in Vaishnavism.

(1998). 9780824049461, Routledge. .
The Bhagavad Gita and the Ramayana, along with Vishnu-oriented Puranas provide its theistic foundations. Philosophically, their beliefs are rooted in the dualism sub-schools of Vedantic Hinduism.

Shaivism is the tradition that focuses on Shiva. Shaivas are more attracted to ascetic individualism, and it has several sub-schools. Their practices include bhakti-style devotionalism, yet their beliefs lean towards nondual, monistic schools of Hinduism such as Advaita and Raja Yoga. Some Shaivas worship in temples, while others emphasize yoga, striving to be one with Shiva within.

(2021). 9780143415176, Penguin Books. .
Avatars are uncommon, and some Shaivas visualize god as half male, half female, as a fusion of the male and female principles (). Shaivism is related to Shaktism, wherein Shakti is seen as spouse of Shiva. Community celebrations include festivals, and participation, with Vaishnavas, in pilgrimages such as the .James Lochtefeld (2010), God's Gateway: Identity and Meaning in a Hindu Pilgrimage Place, Oxford University Press, Shaivism has been more commonly practiced in the Himalayan north from Kashmir to Nepal, and in south India.Natalia Isaeva (1995), From Early Vedanta to Kashmir Shaivism, State University of New York Press, , pages 141–145

Shaktism focuses on goddess worship of Shakti or Devi as cosmic mother, and it is particularly common in northeastern and eastern states of India such as and . Devi is depicted as in gentler forms like , the consort of Shiva; or, as fierce warrior goddesses like and . Followers of Shaktism recognize Shakti as the power that underlies the male principle. Shaktism is also associated with practices. Community celebrations include festivals, some of which include processions and idol immersion into sea or other water bodies. History: Hans Koester (1929), The Indian Religion of the Goddess Shakti, Journal of the Siam Society, Vol 23, Part 1, pages 1–18;
Modern practices: June McDaniel (2010), Goddesses in World Culture, Volume 1 (Editor: Patricia Monaghan), , Chapter 2

centers its worship simultaneously on all the major Hindu deities: Shiva, Vishnu, Shakti, Ganesha, and . The Smarta tradition developed during the (early) Classical Period of Hinduism around the beginning of the Common Era, when Hinduism emerged from the interaction between Brahmanism and local traditions. The Smarta tradition is aligned with Advaita Vedanta, and regards as its founder or reformer, who considered worship of God-with-attributes () as a journey towards ultimately realizing God-without-attributes (nirguna Brahman, Atman, Self-knowledge).

(1979). 9780195610796, Oxford University Press.
The term Smartism is derived from Smriti texts of Hinduism, meaning those who remember the traditions in the texts.
(2021). 9780814794500, New York University Press.
This Hindu sect practices a philosophical Jnana yoga, scriptural studies, reflection, meditative path seeking an understanding of Self's oneness with God.
(1994). 9780195084894, Oxford University Press.

There are no census data available on demographic history or trends for the traditions within Hinduism. The global religious landscape: Hindus , Pew Research (2012) Estimates vary on the relative number of adherents in the different traditions of Hinduism. According to a 2010 estimate by Johnson and Grim, the Vaishnavism tradition is the largest group with about 641 million or 67.6% of Hindus, followed by Shaivism with 252 million or 26.6%, Shaktism with 30 million or 3.2% and other traditions including Neo-Hinduism and Reform Hinduism with 25 million or 2.6%.

(2021). 9781118323038, John Wiley & Sons. .
In contrast, according to Jones and Ryan, Shaivism is the largest tradition of Hinduism.


Scriptures
The ancient scriptures of Hinduism are in Sanskrit. These texts are classified into two: Shruti and Smriti. Shruti is apauruṣeyā, "not made of a man" but revealed to the (seers), and regarded as having the highest authority, while the smriti are manmade and have secondary authority. They are the two highest sources of dharma, the other two being Śiṣṭa Āchāra/Sadāchara (conduct of noble people) and finally ("what is pleasing to oneself")

Hindu scriptures were composed, memorized and transmitted verbally, across generations, for many centuries before they were written down. Over many centuries, sages refined the teachings and expanded the Shruti and Smriti, as well as developed Shastras with epistemological and metaphysical theories of six classical schools of Hinduism.

