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The Deccan PlateauPage 46,

(2001). 9788126110087, Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.. .
is a large in western and southern . It rises to in the north, and to more than in the south, forming a raised triangle within the South-pointing triangle of the Indian subcontinent's coastline.

It extends over eight Indian states and encompasses a wide range of , covering significant parts of Telangana, , and .

The plateau is located between two mountain ranges, the and the , each of which rises from its respective nearby coastal plain, and almost converge at the southern tip of India. It is separated from the to the north by the and , which form its northern boundary. The Deccan produced some of the major in including , Satavahana, , , and Rashtrakuta dynasties, the Western Chalukya, the , , Vijayanagara and empires and the Muslim Bahmani Sultanate, Deccan Sultanate, and the Nizam of Hyderabad.


Etymology
The name Deccan is an anglicised form of the word or , itself derived from the word (meaning "southern"), as the Deccan Plateau is located in the southern part of the subcontinent.
9780191645839, Oxford. .
Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, p. 498 (scanned image at SriPedia Initiative): Sanskrit dakṣiṇa meaning 'southern'.


Extent
The Deccan region has historically lacked an enduring geo-political centre, and has been defined in various ways. Geographers have attempted to define it using indices such as rainfall, vegetation, soil type or physical features. When considering physical features, it is taken to be the area bounded on by the , in by the and on by the . The 16th-century historian defined Deccan as the territory inhabited by the native speakers of , , and languages. Richard M. Eaton (2005) also settled on this linguistic definition.


Geography
The Deccan plateau is a topographically variegated region located south of the Gangetic plains-the portion lying between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal-and includes a substantial area to the north of the , which has popularly been regarded as the divide between northern India and the Deccan. The plateau is bounded on the east and west by the Ghats, while its northern extremity is the . The Deccan's average elevation is about 2,000 feet (600 m), sloping generally eastward; its principal rivers, the Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri, flow from the Western Ghats eastward to the Bay of Bengal.

The Western Ghats mountain range is very tall and blocks the moisture from the southwest from reaching the Deccan Plateau, so the region receives very little rainfall. The eastern Deccan Plateau is at a lower elevation spanning the southeastern coast of India. Its forests are also relatively dry but serve to retain the rain to form streams that feed into rivers that flow into basins and then into the Bay of Bengal.

Most Deccan plateau rivers flow south. Most of the northern part of the plateau is drained by the and its tributaries, including the , starting from the Western Ghats and flowing east towards the Bay of Bengal. Most of the central plateau is drained by the Tungabhadra River, and its tributaries, including the , which also run east. The southernmost part of the plateau is drained by the , which rises in the Western Ghats of Karnataka and bends south to break through the at the island town of and then falls into Tamil Nadu at before flowing into the Stanley Reservoir and the that created the reservoir, and finally emptying into the Bay of Bengal.

On the western edge of the plateau lie the , the Nilgiri, the Anaimalai and the Elamalai Hills, commonly known as Western Ghats. The average height of the Western Ghats, which run along the Arabian Sea, goes on increasing towards the south. Peak in , with a height of 2,695 m above sea level, is the highest peak of peninsular India. In the Nilgiris lie Ootacamund, the well-known hill station of southern India. The western coastal plain is uneven and swift rivers flow through it that forms beautiful lagoons and backwaters, examples of which can be found in the state of Kerala. The east coast is wide with deltas formed by the rivers Godavari, Mahanadi and Kaveri. Flanking the Indian peninsula on the western side are the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea and on the eastern side lies the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal.

The eastern Deccan plateau, called and , is made of vast sheets of massive granite rock, which effectively traps rainwater. Under the thin surface layer of soil is the impervious gray granite bedrock. It rains here only during some months.

Comprising the northeastern part of the Deccan Plateau, the Telangana Plateau has an area of about 148,000 km2, a north-south length of about 770 km, and an east-west width of about 515 km.

