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A programmer, developer, dev, coder, or software engineer is a person who creates computer software. The term computer programmer can refer to a specialist in one area of or to a generalist who writes code for many kinds of software. One who practices or professes a formal approach to programming may also be known as a programmer analyst.

A programmer's primary computer language (Assembly, , C, C++, C#, Java, Lisp, Python, etc.) is often prefixed to these titles, and those who work in a web environment often prefix their titles with web.

A range of occupations, including: software developer, , mobile applications developer, embedded developer, software engineer, computer scientist, or , while they do involve programming, also require a range of other skills. The use of the simple term programmer for these positions is sometimes considered an insulting or derogatory simplification.


History
British countess and mathematician is often considered the first computer programmer, as she was the first to publish an intended for implementation on 's analytical engine, in October 1842, intended for the calculation of .J. Fuegi and J. Francis, "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'." Annals of the History of Computing 25 #4 (October–December 2003): 19, 25. Digital Object Identifier Because Babbage's machine was never completed to a functioning standard in her time, she never saw this algorithm run.

The first person to run a program on a functioning modern electronically based computer was computer scientist , in 1941.

The programming team, consisting of Kay McNulty, , , , and were the first regularly working programmers.

International Programmers' Day is celebrated annually on 7 January. In 2009, the government of Russia decreed a professional annual holiday known as Programmers' Day to be celebrated on 13 September (12 September in leap years). It had also been an unofficial international holiday before that.


Software
The word "software" was first used as early as 1953, but did not appear in print until the 1960s. adapted from Sophisticated: The Magazine Before this time, computers were programmed either by customers, or the few commercial computer vendors of the time, such as and . The first company founded to provide software products and services was Computer Usage Company in 1955.

The software industry expanded in the early 1960s, almost immediately after computers were first sold in mass-produced quantities. Universities, government, and business customers created a demand for software. Many of these programs were written in-house by full-time staff programmers. Some were distributed freely between users of a particular machine for no charge. Others were done on a commercial basis, and other firms such as Computer Sciences Corporation (founded in 1959) started to grow. The computer/hardware makers started bundling operating systems, and programming environments with their machines.

The industry expanded greatly with the rise of the personal computer ("PC") in the mid-1970s, which brought computing to the of the office worker. In the following years, it also created a growing market for games, applications, and utilities. , 's first product, was the dominant operating system at the time.

In the early years of the 21st century, another successful has arisen for hosted software, called software-as-a-service, or SaaS; this was at least the third time this model had been attempted. From the point of view of producers of some proprietary software, SaaS reduces the concerns about unauthorized copying, since it can only be accessed through the Web, and by definition, no is loaded onto the end user's PC. By 2014, the role of developer had been defined; in this context, one definition of a "developer" in general was published:


Nature of the work
Some of this section is from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2006–07 Edition, which is in the as a work of the United States Government.

Computer programmers write, test, , and maintain the detailed instructions, called computer programs, that computers must follow to perform their functions. Programmers also conceive, design, and test logical structures for solving problems by computer. Many technical innovations in programming — advanced computing technologies and sophisticated new languages and programming tools — have redefined the role of a programmer and elevated much of the programming work done today. Job titles and descriptions may vary, depending on the organization.

Programmers work in many settings, including corporate information technology ("IT") departments, big software companies, small service firms and government entities of all sizes. Many professional programmers also work for consulting companies at client sites as contractors. is not typically required to work as a programmer, although professional certifications are commonly held by programmers. Programming is widely considered a (although some authorities disagree on the grounds that only careers with legal licensing requirements count as a profession).

Programmers' work varies widely depending on the type of business for which they are writing programs. For example, the instructions involved in updating financial records are very different from those required to duplicate conditions on an aircraft for pilots training in a flight simulator. Simple programs can be written in a few hours, more complex ones may require more than a year of work, while others are never considered 'complete' but rather are continuously improved as long as they stay in use. In most cases, several programmers work together as a team under a senior programmer’s supervision.

Programmers write programs according to the specifications determined primarily by more senior programmers and by . After the design process is complete, it is the job of the programmer to convert that design into a logical series of instructions that the computer can follow. The programmer codes these instructions in one of many programming languages. Different programming languages are used depending on the purpose of the program. , for example, is commonly used for business applications that typically run on mainframe and computers, whereas is used in science and engineering. C++ is widely used for both scientific and business applications. Java, C#, and are popular programming languages for Web and business applications. Programmers generally know more than one programming language and, because many languages are similar, they often can learn new languages relatively easily. In practice, programmers often are referred to by the language they know, e.g. as Java programmers, or by the type of function they perform or environment in which they work: for example, programmers, mainframe programmers, or .

When making changes to the that programs are made up of, programmers need to make other programmers aware of the task that the routine is to perform. They do this by inserting comments in the so that others can understand the program more easily and by documenting their code. To save work, programmers often use libraries of basic code that can be modified or customized for a specific application. This approach yields more reliable and consistent programs and increases programmers' productivity by eliminating some routine steps.


Testing and debugging
Programmers test a program by running it and looking for (errors). As they are identified, the programmer usually makes the appropriate corrections, then rechecks the program until an acceptably low level and severity of bugs remain. This process is called and . These are important parts of every programmer's job. Programmers may continue to fix these problems throughout the life of a program. Updating, repairing, modifying, and expanding existing programs is sometimes called maintenance programming. Programmers may contribute to and , or they may work with to do such work.