Shruti (lit. that which is heard) primarily refers to the Vedas, which form the earliest record of the Hindu scriptures, and are regarded as eternal truths revealed to the ancient sages ( ). There are four Vedas, , and . Each Veda has been subclassified into four major text types – the (mantras and benedictions), the (text on rituals, ceremonies, sacrifices and symbolic-sacrifices), the (commentaries on rituals, ceremonies and sacrifices), and the Upanishads (text discussing meditation, philosophy and spiritual knowledge).A Bhattacharya (2006), Hindu Dharma: Introduction to Scriptures and Theology, , pages 8–14; George M. Williams (2003), Handbook of Hindu Mythology, Oxford University Press, , page 285Jan Gonda (1975), Vedic Literature: (Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas), Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, The first two parts of the Vedas were subsequently called the (ritualistic portion), while the last two form the (knowledge portion, discussing spiritual insight and philosophical teachings).; "The Vedas are divided in two parts, the first is the karma-kanda, the ceremonial part, also (called) purva-kanda, and treats on ceremonies; the second part is the jnana kanda, the part which contains knowledge, also named uttara-kanda or posterior part, and unfolds the knowledge of Brahma or the universal soul."

(1998). 9780192822925, Oxford University Press.

The Upanishads are the foundation of Hindu philosophical thought, and have profoundly influenced diverse traditions.

(1993). 9780791410806, State University of New York Press.
Of the Shrutis (Vedic corpus), they alone are widely influential among Hindus, considered scriptures par excellence of Hinduism, and their central ideas have continued to influence its thoughts and traditions.: "The Upanishads supply the basis of later Hindu philosophy; they alone of the Vedic corpus are widely known and quoted by most well-educated Hindus, and their central ideas have also become a part of the spiritual arsenal of rank-and-file Hindus." Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan states that the Upanishads have played a dominating role ever since their appearance.
(2021). 9788172231248, George Allen & Co.. .
There are 108 Muktikā Upanishads in Hinduism, of which between 10 and 13 are variously counted by scholars as Principal Upanishads. The most notable of the Smritis ("remembered") are the Hindu epics and the Puranas. The epics consist of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. The Bhagavad Gita is an integral part of the Mahabharata and one of the most popular sacred texts of Hinduism. Sarvopaniṣado gāvo, etc. ( Gītā Māhātmya 6). Gītā Dhyānam, cited in It is sometimes called Gitopanishad, then placed in the Shruti ("heard") category, being Upanishadic in content. The Puranas, which started to be composed from c. 300 CE onward, contain extensive mythologies, and are central in the distribution of common themes of Hinduism through vivid narratives. The is a classical text for the Hindu Yoga tradition, which gained a renewed popularity in the 20th century.
(2021). 9780826487728, Continuum. .
Since the 19th-century Indian modernists have re-asserted the 'Aryan origins' of Hinduism, "purifying" Hinduism from its Tantric elements and elevating the Vedic elements. Hindu modernists like Vivekananda see the Vedas as the laws of the spiritual world, which would still exist even if they were not revealed to the sages. In Tantric tradition, the Agamas refer to authoritative scriptures or the teachings of Shiva to Shakti, while Nigamas refers to the Vedas and the teachings of Shakti to Shiva. In Agamic schools of Hinduism, the Vedic literature and the Agamas are equally authoritative.
(1999). 9788876528187, Gregorian University and Biblical Press.
(1996). 9780521482349, Cambridge University Press.


Practices

Rituals
Most Hindus observe religious rituals at home.. "rituals daily prescribe routine" The rituals vary greatly among regions, villages, and individuals. They are not mandatory in Hinduism. The nature and place of rituals is an individual's choice. Some devout Hindus perform daily rituals such as worshiping at dawn after bathing (usually at a family shrine, and typically includes lighting a lamp and offering foodstuffs before the images of deities), recitation from religious scripts, singing bhajans (devotional hymns), yoga, , chanting mantras and others.

Vedic rituals of fire-oblation ( ) and chanting of Vedic hymns are observed on special occasions, such as a Hindu wedding. Other major life-stage events, such as rituals after death, include the yajña and chanting of Vedic .

