website is a collection of related , including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia, google, and amazon.com. Today roughly 380 new websites are created every minute across the World.
Websites can have many functions and can be used in various fashions; a website can be a personal website, a corporate website for a company, a government website, an organization website, etc. Websites are typically dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, such as a company's website for its employees, are typically a part of an intranet.
Web pages, which are the of websites, are , typically composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML, XHTML). They may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable HTML anchor. Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP Secure, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user. The user's application, often a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a Computer monitor.
between web pages conveys to the reader the site map and guides the navigation of the site, which often starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web content. Some websites require user registration or subscription to access content. Examples of paywall include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, Internet forum, web-based email, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services. can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop computer and laptop, , and .
The World Wide Web (WWW) was created in 1990 by the British CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to use for anyone. Before the introduction of HTML and HTTP, other protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server. These protocols offer a simple directory structure which the user navigates and where they choose files to download. Documents were most often presented as plain text files without formatting, or were encoded in word processor formats.
Static websites can be edited using four broad categories of software:
Static websites may still use server side includes (SSI) as an editing convenience, such as sharing a common menu bar across many pages. As the site's behaviour to the reader is still static, this is not considered a dynamic site.
A dynamic website is one that changes or customizes itself frequently and automatically. Server-side dynamic pages are generated "on the fly" by computer code that produces the HTML (CSS are responsible for appearance and thus, are static files). There are a wide range of software systems, such as CGI, Java Servlets and Java Server Pages (JSP), Active Server Pages and ColdFusion (CFML) that are available to generate dynamic web systems and dynamic sites. Various web application frameworks and web template systems are available for general-use programming languages like Perl, PHP, Python and Ruby to make it faster and easier to create complex dynamic websites.
There are many varieties of websites, each specializing in a particular type of content or use, and they may be arbitrarily classified in any number of ways. A few such classifications might include:
|Affiliate||A site, typically few in pages, whose purpose is to sell a third party's product. The seller receives a commission for facilitating the sale.|
|Affiliate agency||Enabled Web portal that renders not only its custom CMS but also syndicated content from other content providers for an agreed fee. There are usually three relationship tiers (see Affiliate Agencies).||Commission Junction, advertisers like eBay, or a consumer like Yahoo!.|
|Archive site||Used to preserve valuable electronic content threatened with extinction. Two examples are: Internet Archive, which since 1996 has preserved billions of old (and new) web pages; and Google Groups, which in early 2005 was archiving over 845,000,000 messages posted to Usenet news/discussion groups.||Internet Archive, Google Groups|
|Malware||A site created specifically to attack visitors' computers on their first visit to a website by downloading a file (usually a trojan horse). These websites rely on unsuspecting users with poor anti-virus protection in their computers.|
|Blog (weblog)||Sites generally used to post online diaries which may include discussion forums. Many bloggers use blogs like an editorial section of a newspaper to express their ideas on anything ranging from politics to religion to video games to parenting, along with anything in between. Some bloggers are professional bloggers and they are paid to blog about a certain subject, and they are usually found on news sites.||WordPress|
|Brand-building site||A site with the purpose of creating an experience of a brand online. These sites usually do not sell anything, but focus on building the brand. Brand building sites are most common for low-value, high-volume fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG).|
|Celebrity||A website the information in which revolves around a celebrity or public figure. These sites can be official (endorsed by the celebrity) or fan-made (run by a fan or fans of the celebrity without implicit endorsement).||Jim Carrey|
|Comparison shopping website||A website providing a vertical search engine that shoppers use to filter and compare products based on price, features, reviews, and other criteria.||Shopping.com|
|Crowdfunding website||Platform to fund projects by the pre-purchase of products or by asking audience members to make a donation.||Kickstarter|
|Click-to-donate site||A website that allows the visitor to donate to charity simply by clicking on a button or answering a question correctly. An advertiser usually donates to the charity for each correct answer generated.||The Hunger Site, Freerice|
|Community site||A site where persons with similar interests communicate with each other, usually by Online chat or message boards.||Myspace, Facebook, orkut, VK|
|Content site||A site the business of which is the creation and distribution of original content||wikiHow, About.com|
|Classified ads site||A site publishing classified advertisements||gumtree.com, Craigslist|
|Corporate website||Used to provide background information about a business, organization, or service.|
|Dating website||A site where users can find other single people looking for long-term relationships, dating, short encounters or friendship. Many of them are pay per services, but there are many free or partially free dating sites. Most dating sites in the 2010s have the functionality of social networking websites.||eHarmony, Match.com|