The plateau is drained by the Godavari River taking a southeasterly course; by the Krishna River, which divides the peneplain into two regions; and by the Pennai Aaru River flowing in a northerly direction. The plateau's forests are moist deciduous, dry deciduous, and tropical thorn.

Most of the population of the region is engaged in agriculture; cereals, oilseeds, cotton, and pulses (legumes) are the major crops. There are multipurpose irrigation and hydroelectric-power projects, including the Pochampad, Bhaira Vanitippa, and Upper Pennai Aaru. Industries (located in Hyderabad, , and ) produce cotton textiles, sugar, foodstuffs, tobacco, paper, machine tools, and pharmaceuticals. Cottage industries are forest-based (timber, firewood, charcoal, bamboo products) and mineral-based (asbestos, coal, chromite, iron ore, mica, and kyanite).

Having once constituted a segment of the ancient continent of , this land is the oldest and most stable in India. The Deccan plateau consists of dry tropical forests that experience only seasonal rainfall.


Climate
The climate of the region varies from semi-arid in the north to in most of the region with distinct wet and dry seasons. Rain falls during the season from about June to October. March to June can be very dry and hot, with temperatures regularly exceeding 40 °C. The plateau's climate is drier than that on the coasts and is arid in places. Although sometimes used to mean all of India south of the Narmada River, the word Deccan relates more specifically to that area of rich volcanic soils and lava-covered plateaus in the northern part of the peninsula between the Narmada and Krishna rivers.


The Deccan Traps
The northwestern part of the plateau is made up of lava flows or igneous rocks known as the Deccan Traps. The rocks are spread over the whole of Maharashtra and parts of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh, thereby making it one of the largest volcanic provinces in the world. It consists of more than of flat-lying basalt lava flows and covers an area of nearly in west-central India. Estimates of the original area covered by the lava flows are as high as . The volume of basalt is estimated to be 511,000 cubic km. The thick dark soil (called silt) found here is suitable for cotton cultivation.


Geology
The volcanic beds of the Deccan were laid down in the massive eruption, which occurred towards the end of the period between 67 and 66 million years ago. Some speculate that this eruption may have accelerated the extinction of the . Layer after layer was formed by the volcanic activity that lasted many thousands of years, and when the volcanoes became extinct, they left a region of highlands with typically vast stretches of flat areas on top like a table. The volcanic hotspot that produced the Deccan traps is hypothesized to lie under the present day island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean.

Typically the Deccan Plateau is made up of extending up to near . This is an . Also in certain sections of the region, we can find , which is an . The difference between these two rock types is: basalt rock forms on eruption of lava, that is, on the surface (either out of a volcano, or through massive fissures—as in the Deccan basalts—in the ground), while granite forms deep within the Earth. Granite is a rock, meaning it is rich in potassium feldspar and . This composition is continental in origin (meaning it is the primary composition of the continental crust). Since it cooled relatively slowly, it has large visible crystals. Basalt, on the other hand, is in composition—meaning it is rich in and, in some cases, , both of which are - rich minerals. Basalt is similar in composition to mantle rocks, indicating that it came from the mantle and did not mix with continental rocks. Basalt forms in areas that are spreading, whereas granite forms mostly in areas that are colliding. Since both rocks are found in the Deccan Plateau, it indicates two different environments of formation.

The Deccan is rich in minerals. Primary mineral ores found in this region are and in the Chhota Nagpur region, and , and other in the region.


Fauna
The large areas of remaining forest on the plateau are still home to a variety of grazing animals from the four-horned antelope ( Tetracerus quadricornis), chinkara ( Gazella bennettii), and blackbuck ( Antilope cervicapra) to the large gaur and wild water buffalo (Bubalus arena).


