Product Code Database
Example Keywords: tomtom -super $72-123
barcode-scavenger
   » » Wiki: Diacritic
Tag Wiki 'Diacritic'.
Tag

A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign from διά ( dia, through) and κρίνω ( krinein, to separate) – is a added to a , or basic glyph. The term derives from the διακριτικός ( diakritikós, "distinguishing"). Diacritic is primarily an , though sometimes used as a , whereas diacritical is only ever an . Some diacritical marks, such as the ( ´ ) and ( ` ) are often called accents. Diacritical marks may appear above or below a letter, or in some other position such as within the letter or between two letters.

The main use of diacritical marks in the is to change the sound-value of the letter to which they are added. Examples from are the in naïve and Noël, which show that the vowel with the diaeresis mark is pronounced separately from the preceding ; the acute and grave accents, which can indicate that a final vowel is to be pronounced, as in and poetic breathèd, and the under the "c" in the borrowed French word façade, which shows it is pronounced rather than . In other Latin alphabets, they may distinguish between , such as the ("there") versus la ("the"), which are both pronounced . In , a dot over consonants indicates of the consonant in question.

In other , diacritical marks may perform other functions. systems, namely the ( ـَ, ـُ, ـُ, etc.) and the ( etc.) systems, indicate sounds (vowels and tones) that are not conveyed by the basic alphabet. The ( ् etc.) and the Arabic ( ـْـ ) mark the absence of a vowel. indicate . Other uses include the ( ◌҃ ) and the Hebrew ( ״ ), which, respectively, mark or , and Greek diacritical marks, which showed that letters of the alphabet were being used as . In the official romanization system for Chinese, diacritics are used to mark the of the syllables in which the marked vowels occur.

In and , a letter modified by a diacritic may be treated either as a new, distinct letter or as a letter–diacritic combination. This varies from language to language, and may vary from case to case within a language.

In some cases, letters are used as "in-line diacritics" in place of ancillary glyphs, because they modify the sound of the letter preceding them, as in the case of the "h" in English "sh" and "th".Henry Sweet (1877) A Handbook of Phonetics, p 174–175: "Even letters with accents and diacritics ... being only cast for a few founts, act practically as new letters. ... We may consider the h in sh and th simply as a diacritic written for convenience on a line with the letter it modifies."


Types
Among the types of diacritic used in alphabets based on the are:

The tilde, dot, comma, , apostrophe, bar, and colon are sometimes diacritical marks, but also have other uses.

Not all diacritics occur adjacent to the letter they modify. In the of Ghana, for example, an apostrophe indicates a change of vowel quality, but occurs at the beginning of the word, as in the dialects ’Bulengee and ’Dolimi. Because of , all vowels in a word are affected, so the scope of the diacritic is the entire word. In scripts, like those used to write and , diacritics indicate vowels, and may occur above, below, before, after, or around the consonant letter they modify.

The tittle (dot) on the letter i of the Latin alphabet originated as a diacritic to clearly distinguish i from the (downstrokes) of adjacent letters. It first appeared in the 11th century in the sequence ii (as in ingeníí), then spread to i adjacent to m, n, u, and finally to all lowercase i's. The j, originally a variant of i, inherited the tittle. The shape of the diacritic developed from initially resembling today's acute accent to a long flourish by the 15th century. With the advent of it was reduced to the round dot we have today.