Application versus system programming
Computer programmers often are grouped into two broad types: application programmers and systems programmers. Application programmers write programs to handle a specific job, such as a program to track inventory within an organization. They also may revise existing packaged software or customize generic applications which are frequently purchased from independent software vendors. Systems programmers, in contrast, write programs to maintain and control computer systems software, such as and database management systems. These workers make changes in the instructions that determine how the network, workstations, and CPU of the system handle the various jobs they have been given and how they communicate with peripheral equipment such as and disk drives.


Qualifications and skills
A software developer needs to have deep technical expertise with certain aspects of computing. Some positions will require a degree in a relevant field such as computer science, information technology, engineering, programming, or any other IT related post graduate studies. An ideal software developer is a self-motivated professional carrying a dynamic hands-on experience on key languages of programming such as C++, C#, PHP, Java, C, , VB, Oracle, UML, Linux, Python, UNIX, XML, HTTP, Smalltalk, or other software testing tools.

According to developer Eric Sink, the differences between system design, software development, and programming are more apparent. Already in the current market place there can be found a segregation between programmers and developers, in that one who implements is not the same as the one who designs the class structure or hierarchy. Even more so that developers become software architects or systems architects, those who design the multi-leveled architecture or component interactions of a large software system.


Types of software
Programmers in software development companies may work directly with experts from various fields to create software – either programs designed for specific clients or packaged software for general use – ranging from to educational software to programs for desktop publishing and financial planning. Programming of packaged software constitutes one of the most rapidly growing segments of the computer services industry. Some companies or organizations – even small ones – have set up their own IT team to ensure the design and development of in-house software to answer to very specific needs from their internal end-users, especially when existing software are not suitable or too expensive. This is for example the case in research laboratories.

In some organizations, particularly small ones, people commonly known as programmer analysts are responsible for both the systems analysis and the actual programming work. The transition from a mainframe environment to one that is based primarily on personal computers (PCs) has blurred the once rigid distinction between the programmer and the user. Increasingly, adept end users are taking over many of the tasks previously performed by programmers. For example, the growing use of packaged software, such as spreadsheet and database management software packages, allows users to write simple programs to access data and perform calculations.

In addition, the rise of the Internet has made a huge part of the programming field. Currently more software applications are that can be used by anyone with a . Examples of such applications include the search service, the Outlook.com e-mail service, and the photo-sharing service.

Programming editors, also known as source code editors, are text editors that are specifically designed for programmers or developers for writing the source code of an application or a program. Most of these editors include features useful for programmers, which may include color syntax highlighting, auto indentation, , bracket matching, , and allows plug-ins. These features aid the users during coding, and testing.


Globalization

Market changes in the UK
According to BBC News, 17% of computer science students could not find work in their field 6 months after graduation in 2009 which was the highest rate of the university subjects surveyed while 0% of medical students were unemployed in the same survey. The UK category system does, however, class such degrees as information technology and as 'computer science', industries in which jobs can be extremely difficult to find, somewhat inflating the actual figure.[3]ATAS classifications (University of Plymouth)


Market changes in the US
Computer programming, offshore outsourcing, and Foreign Worker Visas became a controversial topic after the crash of the left many programmers without work or with lower wages. Programming was even mentioned in the 2004 US Presidential debate on the topic of offshore outsourcing.

Large companies claim there is a with regard to programming talent. However, US programmers and unions counter that large companies are exaggerating their case in order to obtain cheaper programmers from developing countries and avoid previously employer paid training using industry specific technologies not covered in most accredited degree programs.[4] Migration Letters, Volume: 10, No: 2, pp. 211 – 228 & e Other reasons for employers claiming skill shortages is the result of their own cost saving combining of several disparate skill sets previously held by several specialized programmers into fewer generalized positions that are unlikely to have enough with the desired experience."Purple Squirrels and the Reserve Army of the Unemployed" Https://www.pbs.org/newshour/making-sense/purple-squirrels-and-the-reser/ 15, 2012 accessdate = 2016-06-10

Enrollment in computer-related degrees in US has dropped recently due to lack of general interests in science and mathematics and also out of an apparent fear that programming will be subject to the same pressures as manufacturing and agriculture careers.Theresa Beaubouef and John Mason, Why the high attrition rate for computer science students: some thoughts and observations., ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 2005 This situation has resulted in confusion about whether the US economy is entering a "post-information age" and the nature of US comparative advantages. Most academic institutions have an Institutional research office that keep past statistics of degrees conferred which show several dips and rises in Computer Science degrees over the past 30 years. The overall trend shows a slightly overall decline in growth (especially when compared to other STEM degree growth) since certain peaks of 1986, 1992, , and showing periods of flat growth or even declines. In addition the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook 2016-26 is -7% (a decline in their words) for Computer Programmers because Computer programming can be done from anywhere in the world, so companies sometimes hire programmers in countries where wages are lower.


See also
  • List of programmers
  • Software development process
  • Software engineering
  • System administrator

.


Further reading
  • , The Psychology of Computer Programming, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1971
  • An experiential study of the nature of programming work: Lucas, Rob. "Dreaming in Code" New Left Review 62, March–April 2010, pp. 125–132.


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