The words of the mantras are "themselves sacred," and "do not constitute ." Instead, as Klostermaier notes, in their application in Vedic rituals they become magical sounds, "means to an end." In the Brahmanical perspective, the sounds have their own meaning, mantras are considered as "primordial rhythms of creation", preceding the forms to which they refer. By reciting them the cosmos is regenerated, "by enlivening and nourishing the forms of creation at their base. As long as the purity of the sounds is preserved, the recitation of the mantras will be efficacious, irrespective of whether their discursive meaning is understood by human beings."


Life-cycle rites of passage
Major life stage milestones are celebrated as sanskara ( saṃskāra, rites of passage) in Hinduism.
(1969). 9788120804340, Motilal Banarsidass.
(2021). 9780199397693, Oxford University Press.
The rites of passage are not mandatory, and vary in details by gender, community and regionally. Gautama composed in about the middle of 1st millennium BCE lists 48 sanskaras, while Gryhasutra and other texts composed centuries later list between 12 and 16 sanskaras.
(2021). 9780813540689, Rutgers University Press.
The list of sanskaras in Hinduism include both external rituals such as those marking a baby's birth and a baby's name giving ceremony, as well as inner rites of resolutions and ethics such as compassion towards all living beings and positive attitude.
(2021). 9780199555376, Oxford University Press.
The major traditional rites of passage in Hinduism include (pregnancy), (rite before the fetus begins moving and kicking in womb), (parting of pregnant woman's hair, baby shower), Jatakarman (rite celebrating the new born baby), Namakarana (naming the child), Nishkramana (baby's first outing from home into the world), Annaprashana (baby's first feeding of solid food), Chudakarana (baby's first haircut, tonsure), Karnavedha (ear piercing), Vidyarambha (baby's start with knowledge), (entry into a school rite),For Vedic school, see: For music school, see:
(1999). 9780824049461, Routledge.
For sculpture, crafts and other professions, see:
(2021). 9780304707393, Bloomsbury Academic.
Keshanta and Ritusuddhi (first shave for boys, menarche for girls), (graduation ceremony), Vivaha (wedding), Vratas (fasting, spiritual studies) and (cremation for an adult, burial for a child). In contemporary times, there is regional variation among Hindus as to which of these sanskaras are observed; in some cases, additional regional rites of passage such as Śrāddha (ritual of feeding people after cremation) are practiced.


Bhakti (worship)
Bhakti refers to devotion, participation in and the love of a personal god or a representational god by a devotee.
(2021). 9780826499660, Bloomsbury.
Bhakti-marga is considered in Hinduism as one of many possible paths of spirituality and alternative means to moksha.; also see articles on karmamārga and jnanamārga The other paths, left to the choice of a Hindu, are Jnana-marga (path of knowledge), Karma-marga (path of works), Rāja-marga (path of contemplation and meditation).
(2021). 9781482819557, Partridge India.
(2021). 9788120802933, Motilal Banarsidass.

Bhakti is practiced in a number of ways, ranging from reciting mantras, (incantations), to individual private prayers in one's home shrine,

(2021). 9780300089059, Yale University Press. .
or in a temple before a or sacred image of a deity. and domestic altars, are important elements of worship in contemporary theistic Hinduism.
(2021). 9781135189785, Routledge. .
While many visit a temple on special occasions, most offer daily prayers at a domestic altar, typically a dedicated part of the home that includes sacred images of deities or gurus.

One form of daily worship is aarti, or “supplication,” a ritual in which a flame is offered and “accompanied by a song of praise.”

(2007). 9780198042204, Oxford University Press. .
Notable aartis include Om Jai Jagdish Hare, a prayer to , Sukhakarta Dukhaharta, a prayer to .
(1995). 9788185026312, Marg Publications. .
(2021). 9780520233829, University of California Press. .
Aarti can be used to make offerings to entities ranging from deities to “human exemplars.” For instance, Aarti is offered to , a devotee of God, in many temples, including Balaji temples, where the primary deity is an incarnation of .
(2007). 9780198042204, Oxford University Press. .
In Swaminarayan temples and home shrines, aarti is offered to , considered by followers to be supreme God.
(2018). 9781108421140, Cambridge University Press. .

Other personal and community practices include puja as well as aarti, kirtan, or bhajan, where devotional verses and hymns are read or poems are sung by a group of devotees.