|Electronic commerce (e-commerce) site||A site offering goods and services for Online shopping and enabling online transactions for such sales.||Amazon.com|
|Fake news website||A site publishing fake news stories, intending to deceive visitors and profit from advertising.|
|Internet forum||A site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages.||SkyscraperCity, 4chan|
|A website designed specifically for use as a gallery; these may be an art gallery or photo gallery and of commercial or non-commercial nature.|
|Government||A website made by the local, state, department or national government of a country. Usually these sites also operate websites that are intended to inform tourists or support tourism.|
|Gripe site||A site devoted to the criticism of a person, place, corporation, government, or institution.|
|A site that lets users play such as gambling.|
|Humor site||Satirizes, parodies or amuses the audience.||The Onion|
|Information site||Most websites fit in this category to some extent. They do not necessarily have commercial purposes.||Most government, educational and nonprofit institutions have an informational site.|
|Media-sharing site||A site that enables users to upload and view media such as pictures, music, and videos||YouTube, DeviantArt|
|Mirror website||A website that is the replication of another website. This type of website is used as a response to spikes in user visitors. Mirror sites are most commonly used to provide multiple sources of the same information, and are of particular value as a way of providing reliable access to large downloads.|
|Microblog||A short and simple form of blogging. Microblogs are limited to certain numbers of characters and works similar to a status update on Facebook.|
|News site||Similar to an information site, but dedicated to dispensing news, politics, and commentary.||CNN BBC News|
|Personal website||Websites about an individual or a small group (such as a family) that contains information or any content that the individual wishes to include. Such a personal website is different from a celebrity website, which can be very expensive and run by a publicist or agency.|
|Phishing||A website created to fraudulently acquire sensitive information, such as passwords and credit card details, by masquerading as a trustworthy person or business (such as Social Security Administration, PayPal, a bank) in an electronic communication (see Phishing).|
|Photo sharing||A website created to share digital photos with the online community. (see Photo sharing).||Flickr, Instagram, Imgur|
|p2p/Torrent file||Websites that index . This type of website is different from a Bit torrent client which is usually a stand-alone software.||Mininova, The Pirate Bay, IsoHunt|
|Political site||A site on which people may voice political views, provide political humor, campaign for elections, or provide information about a certain candidate, political party or ideology.|
|Question and Answer (Q&A) site||Answer site is a site where people can ask questions & get answers.||Quora, Yahoo! Answers, Stack Exchange Network (including Stack Overflow)|
|Religious site||A site in which people may advertise a place of worship, or provide inspiration or seek to encourage the faith of a follower of that religion.|
|Review site||A site on which people can post reviews for products or services.||Yelp, Rotten Tomatoes|
|School website||a site on which teachers, students, or administrators can post information about current events at or involving their school. U.S. elementary-high school websites generally use k12 in the URL|
|Scraper site||a site which largely duplicates the content of another site without permission, without actually pretending to be that site, in order to capture some of that site's traffic (especially from search engines) and profit from advertising revenue or in other ways.|
|Search engine site||A website that indexes material on the Internet or an intranet (and lately on traditional media such as books and newspapers) and provides links to information as a response to a query.||Google Search, Bing, DuckDuckGo, Ecosia|
|Shock site||Includes or other material that is intended to be offensive to most viewers||Goatse.cx, rotten.com|
|Showcase website||used by individuals and organisations to showcase things of interest or value|
|Social bookmarking site||A site where users share other content from the Internet and rate and comment on the content.||StumbleUpon, Digg|
|Social networking site||A site where users could communicate with one another and share media, such as pictures, videos, music, blogs, etc. with other users. These may include games and .||Facebook, Google+|
|Social news||A social news website features user-posted stories that are ranked based on popularity. Users can comment on these posts, and these comments may also be ranked. Since their emergence with the birth of web 2.0, these sites are used to link many types of information including news, humor, support, and discussion. Social news sites allegedly facilitate democratic participation on the web.||Reddit, Digg, SlashDot|
|Warez||A site designed to host or link to materials such as music, movies and software for the user to download.|
|Webcomic||An online comic, ranging in various styles and genres unique to the World Wide Web.||Penny Arcade, xkcd, Gunnerkrigg Court|
|Webmail||A site that provides a webmail service.||Hotmail, Gmail, Yahoo!|
|Web portal||A site that provides a starting point or a gateway to other resources on the Internet or an intranet.||msn.com, msnbc.com, Yahoo!|
|Wiki site||A site in which users collaboratively edit its content.||Wikipedia, wikiHow, Wikia|
In February 2009, Netcraft, an Internet monitoring company that has tracked Web growth since 1995, reported that there were 215,675,903 websites with domain names and content on them in 2009, compared to just 19,732 websites in August 1995. After reaching 1 billion websites in September 2014, a milestone confirmed by NetCraft in its October 2014 Web Server Survey and that Internet Live Stats was the first to announce—as attested by this tweet from the inventor of the World Wide Web himself, Tim Berners-Lee—the number of websites in the world has subsequently declined, reverting to a level below 1 billion. This is due to the monthly fluctuations in the count of inactive websites. The number of websites continued growing to over 1 billion by March 2016, and has continued growing since. Total number of Websites | Internet live stats. internetlivestats.com. Retrieved on 2015-04-14.