Diacritics specific to non-Latin alphabets

Arabic
  • (ئ ؤ إ أ and stand alone ء) : indicates a .
  • (ــًــٍــٌـ) (تنوين) symbols: Serve a grammatical role in . The sign ـً is most commonly written in combination with , e.g. ـًا.
  • (ــّـ) : Gemination (doubling) of consonants.
  • (ٱ) : Comes most commonly at the beginning of a word. Indicates a type of that is pronounced only when the letter is read at the beginning of the talk.
  • (آ) : A written replacement for a that is followed by an alif, i.e. (ءا). Read as a glottal stop followed by a long , e.g. ءاداب، ءاية، قرءان، مرءاة are written out respectively as آداب، آية، قرآن، مرآة. This writing rule does not apply when the alif that follows a is not a part of the stem of the word, e.g. نتوءات is not written out as نتوآت as the stem نتوء does not have an alif that follows its .
  • (ــٰـ) superscript alif (also "short" or "dagger alif": A replacement for an original alif that is dropped in the writing out of some rare words, e.g. لاكن is not written out with the original alif found in the word pronunciation, instead it is written out as لٰكن.
  • (In Arabic: حركات also called تشكيل tashkīl):
    • (ــَـ) (a)
    • (ــِـ) (i)
    • (ــُـ) (u)
    • (ــْـ) (no vowel)
  • The or vowel points serve two purposes:
    • They serve as a phonetic guide. They indicate the presence of short vowels or their absence
    • At the last letter of a word, the vowel point reflects the case or conjugation mood.
      • For nouns, The is for the nominative, for the accusative, and for the genitive.
      • For verbs, the is for the imperfective, for the perfective, and the is for verbs in the imperative or moods.
  • Vowel points or should not be confused with consonant points or (إعجام) – one, two or three dots written above or below a consonant to distinguish between letters of the same or similar .


Chinese

Greek
These diacritics are used in addition to the acute, grave, and circumflex accents and the diaeresis:


Hebrew


Korean
These diacritics, known as Bangjeom (방점;傍點), were used to mark pitch accents in for Middle Korean. It is written to the left of a character in vertical writing and above a character in horizontal writing:  〮, 〯   The Korean government officially revised the in July, 2000 to eliminate diacritics.


Sanskrit and Indic

Non-alphabetic scripts
Some non-alphabetic scripts also employ symbols that function essentially as diacritics.
  • Non-pure (such as and script) and use diacritics for denoting . Hebrew and Arabic also indicate consonant doubling and change with diacritics; Hebrew and use them for foreign sounds. Devanagari and related abugidas also use a diacritical mark called a to mark the absence of a vowel. In addition, Devanagari uses the moon-dot ( ).
  • The Japanese and use the (in Japanese: 濁点 and 半濁点) symbols, also known as nigori (濁) or ten-ten (点々) and maru (丸), to indicate or other phonetic changes.
  • are commonly created with diacritic symbols, especially emoticons on popular .


Alphabetization or collation
Different languages use different rules to put diacritic characters in order. French treats letters with diacritical marks the same as the underlying letter for purposes of ordering and dictionaries.

The , by contrast, treat the characters with diacritics ä, ö and å as new and separate letters of the alphabet, and sort them after z. Usually ä is sorted as equal to æ (ash) and ö is sorted as equal to ø (o-slash). Also, aa, when used as an alternative spelling to å, is sorted as such. Other letters modified by diacritics are treated as variants of the underlying letter, with the exception that ü is frequently sorted as y.

Languages that treat accented letters as variants of the underlying letter usually alphabetize words with such symbols immediately after similar unmarked words. For instance, in German where two words differ only by an umlaut, the word without it is sorted first in German dictionaries (e.g. schon and then schön, or fallen and then fällen). However, when names are concerned (e.g. in phone books or in author catalogues in libraries), umlauts are often treated as combinations of the vowel with a suffixed e; Austrian phone books now treat characters with umlauts as separate letters (immediately following the underlying vowel).

In Spanish, the grapheme ñ is considered a new letter different from n and collated between n and o, as it denotes a different sound from that of a plain n. But the accented vowels á, é, í, ó, ú are not separated from the unaccented vowels a, e, i, o, u, as the acute accent in Spanish only modifies within the word or denotes a distinction between , and does not modify the sound of a letter.

For a comprehensive list of the collating orders in various languages, see .


Generation with computers
Modern computer technology was developed mostly in English-speaking countries, so data formats, keyboard layouts, etc. were developed with a bias favoring English, a language with an alphabet without diacritical marks. This has led to fears internationally that the marks and accents may be made obsolete to facilitate the worldwide exchange of data. Efforts have been made to create that further extend the English alphabet (e.g., "pokémon.com").

Depending on the , which differs amongst countries, it is more or less easy to enter letters with diacritics on computers and typewriters. Some have their own keys; some are created by first pressing the key with the diacritic mark followed by the letter to place it on. Such a key is sometimes referred to as a , as it produces no output of its own but modifies the output of the key pressed after it.

