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Tag Wiki 'Molecular Mass'.

The molecular mass ( m) is the mass of a given . The unit dalton (Da) is often used. Different molecules of the same compound may have different molecular masses because they contain different of an element. The derived quantity relative molecular mass is the ratio of the mass of a molecule to the atomic mass constant (which is equal to one dalton).IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book" Https://< /ref>

The molecular mass and relative molecular mass are distinct from but related to the . The molar mass is defined as the mass of a given substance divided by the amount of a substance, is expressed in per mol (g/mol). That makes the molar mass an average of many particles or molecules, and the molecular mass the mass of one specific particle or molecule. The molar mass is usually the more appropriate quantity when dealing with macroscopic (weigh-able) quantities of a substance.

The definition of molecular weight is most authoritatively synonymous with relative molecular mass; however, in common practice, use of this terminology is highly variable. When the molecular weight is given with the unit Da, it is frequently as a weighted average similar to the molar mass but with different units. In molecular biology, the mass of macromolecules is referred to as their molecular weight and is expressed in kDa, although the numerical value is often approximate and representative of an average.

The terms "molecular mass", "molecular weight", and "molar mass" may be used interchangeably in less formal contexts where unit- and quantity-correctness is not needed. The molecular mass is more commonly used when referring to the mass of a single or specific well-defined molecule and less commonly than molecular weight when referring to a weighted average of a sample. Prior to the 2019 redefinition of SI base units quantities expressed in daltons (Da) were by definition numerically equivalent to molar mass expressed in the units g/mol and were thus strictly numerically interchangeable. After the 20 May 2019 redefinition of units, this relationship is only nearly equivalent, although the difference is negligible for all practical purposes.

The molecular mass of small to medium size molecules, measured by mass spectrometry, can be used to determine the composition of elements in the molecule. The molecular masses of macromolecules, such as proteins, can also be determined by mass spectrometry; however, methods based on and light-scattering are also used to determine molecular mass when or mass spectrometric data are not available.

Molecular masses are calculated from the of each present in the molecule, while relative molecular masses are calculated from the standard atomic weights of each . The standard atomic weight takes into account the of the element in a given sample (usually assumed to be "normal"). For example, water has a relative molecular mass of 18.0153(3), but individual water molecules have molecular masses which range between 18.010 564 6863(15) Da (1H16O) and 22.027 7364(9) Da (2H18O).

Atomic and molecular masses are usually reported in daltons, which is defined in terms of the mass of the 12C (carbon-12). Relative atomic and molecular masses as defined are . However, the name unified atomic mass unit (u) is still used in common practice. For example, the relative molecular mass and molecular mass of , whose molecular formula is CH4, are calculated respectively as follows:


The uncertainty in molecular mass reflects variance (error) in measurement not the natural variance in isotopic abundances across the globe. In high-resolution mass spectrometry the mass isotopomers 12C1H4 and 13C1H4 are observed as distinct molecules, with molecular masses of approximately 16.031 Da and 17.035 Da, respectively. The intensity of the mass-spectrometry peaks is proportional to the isotopic abundances in the molecular species. 12C 2H 1H3 can also be observed with molecular mass of 17 Da.


Mass spectrometry
In mass spectrometry, the molecular mass of a small molecule is usually reported as the monoisotopic mass, that is, the mass of the molecule containing only the most common isotope of each element. This also differs subtly from the molecular mass in that the choice of isotopes is defined and thus is a single specific molecular mass of the many possibilities. The masses used to compute the monoisotopic molecular mass are found on a table of isotopic masses and are not found on a typical periodic table. The average molecular mass is often used for larger molecules since molecules with many atoms are unlikely to be composed exclusively of the most abundant isotope of each element. A theoretical average molecular mass can be calculated using the standard atomic weights found on a typical periodic table, since there is likely to be a statistical distribution of atoms representing the isotopes throughout the molecule. The average molecular mass of a sample, however, usually differs substantially from this since a single sample average is not the same as the average of many geographically distributed samples.

Mass photometry
Https:// detecting protein state, characterisation of complex macromolecular assemblies (, , AAV) and protein interactions such as protein-protein interactions.Soltermman et al. Quantifying protein-protein interactions by molecular counting using mass photometry. Angew. Chem Int Ed, 2020, 59(27), 10774-10779 Mass photometry can measure molecular mass to an accurate degree over a wide range of molecular masses (40kDa – 5MDa).

Hydrodynamic methods
To a first approximation, the basis for determination of molecular mass according to Mark–Houwink relationsPaul, Hiemenz C., and Lodge P. Timothy. Polymer Chemistry. Second ed. Boca Raton: CRC P, 2007. 336, 338–339. is the fact that the intrinsic viscosity of solutions (or suspensions) of macromolecules depends on volumetric proportion of the dispersed particles in a particular solvent. Specifically, the hydrodynamic size as related to molecular mass depends on a conversion factor, describing the shape of a particular molecule. This allows the apparent molecular mass to be described from a range of techniques sensitive to hydrodynamic effects, including DLS, SEC (also known as GPC when the eluent is an organic solvent), , and diffusion ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DOSY). The apparent hydrodynamic size can then be used to approximate molecular mass using a series of macromolecule-specific standards. As this requires calibration, it's frequently described as a "relative" molecular mass determination method.

Static light scattering
It is also possible to determine absolute molecular mass directly from light scattering, traditionally using the . This can be accomplished either via classical static light scattering or via multi-angle light scattering detectors. Molecular masses determined by this method do not require calibration, hence the term "absolute". The only external measurement required is refractive index increment, which describes the change in refractive index with concentration.

See also
  • and cryoscopic constant
  • and ebullioscopic constant
  • Dumas method of molecular weight determination
  • François-Marie Raoult
  • Standard atomic weight
  • Absolute molar mass
  • Molar mass distribution
  • Dalton (unit)

External links

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