People
The Deccan is home to many and people. and people live in the hills along the northern and northeastern edges of the plateau, and speak various languages that belong to both the Indo-Aryan and Dravidian families of languages. , an Indo-Aryan language, is the main language of the north-western Deccan in the state of . Speakers of and , the predominant languages of , and respectively, occupy those states' portions of the plateau. The city of Hyderabad is an important center of the language in the Deccan; its surrounding areas also host a notable population of Urdu speakers. The Urdu dialect spoken in this region is also known as or as Deccani, named after the region itself. Northeastern parts of the Deccan are in the state of Odisha. , another Indo-Aryan language, is spoken in this part of Deccan.

The chief crop is ; also common are , , and other crops.

Apart from the already mentioned, the state of is found in the northeast corner of the plateau. The large cities in the Deccan are Hyderabad, the capital of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka, , the cultural hub of Maharashtra and , the winter capital of Maharashtra . Other major cities include , and in Karnataka; Satara, , , , , , , and Aurangabad in Maharashtra; , , , , , , in Andhra Pradesh; and , , , Nizamabad, , , in present Telangana.


History
The Deccan produced some of the most significant dynasties in Indian History like the , , The , Satavahana dynasty, , , , Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukya Empire, Vijayanagara Empire and . Of the early history, the main facts established are the growth of the empire (300 BC) and after that the Deccan was ruled by the Satavahana dynasty which protected the Deccan against the Scythian invaders, the .History of Asia by B.V. Rao p.288 Prominent dynasties of this time include the (3rd century BC to 12th century AD), (6th to 12th centuries), Rashtrakutas (753–982), (10th to 14th centuries), (1083 to 1323 AD) and Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1646). Kings once ruled over the Deccan. A cave inscription at refers to the reign of an prince named , son of Shivadatta. The Castes and Tribes of H.E.H. the Nizam's Dominions, Volume 1, by Syed Siraj ul Hassan-page-12 After the collapse of the Satavahana dynasty the Deccan was ruled by the from the 3rd century to 5th century.

From the 6th to 8th century the Deccan was ruled by the which produced great rulers like who defeated the north India Emperor or whose general defeated the Arab invaders in the 8th century. From the 8th to 10th century the Rashtrakuta dynasty ruled this region. It led successful military campaigns into northern India and was described by Arab scholars as one of the four great empires of the world.Portraits of a Nation: History of Ancient India by kamlesh kapur p.584-585 In the 10th century the Western Chalukya Empire was established which produced scholars like the social reformer , Vijñāneśvara, the mathematician Bhāskara II and who wrote the text Manasollasa. From the early 11th century to the 12th century the Deccan Plateau was dominated by the Western Chalukya Empire and the .The Penguin History of Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300 by : p.365-366 Several battles were fought between the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty in the Deccan Plateau during the reigns of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I, Jayasimha II, and and .Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen: p.383-384

In 1294, , emperor of Delhi, invaded the Deccan, stormed Devagiri, and reduced the rajas of Maharashtra to the position of tributary princes (see Daulatabad), then proceeding southward to conquer the , . In 1307, a fresh series of incursions led by began in response to unpaid tributes, resulting in the final ruin of the Yadava power; and in 1338 the conquest of the Deccan was completed by Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq. The imperial hegemony was brief, as soon Andhra and reverted to their former masters. These defections by the states was soon followed by a general revolt of the governors, resulting in the establishment in 1347 of the independent Muslim dynasty of .Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2008). India and Its Neighbors, Part 1, p. 335. Tarreytown, New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation. The power of the evaporated south of the . The southern Deccan came under the rule of the famous Vijayanagara Empire which reached its zenith during the reign of Emperor .