In modern Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems, the keyboard layouts US International and UK International feature that allow one to type Latin letters with the acute, grave, circumflex, diæresis, tilde, and cedilla found in Western European languages (specifically, those combinations found in the character set) directly: ¨ e gives ë, ~ o gives õ, etc. On computers, there are keyboard shortcuts for the most common diacritics; Option- e followed by a vowel places an acute accent, Option- u followed by a vowel gives an umlaut, option- c gives a cedilla, etc. Diacritics can be in most keyboard layouts, as well as other operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows, using additional software.

On computers, the availability of determines whether one can use certain diacritics. solves this problem by assigning every known character its own code; if this code is known, most modern computer systems provide a . With Unicode, it is also possible to with most characters.


Languages with letters containing diacritics
The following languages have letters that contain diacritics that are considered independent letters distinct from those without diacritics.

Germanic
* uses and other special letters. All are considered separate letters and have their own place in the alphabet: , , , , , and ø.
* uses acutes and other special letters. All are considered separate letters, and have their own place in the alphabet: á, , í, ó, ú, ý, and .
* and uses additional characters like the o-slash and the a-overring . These letters come after z and in the order ø, å. Historically the å has developed from a ligature by writing a small superscript a over a lowercase a; if an å character is unavailable, some Scandinavian languages allow the substitution of a doubled a. The Scandinavian languages collate these letters after z, but have different standards.
* uses a-diaeresis ( ) and o-diaeresis ( ) in the place of ash ( æ) and slashed o ( ) in addition to the a-overring ( å). Historically the diaeresis for the Swedish letters ä and ö, like the , developed from a small Gothic e written above the letters. These letters are collated after z, in the order å, ä, ö.
Celtic
* uses acutes, called fadas, to indicate vowel length. These are the following vowels á, é, í, ó, ú.
* uses the , , acute, and on its seven vowels a, e, i, o, u, w, y.
* Following spelling reforms since the 1970s, uses graves only, which can be used on any vowel ( , , , , ). Formerly acute accents could be used on á, ó and é, which were used to indicate a specific vowel quality. With the elimination of these accents, the new orthography relies on the reader having prior knowledge of pronunciation of a given word.
* uses the single diacritic combined with h to give the digraph (pronounced ) to mark the distinction between it and the digraph (pronounced or ). Other diacritics used in Manx included â, ê, ï, etc. to mark the distinction between two similarly spelled words but with slightly differing pronunciation.
* Some orthographies of such as and use diacritics, while others such as and the do not.
Romance
* In , and , the character is a letter and collated between n and o.
* uses ( ), and ( )Academia de la Llingua Asturiana, Gramática de la Llingua Asturiana, tercera edición, Oviedo: Academia de la Llingua Asturiana (2001), ISBN 84-8168-310-8, http://www.academiadelallingua.com/diccionariu/gramatica_llingua.pdf (page 16, section 1.2)
* : could use or .
* uses a on the letter a ( ) to indicate the sound , as well as a circumflex over the letters a ( ) and i ( ) for the sound . Romanian also writes a below the letters s ( ) and t () to represent the sounds and , respectively. These characters are collated after their non-diacritic equivalent.
Slavic
* , , and Latin alphabet have the symbols , , , and , which are considered separate letters and are listed as such in dictionaries and other contexts in which words are listed according to alphabetical order. They also have one including a diacritic, , which is also alphabetized independently, and follows and precedes in the alphabetical order. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet has no diacritics, instead it has a grapheme () for every letter of it's Latin counterpart (including Latin letters with diacritics and the digraphs dž, and ).
* The contains 27 graphemes (letters) when written without diacritics and 42 graphemes when written including them. Czech uses the acute (á é í ó ú ý), caron ( ), and for one letter () the ring.
* has the following letters: . These are considered to be separate letters, each of them is placed in alphabet right after its Latin counterpart (i.e. ą between a and b), ź and ż are placed after z in this order.
* The uses the acute (á é í ó ú ý ), caron (č ď ľ ň š ť ž), umlaut (ä) and circumflex accent (ô).
* The basic has the symbols , , and , which are considered separate letters and are listed as such in dictionaries and other contexts in which words are listed according to alphabetical order. Letters with a are placed right after the letters as written without the diacritic. The letter đ may be used in non-transliterated foreign words, particularly names, and is placed after č and before d.