(2021). 9780199940035, Oxford University Press.
While the choice of the deity is at the discretion of the Hindu, the most observed traditions of Hindu devotion include Vaishnavism, Shaivism, and Shaktism.
(2021). 9781576079058
A Hindu may worship multiple deities, all as henotheistic manifestations of the same ultimate reality, cosmic spirit and absolute spiritual concept called Brahman. Bhakti-marga, states Pechelis, is more than ritual devotionalism, it includes practices and spiritual activities aimed at refining one's state of mind, knowing god, participating in god, and internalizing god.
(2021). 9780028657356, Thompson Gale.
While bhakti practices are popular and easily observable aspect of Hinduism, not all Hindus practice bhakti, or believe in god-with-attributes ( saguna Brahman).
(2021). 9781870345392, OCMS.

(1996). 9780802840974, Eerdmans Publishing.
(2021). 9780415684996, Routledge.
Concurrent Hindu practices include a belief in god-without-attributes, and god within oneself.
(2021). 9781138862647, Routledge.

(2021). 9781285197128
(2021). 9788120819375, Motilal Banarsidass.


Festivals
Hindu festivals (Sanskrit: Utsava; literally: "to lift higher") are ceremonies that weave individual and social life to dharma.
(2021). 9780742544635, Rowman & Littlefield.
Hinduism has many festivals throughout the year, where the dates are set by the lunisolar , many coinciding with either the full moon ( Holi) or the new moon ( Diwali), often with seasonal changes.
(2021). 9780700712670, Routledge.
Some festivals are found only regionally and they celebrate local traditions, while a few such as Holi and Diwali are pan-Hindu.
(2021). 9781902210438, Sussex Academic Press.
The festivals typically celebrate events from Hinduism, connoting spiritual themes and celebrating aspects of human relationships such as the Sister-Brother bond over the Raksha Bandhan (or ) festival.
(2021). 9780852297605, Encyclopædia Britannica (India).
The same festival sometimes marks different stories depending on the Hindu denomination, and the celebrations incorporate regional themes, traditional agriculture, local arts, family get togethers, Puja rituals and feasts.
(2021). 9780700712670, Routledge.
(2021). 9781472511515, Bloomsbury Academic.

Some major regional or pan-Hindu festivals include:


Pilgrimage
Many adherents undertake , which have historically been an important part of Hinduism and remain so today. Pilgrimage sites are called Tirtha, Kshetra, Gopitha or Mahalaya. The process or journey associated with Tirtha is called Tirtha-yatra. According to the Hindu text , Tirtha are of three kinds: Jangam Tirtha is to a place movable of a , a , a ; Sthawar Tirtha is to a place immovable, like Benaras, Haridwar, Mount Kailash, holy rivers; while Manas Tirtha is to a place of mind of truth, charity, patience, compassion, soft speech, soul.
(2021). 9788189091095, Northern Book Centre. .
(1997). 9781850721901, Sessions Book Trust. .
Tīrtha-yatra is, states Knut A. Jacobsen, anything that has a salvific value to a Hindu, and includes pilgrimage sites such as mountains or forests or seashore or rivers or ponds, as well as virtues, actions, studies or state of mind.

Pilgrimage sites of Hinduism are mentioned in the epic Mahabharata and the . Most Puranas include large sections on Tirtha Mahatmya along with tourist guides,

(2021). 9780199718252, Oxford University Press. .
which describe sacred sites and places to visit. In these texts, (Benares, Kashi), , , , , , , , , , , , twelve and have been mentioned as particularly holy sites, along with geographies where major rivers meet ( sangam) or join the sea. is another major pilgrimage on the eve of the solar festival . This pilgrimage rotates at a gap of three years among four sites: at the confluence of the and rivers, near source of the , on the river and on the bank of the river. This is one of world's largest mass pilgrimage, with an estimated 40 to 100 million people attending the event.
At this event, they say a prayer to the sun and bathe in the river, a tradition attributed to .
(2021). 9780143415176, Penguin.

Some pilgrimages are part of a Vrata (vow), which a Hindu may make for a number of reasons. It may mark a special occasion, such as the birth of a baby, or as part of a rite of passage such as a baby's first haircut, or after healing from a sickness. It may, states Eck, also be the result of prayers answered. An alternative reason for Tirtha, for some Hindus, is to respect wishes or in memory of a beloved person after his or her death. This may include dispersing their cremation ashes in a Tirtha region in a stream, river or sea to honor the wishes of the dead. The journey to a Tirtha, assert some Hindu texts, helps one overcome the sorrow of the loss.