In the power struggles which ensued, the Hindu kingdom of Karnataka fell bit by bit to the Bahamani dynasty, who advanced their frontier to in 1373, to in 1421, and to the Bay of Bengal in 1472. of the Vijayanagara Empire defeated the last remnant of Bahmani Sultanate power after which the Bahmani Sultanate collapsed. When the Bahmani empire dissolved in 1518, its dominions were distributed into the five Muslim states of , , , and , giving rise to the Deccan sultanates. South of these, the Hindu state of Carnatic or Vijayanagar still survived; but this, too, was defeated, at the Battle of Talikota (1565) by a league of the Muslim powers. Berar had already been annexed by in 1572, and Bidar was absorbed by Bijapur in 1619. interest in the Deccan also rose at this time. Partially incorporated into the Empire in 1598, Ahmadnagar was fully annexed in 1636; Bijapur in 1686, and Golkonda in 1687.

In 1645, laid the foundation of the . The Marathas under Shivaji directly challenged the Bijapur Sultanate and ultimately the mighty . Once the Bijapur Sultanate stopped being a threat to the Maratha Empire, Marathas became much more aggressive and began to frequently raid Mughal territory. These raids however angered the Mughal Emperor and by 1680 he moved his capital from Delhi to Aurangabad in Deccan to conquer maratha held territories. After Shivaji died, his son defended the Maratha empire from the Mughal onslaught but he was captured by the Mughals and executed. By 1698 the last Maratha stronghold at Jinji fell and Mughals now controlling all maratha held territories.

In 1707, Emperor Aurangzeb died of sickness at the age of 89 and this allowed Marathas to reacquired their lost territories and established their authority in much of modern . After the death of Chhatrapati Shahu, the Peshwas became the de facto leaders of the Empire from 1749 to 1761, while Shivaji's successors continued as nominal rulers from their base in Satara. The Marathas kept the at bay during the 18th century. By 1760, with the defeat of the Nizam in the Deccan, Maratha power had reached its zenith. However, dissension between the Peshwa and their (army commanders) saw a gradual downfall of the Empire leading to its eventual annexation by the British East India Company in 1818 after the three Anglo-Maratha wars.

A few years later, 's viceroy in Ahmednagar, Nizam-ul-Mulk, established the seat of an independent government at in 1724. was ruled by . During the contests for power which ensued from about the middle of the 18th century between the powers on the plateau, the and took opposite sides. After a brief course of triumph, the interests of declined, and a new empire in India was established by the British. Mysore formed one of their earliest conquests in the Deccan. Tanjore and the Carnatic were soon annexed to their dominions, followed by the Peshwa territories in 1818.

In , the plateau was largely divided between the presidencies of Bombay and Madras. The two largest native states at that time were and ; many smaller states existed at the time, including , and .

After independence in 1947, almost all native states were incorporated into the Republic of India. The Indian Army occupied Hyderabad in in 1948 when it refused to join.Benichou, Lucien D. (2000). From Autocracy to Integration: Political Developments in Hyderabad State (1938—1948), p. 232. Chennai: Orient Longman Limited. In 1956, the States Reorganisation Act reorganized states along linguistic lines, leading to the states currently found on the plateau.


Economy
The Deccan plateau is very rich in minerals and precious stones. The plateau’s mineral wealth led many lowland rulers, including those of the (4th–2nd century BCE) and (4th–6th century CE) dynasties, to fight over it. Major minerals found here include coal, , asbestos, chromite, mica, and kyanite. Since March 2011, large deposits of have been discovered in the Tummalapalle belt and in the at Gogi in . The Tummalapalle belt uranium reserve promises to be one of the top 20uranium reserve discoveries of the world.

Low rainfall made farming difficult until the introduction of irrigation. Currently, the area under cultivation is quite low, ranging from 60% in to about 10% in . Except in developed areas of certain river valleys, double-cropping is rare. is the predominant crop in high-rainfall areas and in low-rainfall areas. Other crops of significance include cotton, tobacco, , and sugar cane. Coffee, tea, coconuts, areca, pepper, rubber, cashew nuts, tapioca, and cardamom are widely grown on plantations in the and on the western slopes of the Western Ghats. Cultivation of has recently received more attention due to the Jatropha incentives in India.

== Gallery ==


Notes
  • (2019). 9780521254847, Cambridge University Press. .


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