Baltic
* has the following letters: š ž č.
* . In general usage, where letters appear with the caron ( č, š and ž) they are considered as separate letters from c, s or z and collated separately; letters with the ( , , and ), the ( ) and the ( ) are considered as separate letters as well, but not given a unique collation order.
Finno-Ugric
* has a distinct letter , which contains a tilde. Estonian "dotted vowels" ä, ö, ü are similar to German, but these are also distinct letters, not like German umlauted letters. All four have their own place in the alphabet, between w and x. Carons in š or ž appear only in foreign proper names and . Also these are distinct letters, placed in the alphabet between s and t.
* uses dotted vowels ( ä and ö). As in Swedish and Estonian, these are regarded as individual letters, rather than vowel umlaut combinations (as happens in German). It also uses the characters å, š and ž in foreign names and loanwords. In the Finnish and Swedish alphabets, å, ä and ö collate as separate letters after z, the others as variants of their base letter.
* uses the umlaut, the acute and double acute accent (unique to Hungarian): ö ü, á é í ó ú and ő ű. The acute accent indicates the long form of a vowel (in case of i/í, o/ó, u/ú) while the double acute performs the same function for ö and ü. The acute accent can also indicate a different sound (more open, like in case of a/á, e/é). Both long and short forms of the vowels are listed separately in the but members of the pairs a/á, e/é, i/í, o/ó, ö/, u/ú and ü/ are collated in dictionaries as the same letter.
* has the following letters: ā, ä, , , ē, ī, ļ, ņ, ō, , , , , ŗ, š, , ū, ž.
Turkic
* includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters , , , , and .
* includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters , , I, İ, , and . Unlike Standard Turkish (but like ), Crimean Tatar also has the letter .
* includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters , , , and . Unlike Turkish, Gagauz also has the letters , and . and are derived from the for the same sounds. Sometime the Turkish may be used instead of .
* uses a G with a breve ( ), two letters with an umlaut ( and , representing two rounded front vowels), two letters with a cedilla ( and , representing the affricate and the fricative ), and also possesses a dotted capital İ (and a dotless lowercase ı representing a high unrounded back vowel). In Turkish each of these are separate letters, rather than versions of other letters, where dotted capital İ and lower case i are the same letter, as are dotless capital I and lowercase ı. , Ç and Ş are often rendered with a subdot, as in ; when a hook is used, it tends to have more a comma shape than the usual cedilla. The new Azerbaijani, Crimean Tatar, and Gagauz alphabets are based on the Turkish alphabet and its same diacriticized letters, with some additions.
* includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters , , and . In addition, Turkmen uses A with diaeresis ( ) to represent , N with caron ( ) to represent the , Y with acute ( ) to represent the , and Z with caron ( ) to represent .
Other
* has two special letters and upper and lowercase. They are placed next to the most similar letters in the alphabet, c and e correspondingly.
* has the symbols , , , , and , which are included in the alphabet, and considered separate letters.
* Hawaiian uses the kahakô () over vowels, although there is some disagreement over considering them as individual letters. The kahakô over a vowel can completely change the meaning of a word that is spelled the same but without the kahakô.
* uses the symbols , , , and with other 26 standard Latin alphabet symbols.
* uses a C, G, and Z with a dot over them (Ċ, Ġ, Ż), and also has an H with an extra horizontal bar. For uppercase H, the extra bar is written slightly above the usual bar. For lowercase H, the extra bar is written crossing the vertical, like a t, and not touching the lower part (, ħ). The above characters are considered separate letters. The letter 'c' without a dot has fallen out of use due to redundancy. 'Ċ' is pronounced like the English 'ch' and 'k' is used as a hard c as in 'cat'. 'Ż' is pronounced just like the English 'Z' as in 'Zebra', while 'Z' is used to make the sound of 'ts' in English (like 'tsunami' or 'maths'). 'Ġ' is used as a hard 'G' like in 'geometry', while the 'G' sounds like a soft 'G' like in 'log'. The digraph 'għ' (called għajn after the letter name ʻayn for غ) is considered separate, and sometimes ordered after 'g', whilst in other volumes it is placed between 'n' and 'o' (the Latin letter 'o' originally evolved from the shape of ʻayin, which was traditionally collated after Phoenician nūn).
* uses the for the letters ơ and ư; the for the letters â, ê, and ô; the for the letter ă; and a bar through the letter đ.
* alphabet uses the for the letters č, ȟ, ǧ, š, and ž. It also uses the for stressed vowels á, é, í, ó, ú, áŋ, íŋ, úŋ.