Other reasons for a Tirtha in Hinduism is to rejuvenate or gain spiritual merit by traveling to famed temples or bathe in rivers such as the Ganges.

(2021). 9780761853145, Rowman & Littlefield. .
Tirtha has been one of the recommended means of addressing remorse and to perform penance, for unintentional errors and intentional sins, in the Hindu tradition. The proper procedure for a pilgrimage is widely discussed in Hindu texts. The most accepted view is that the greatest austerity comes from traveling on foot, or part of the journey is on foot, and that the use of a conveyance is only acceptable if the pilgrimage is otherwise impossible.


Person and society

Varnas
Hindu society has been categorised into four classes, called varṇas. They are the : Vedic teachers and priests; the : warriors and kings; the : farmers and merchants; and the : servants and labourers. The links the varṇa to an individual's duty ( svadharma), inborn nature ( svabhāva), and natural tendencies ( guṇa). The Manusmṛiti categorises the different castes. Some mobility and flexibility within the varṇas challenge allegations of social discrimination in the caste system, as has been pointed out by several sociologists, although some other scholars disagree.
(1994). 9780060674403, Harper Collins. .
Scholars debate whether the so-called caste system is part of Hinduism sanctioned by the scriptures or social custom. And various contemporary scholars have argued that the caste system was constructed by the . A man of knowledge is usually called Varṇatita or "beyond all varṇas" in Vedantic works. The bhiksu is advised to not bother about the caste of the family from which he begs his food. Scholars like Adi Sankara affirm that not only is Brahman beyond all varṇas, the man who is identified with Him also transcends the distinctions and limitations of caste.
(1989). 9788120805743, Motilal Banarsidass.


Yoga
In whatever way a Hindu defines the goal of life, there are several methods (yogas) that sages have taught for reaching that goal. Yoga is a Hindu discipline which trains the body, mind, and consciousness for health, tranquility, and spiritual insight.
(1998). 9788176250399, Sarup & Sons.
Texts dedicated to yoga include the , the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the and, as their philosophical and historical basis, the Upanishads. Yoga is means, and the four major marga (paths) of Hinduism are: (the path of love and devotion), (the path of right action), Rāja Yoga (the path of meditation), and Jñāna Yoga (the path of wisdom) An individual may prefer one or some yogas over others, according to his or her inclination and understanding. Practice of one yoga does not exclude others. The modern practice of yoga as exercise (traditionally ) has a contested relationship with Hinduism.


Symbolism
Hinduism has a developed system of symbolism and iconography to represent the sacred in art, architecture, literature and worship. These symbols gain their meaning from the scriptures or cultural traditions. The syllable Om (which represents the and Atman) has grown to represent Hinduism itself, while other markings such as the Swastika sign represent auspiciousness, and (literally, seed) on forehead – considered to be the location of spiritual third eye,
(1987). 9780520045330, University of California Press.
marks ceremonious welcome, blessing or one's participation in a ritual or rite of passage.
(2021). 9781578086801, CRC Press.
Elaborate Tilaka with lines may also identify a devotee of a particular denomination. Flowers, birds, animals, instruments, symmetric drawings, objects, idols are all part of symbolic iconography in Hinduism.
(1998). 9788120808782, Motilal Banarsidass.
(2004). 9781417950089, Kessinger.


Ahiṃsā, vegetarianism and other food customs
Hindus advocate the practice of () and respect for all life because divinity is believed to permeate all beings, including plants and non-human animals. The term appears in the , the epic For as one of the "emerging ethical and religious issues" in the see:
and is the first of the five (vows of self-restraint) in Patanjali's Yoga Sutras.For text of Y.S. 2.29 and translation of as "vow of self-restraint", see:
(1961). 9788170592129, The Theosophical Publishing House.