* has a letter .
* Belarusian, , Russian and Ukrainian have the letter .
* Belarusian and have the letter . In Russian, this letter is usually replaced by , although it has a different pronunciation. The use of е instead of ё does not affect the pronunciation. Ё is always used in children's books and in dictionaries. A is все ( vs'e, "everybody" pl.) and всё ( vs'o, "everything" n. sg.). In Belarusian the replacement by е is a mistake, in Russian, it is possible to use either е and ё in place of ё but the former is more common.
* The has the letters and . Ukrainian has many more.
* has the letters and .
* In Bulgarian the possessive pronoun ѝ ( ì, "her") is spelled with a grave accent in order to distinguish it from the conjunction и ( i, "and").
* The acute accent " ́" above any vowel in Cyrillic alphabets is used in dictionaries, books for children and foreign learners to indicate the word stress, it also can be used for disambiguation of similarly spelled words with different lexical stresses.


Diacritics that do not produce new letters


English
is one of the few European languages that does not have many words that contain diacritical marks. Exceptions are unassimilated foreign loanwords, including borrowings from and, increasingly, ; however, the diacritic is also sometimes omitted from such words. Loanwords that frequently appear with the diacritic in English include café, résumé or resumé (a usage that helps distinguish it from the verb resume), soufflé, and naïveté (see ). In older practice (and even among some orthographically conservative modern writers) one may see examples such as élite and rôle.

English speakers and writers once used the diaeresis more often than now in words such as coöperation (from Fr. coopération), zoölogy (from Grk. zoologia), and seeër (now more commonly see-er or simply seer), but this practice has become far less common; magazine is one of the few major publications that still use it.

A few English words can only be distinguished from others by a diacritic or modified letter, including , , , , , , , , , and . The same is true of , alternately but nevertheless it is sometimes spelled resume in the US, and , which is more commonly spelled sake. In a few words, diacritics that did not exist in the original have been added for disambiguation, as in (from Sp. and Port. mate) and (from Dhivehi މާލެ).

The acute and grave accents are occasionally used in poetry and lyrics: the acute to indicate stress overtly where it might be ambiguous ( rébel vs. rebél) or nonstandard for metrical reasons ( caléndar), the grave to indicate that an ordinarily silent or elided syllable is pronounced ( warnèd, parlìament).

In certain personal names such as and , often two spellings exist, and the preference will be known only to those close to the person themselves. Even when the name of a person is spelled with a diacritic, like Charlotte Brontë, this may be dropped in less careful sources such as webpages. They also appear in some worldwide company names and/or trademarks such as for instance or .