In accordance with , many Hindus embrace vegetarianism to respect higher forms of life. Estimates of strict in India (includes adherents of all religions) who never eat any meat, fish or eggs vary between 20% and 42%, while others are either less strict vegetarians or non-vegetarians.Surveys studying food habits of Indians include:

  • Those who eat meat seek (quick death) method of meat production, and dislike (slow bled death) method, believing that quick death method reduces suffering to the animal.
    (2021). 9781845932152, CABI.
    (2021). 9780195645828, Oxford University Press.
    The food habits vary with region, with Bengali Hindus and Hindus living in Himalayan regions, or river delta regions, regularly eating meat and fish.
    (2021). 9788180690747
    Some avoid meat on specific festivals or occasions.
    (2021). 9788170174158, Abhinav.
    (2021). 9780814795866, New York University Press.
    Observant Hindus who do eat meat almost always abstain from beef. The in Hindu society is traditionally identified as a caretaker and a maternal figure, and Hindu society honours the cow as a symbol of unselfish giving.
There are many Hindu groups that have continued to abide by a strict diet in modern times. Some adhere to a diet that is devoid of meat, eggs, and seafood. Food affects body, mind and spirit in Hindu beliefs. Hindu texts such as Śāṇḍilya Upanishad
(2021). 9781164026419, Kessinger Publishing.
and Svātmārāma
(1972). 9780520018426, University of California Press. .
recommend (eating in moderation) as one of the (virtuous self restraints). The Bhagavad Gita links body and mind to food one consumes in verses 17.8 through 17.10.
(2021). 9781438428420, State University of New York Press.

Some Hindus such as those belonging to the Shaktism tradition,

(2021). 9781406789447, Read Books.
and Hindus in regions such as Bali and Nepal
(2005). 9789793780009, Equinox Publishing (Asia).
practise animal sacrifice. The sacrificed animal is eaten as ritual food.
(2021). 9781444360059, John Wiley & Sons. .
In contrast, the Vaishnava Hindus abhor and vigorously oppose animal sacrifice., Quote: "It is well known that Vaishnavas abhor animal sacrifice. In this province, like nearly all Bengalis, they celebrate Durga Puja, but their ceremonies are bloodless". The principle of non-violence to animals has been so thoroughly adopted in Hinduism that animal sacrifice is uncommon, Quote: "The acceptance of the principle of nonviolence has been so through that animal sacrifice among Hindus today is uncommon, and many Indians are of the opinion that such things as cow slaughter were never practiced in ancient India". and historically reduced to a vestigial marginal practice.
(2021). 9780313352560, ABC-CLIO. .


Institutions

Temple
A is a house of god(s). It is a space and structure designed to bring human beings and gods together, infused with symbolism to express the ideas and beliefs of Hinduism. A temple incorporates all elements of Hindu cosmology, the highest spire or dome representing – reminder of the abode of Brahma and the center of spiritual universe, the carvings and iconography symbolically presenting , , , and . The layout, the motifs, the plan and the building process recite ancient rituals, geometric symbolisms, and reflect beliefs and values innate within various schools of Hinduism. Hindu temples are spiritual destinations for many Hindus (not all), as well as landmarks for arts, annual festivals, rite of passage rituals, and community celebrations.

Hindu temples come in many styles, diverse locations, deploy different construction methods and are adapted to different deities and regional beliefs.

(1990). 9788120807051
Two major styles of Hindu temples include the style found in south India, and Nagara style found in north India. Other styles include cave, forest and mountain temples. Yet, despite their differences, almost all Hindu temples share certain common architectural principles, core ideas, symbolism and themes. Many temples feature one or more idols (). The idol and Grabhgriya in the Brahma-pada (the center of the temple), under the main spire, serves as a focal point ( darsana, a sight) in a Hindu temple. In larger temples, the central space typically is surrounded by an ambulatory for the devotee to walk around and ritually circumambulate the (), the universal essence.


Ashrama
Traditionally the life of a Hindu is divided into four Āśramas (phases or life stages; another meaning includes monastery). The four ashramas are: (student), (householder), (retired) and (renunciation).
(1999). 9788171566655
Brahmacharya represents the bachelor student stage of life. Grihastha refers to the individual's married life, with the duties of maintaining a household, raising a family, educating one's children, and leading a family-centred and a dharmic social life. Grihastha stage starts with Hindu wedding, and has been considered as the most important of all stages in sociological context, as Hindus in this stage not only pursued a virtuous life, they produced food and wealth that sustained people in other stages of life, as well as the offsprings that continued mankind. Vanaprastha is the retirement stage, where a person hands over household responsibilities to the next generation, took an advisory role, and gradually withdrew from the world.
(2021). 9789004146013, Brill Academic.
(2021). 9780195383430, Oxford University Press.
The Sannyasa stage marks renunciation and a state of disinterest and detachment from material life, generally without any meaningful property or home (ascetic state), and focused on Moksha, peace and simple spiritual life.
(2021). 9781441981097, Springer.
The Ashramas system has been one facet of the dharma concept in Hinduism. Combined with four proper goals of human life (), the Ashramas system traditionally aimed at providing a Hindu with fulfilling life and spiritual liberation. While these stages are typically sequential, any person can enter Sannyasa (ascetic) stage and become an Ascetic at any time after the Brahmacharya stage.
(2021). 9780415215275, Routledge.
Sannyasa is not religiously mandatory in Hinduism, and elderly people are free to live with their families.
(1993). 9780195344783, Oxford University Press.


Monasticism
Some Hindus choose to live a life (Sannyāsa) in pursuit of liberation (moksha) or another form of spiritual perfection. Monastics commit themselves to a simple and celibate life, detached from material pursuits, of meditation and spiritual contemplation. A Hindu monk is called a , Sādhu, or Swāmi. A female renunciate is called a Sanyāsini. Renunciates receive high respect in Hindu society because of their simple -driven lifestyle and dedication to spiritual liberation (moksha) – believed to be the ultimate goal of life in Hinduism. Some monastics live in monasteries, while others wander from place to place, depending on donated food and charity for their needs.


History
Hinduism 's varied history overlaps or coincides with the development of religion in the Indian subcontinent since the Iron Age, with some of its traditions tracing back to prehistoric religions such as those of the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilization. It has thus been called the "" in the world. Scholars regard Hinduism as a synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no single founder.

The history of Hinduism is often divided into periods of development. The first period is the pre-Vedic period, which includes the Indus Valley Civilization and local pre-historic religions, ending at about 1750 BCE. This period was followed in northern India by the Vedic period, which saw the introduction of the historical Vedic religion with the Indo-Aryan migrations, starting somewhere between 1900 BCE to 1400 BCE. The subsequent period, between 800 BCE and 200 BCE, is "a turning point between the Vedic religion and Hindu religions", and a formative period for Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism. The Epic and Early Puranic period, from c. 200 BCE to 500 CE, saw the classical "Golden Age" of Hinduism (c. 320-650 CE), which coincides with the . In this period the six branches of evolved, namely , Yoga, , , Mīmāṃsā, and . Monotheistic sects like and developed during this same period through the . The period from roughly 650 to 1100 CE forms the late Classical period or early Middle Ages, in which classical Puranic Hinduism is established, and 's influential consolidation of .

Hinduism under both Hindu and Islamic rulers from c. 1200 to 1750 CEBlackwell's History of India; Stein 2010, page 107Some Aspects of Muslim Administration, Dr. R.P.Tripathi, 1956, p.24 saw the increasing prominence of the Bhakti movement, which remains influential today. The saw the emergence of various Hindu reform movements partly inspired by western movements, such as and Theosophy. The Partition of India in 1947 was along religious lines, with the emerging with a Hindu majority. During the 20th century, due to the Indian diaspora, Hindu minorities have formed in all continents, with the largest communities in absolute numbers in the United States and the United Kingdom.


Demographics
Hinduism is a major religion in India. Hinduism was followed by around 79.8% of the country's population of 1.21 billion (2011 census) (960 million adherents). Other significant populations are found in Nepal (23 million), Bangladesh (15 million) and the Indonesian island of (3.9 million). The majority of the Vietnamese also follow Hinduism, with the largest proportion in Ninh Thuận Province.

Countries with the greatest proportion of Hindus:

  1. 81.3%.
  2. 79.8%.
  3. 48.5%.
  4. 28.4%.
  5. 27.9%.
  6. 22.6%.
  7. 22.3%.
  8. 18.2%.
  9. 13.8%.
  10. 12.6%.
  11. 9.8%..
  12. 8.5%.
  13. 6.8%.
  14. 6.6%.
  15. 6.3%.
  16. 6%.http://www.globalreligiousfutures.org/
  17. 5.5%.
  18. 5%.
  19. 3.86%.
  20. 2.62%.
  21. 2.4%.
  22. 2.14%.