Other languages
The following languages have letter-diacritic combinations that are not considered independent letters.
  • uses a diaeresis to mark vowels that are pronounced separately and not as one would expect where they occur together, for example voel (to feel) as opposed to voël (bird). The circumflex is used in ê, î, ô and û generally to indicate long , as opposed to vowels, for example in the words wêreld (world) and môre (morning, tomorrow). The acute accent is used to add emphasis in the same way as underlining or writing in bold or italics in English, for example Dit is jóú boek (It is your book). The grave accent is used to distinguish between words that are different only in placement of the stress, for example appel (apple) and appèl (appeal) and in a few cases where it makes no difference to the pronunciation but distinguishes between homophones. The two most usual cases of the latter are the in the sayings òf... òf (either... or) and nòg... nòg (neither... nor) to distinguish them from of (or) and nog (again, still).
  • uses a diacritical horn over p, q, t, k, ch.
  • uses different sorts of diacritics, called matra, of the elements in set of vowels called the shôrobôrno, for instance, কা is the aakaar or আ- kar of ক.
  • has the following composite characters: à, ç, é, è, í, ï, ó, ò, ú, ü, l·l. The acute and the grave indicate and , the cedilla marks the result of a historical , the diaeresis indicates either a , or that the letter u is pronounced when the graphemes gü, qü are followed by e or i, the (·) distinguishes the different values of ll/l·l.
  • has the acute á, é, í, ó, ú, ý, the caron č, ď, ě, ň, ř, š, ť, ž, and the overring ( kroužek) ů.
  • uses the diaeresis. For example in ruïne it means that the u and the i are separately pronounced in their usual way, and not in the way that the combination ui is normally pronounced. Thus it works as a separation sign and not as an indication for an alternative version of the i. Diacritics can be used for emphasis ( érg koud for very cold) or for disambiguation between a number of words that are spelled the same when context doesn't indicate the correct meaning ( één appel = one apple, een appel = an apple; vóórkomen = to occur, voorkómen = to prevent). Grave and acute accents are used on a very small number of words, mostly loanwords. The ç also appears in some loanwords.
  • . Non-Faroese accented letters are not added to the Faroese alphabet. These include é, ö, ü, å and recently also letters like š, ł, and ć.
  • has the following composite characters: á, à, â, é, è, ê, í, ì, î, ó, ò, ô, ú, ù, û. The actual use of diacritics for Filipino, however, is rare, and is meant only to distinguish between with different stresses and meanings that either occur near each other in a text or to aid the reader in ascertaining its otherwise ambiguous meaning. Sometimes appears in and if Spanish orthography is observed.
  • . Carons in š and ž appear only in foreign proper names and , but may be substituted with sh or zh if and only if it is technically impossible to produce accented letters in the medium. Contrary to Estonian, š and ž are not considered distinct letters in Finnish.
  • uses the grave ( accent grave), the ( accent aigu), the ( accent circonflexe), the ( cédille), and the ( tréma).
  • vowels can bear an acute ( á, é, í, ó, ú) to indicate stress or difference between two otherwise same written words ( é, '(he/she) is' vs. e, 'and'), but the ( trema) is only used with ï and ü to show two separate vowel sounds in pronunciation. Only in foreign words may Galician use other diacritics such as ç (common during the Middle Ages), ê, or à.
  • uses the three diaeresis ( Umlaut) characters ä, ö and ü. These diacritics indicate vowel changes. For instance, the word Ofen "oven" has the plural Öfen . The mark originated as a superscript e; a handwritten e resembles two parallel vertical lines, like a diaeresis.
  • has many various diacritic marks known as that are used above and below script to represent vowels. These must be distinguished from , which are keys to pronunciation and syntax.
  • The uses diacritic symbols and characters to indicate phonetic features or secondary articulations.
  • uses the acute to indicate that a vowel is . It is known as síneadh fada "long sign" or simply fada "long" in Irish. Historically, an overdot was positioned above certain consonants to signify Séimhiú, however this has largely been replaced by the usage of the letter H, although this dot can still be seen in Gaelic Script.
  • mainly has the and the ( à, è/ é, ì, ò/ ó, ù), typically to indicate a stressed syllable that would not be stressed under the normal rules of pronunciation but sometimes also to distinguish between words that are otherwise spelled the same way (e.g. "e", and; "è", is). Despite its rare use, Italian orthography allows the circumflex (î) too, in two cases: it can be found in old literary context (roughly up to 19th century) to signal a syncope (fêro→fecero, they did), or in modern Italian to signal the contraction of ″-ii″ due to the plural ending -i whereas the root ends with another -i; e.g., demonio, demonii→demonî; in this case the circumflex also signals that the word intended is not demoni, plural of "demone" by shifting the accent (demònî, "devils"; dèmoni, "demons").