Demographically, Hinduism is the world's third largest religion, after and .

(2021). 9781498225373, Wipf and Stock Publishers.

+ Demographics of major traditions within Hinduism (World Religion Database, 2012 data)
640,806,84567.69.3GrowingDeclining
252,200,00026.63.7GrowingGrowing
30,000,0003.20.4StableDeclining
20,300,0002.10.3GrowingGrowing
Reform Hinduism5,200,0000.50.1GrowingGrowing


Criticism, persecution, and debates

Criticism

Persecution
Hinduism has been one of the most persecuted religious community in the world after Christians in the world history. have experienced both historical and ongoing religious persecution and violence. These occurred in the form of forced conversions, documented , demolition and desecration of , as well as the destruction of educational centres.
(2011). 9780295800608, University of Washington Press. .
Most of the persecutions of happened in past due to Muslim conquest and penetration of Christian Missionaries for the religious conversions. Besides the Islamic conquest in early-medieval times, the persecution of Hindus were massive in the times of and invasion of Islamic conqueror in .
(2014). 9781476779713, Simon and Schuster. .
In the , especially under the Hindus were brutually persecuted and were also forced to pay the . In the , the by is also considered as one of the brutual persecution of Hindus.
(1994). 9788170224976, Concept Publishing Company. .
Nearly one million also killed and displaced during the Partition of India.


Conversion debate
In the modern era, religious conversion from and to Hinduism has been a controversial subject. Some state the concept of missionary conversion, either way, is anathema to the precepts of Hinduism.

Religious conversion to Hinduism has a long history outside India. Merchants and traders of India, particularly from the Indian peninsula, carried their religious ideas, which led to religious conversions to Hinduism in southeast Asia.

(2021). 9789792624991, Yayasan Obor Indonesia.
Within India, archeological and textual evidence such as the 2nd-century BCE Heliodorus pillar suggest that Greeks and other foreigners converted to Hinduism.
(2021). 9789004255289, Brill Academic.
The debate on proselytization and religious conversion between Christianity, Islam and Hinduism is more recent, and started in the 19th century.
(1992). 9780791408278, State University of New York Press.
(2021). 9780674047365, Harvard University Press.

Religious leaders of some Hindu reform movements such as the launched Shuddhi movement to proselytize and reconvert Muslims and Christians back to Hinduism,

(2021). 9780199995448, Oxford University Press.
(1987). 9780887065729, State University of New York Press.
while those such as the suggested Hinduism to be a non-missionary religion. All these sects of Hinduism have welcomed new members to their group, while other leaders of Hinduism's diverse schools have stated that given the intensive proselytization activities from missionary Islam and Christianity, this "there is no such thing as proselytism in Hinduism" view must be re-examined.
(1998). 9780691058993, Princeton University Press.

The appropriateness of conversion from major religions to Hinduism, and vice versa, has been and remains an actively debated topic in India,

(2021). 9780195979114, Harvard University Press. .
(2021). 9781138847019, Routledge. .
and in Indonesia.
(2021). 9780700715336, Routledge. .


See also
Hinduism

  • Anti-Hindu sentiment
  • Atheism in Hinduism
  • Balinese Hinduism
  • Criticism of Hinduism
  • Gautama Buddha in Hinduism
  • Hindu denominations
  • Hindu eschatology
  • Hindu reform movements
  • Hinduism by country
  • Hinduism in Armenia
  • Hinduism in Southeast Asia
  • List of Hindu Empires and Dynasties
  • List of Hindu organisations
  • List of Hindu temples
  • List of converts to Hinduism
  • Lists of Hindus
  • Outline of Hinduism
  • Persecution of Hindus
  • Puranic chronology
  • Tulsi in Hinduism

Related systems and religions


Citations

Notes

Subnotes

Sources

Printed sources

  • (1998). 9783900271329, Institut für Indologie der Universität Wien.

  • (1967). 9780691019581, Princeton University Press. .
  • (1996). 9780195638202, Oxford University Press.
  • (1988). 9780915984909, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University.
  • (1986). 9783447025225, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. .


Web sources

Further reading
Introductory

Origins

Texts


External links

Research on Hinduism

Audio on Hinduism

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