  • uses the , and in dictionaries to indicate stress types in the language's system.
  • also uses the grave on its vowels to indicate stress at the end of a word with 2 syllables or more: lowercase letters - à, è, ì, ò, ù | capital letters - À, È, Ì, Ò, Ù
  • has the following composite characters: á, à, ç, é, è, í, ï, ó, ò, ú, ü, n·h, s·h. The acute and the grave indicate and , the cedilla marks the result of a historical , the diaeresis indicates either a , or that the letter u is pronounced when the graphemes gü, qü are followed by e or i, the (·) distinguishes the different values of nh/n·h and sh/s·h.
  • has the following composite characters: à, á, â, ã, ç, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú. The acute and the circumflex indicate stress and vowel height, the grave indicates crasis, the tilde represents nasalization, and the cedilla marks the result of a historical palatalization.
  • Acutes are also used in dictionaries and textbooks to indicate , placed over the vowel of the stressed syllable. This can also serve to disambiguate meaning (e.g., in Russian писа́ть ( pisáť) means "to write", but пи́сать ( písať) means "to piss"), or "бо́льшая часть" (the biggest part) vs "больша́я часть" (the big part).
  • has the acute (á, é, í, ĺ, ó, ŕ, ú, ý), the caron (č, ď, dž, ľ, ň, š, ť, ž), the circumflex (only above o – ô) and the diaeresis (only above a – ä).
  • uses the acute and the diaeresis. The acute is used on a vowel in a stressed syllable in words with irregular stress patterns. It can also be used to "break up" a as in tío (pronounced , rather than as it would be without the accent). Moreover, the acute can be used to distinguish words that otherwise are spelled alike, such as si ("if") and ("yes"), and also to distinguish interrogative and exclamatory pronouns from homophones with a different grammatical function, such as donde/¿dónde? ("where"/"where?") or como/¿cómo? ("as"/"how?"). The diaeresis is used only over u ( ü) for it to be pronounced in the combinations gue and gui, where u is normally silent, for example ambigüedad. In poetry, the diaeresis may be used on i and u as a way to force a hiatus.
  • uses the to show non-standard stress, for example in kafé (café) and resumé (résumé). This occasionally helps resolve ambiguities, such as ide (hibernation) versus idé (idea). In these words, the acute is not optional. Some proper names use non-standard diacritics, such as and . For foreign loanwords the original accents are strongly recommended, unless the word has been infused into the language, in which case they are optional. Hence crème fraîche but ampere.
  • does not have any diacritics in itself, but uses the 2, 3 and 4 as diacritics to represent aspirated, voiced, and voiced-aspirated consonants when the is used to write long passages in Sanskrit.
  • has its derived from , which denote different .
  • uses the acute ( dấu sắc), the grave ( dấu huyền), the tilde ( dấu ngã), the underdot ( dấu nặng) and the hoi ( dấu hỏi) on vowels as indicators.
  • uses the circumflex, diaeresis, acute, and grave on its seven vowels a, e, i, o, u, w, y. The most common is the circumflex (which it calls to bach, meaning "little roof", or acen grom "crooked accent", or hirnod "long sign") to denote a long vowel, usually to disambiguate it from a similar word with a short vowel. The rarer grave accent has the opposite effect, shortening vowel sounds that would usually be pronounced long. The acute accent and diaeresis are also occasionally used, to denote stress and vowel separation respectively. The w-circumflex and the y-circumflex are among the most commonly accented characters in Welsh, but unusual in languages generally, and were until recently very hard to obtain in word-processed and HTML documents.


Transliteration
Several languages that are not written with the Roman alphabet are , or romanized, using diacritics. Examples:
  • has several , depending on the type of the application, region, intended audience, country, etc. many of them extensively use diacritics, e.g., some methods use an underdot for rendering (). The macron is often used to render long vowels. is often used for , for .
  • has several that use the umlaut, but only on u ( ü). In , the four of are denoted by the macron (first tone), acute (second tone), caron (third tone) and grave (fourth tone) diacritics. Example: ā, á, ǎ, à.
  • Romanized () occasionally uses macrons to mark long vowels. The system uses to mark , and the and systems used a .
  • , as well as many of its descendants, like and , uses a lossless system. This includes several letters with diacritical markings, such as the macron (ā, ī, ū), over- and underdots () as well as a few others (ś, ñ).


See also


External links

Page 1 of 1
1

Account

Social:
Pages:  ..   .. 
Items:  .. 

Navigation

General: Atom Feed Atom Feed  .. 
Help:  ..   .. 
Category:  ..   .. 
Media:  ..   .. 
Posts:  ..   ..   .. 

Statistics

Page:  .. 
Summary:  .. 
1 Tags
10/10 Page Rank
6877 Page Refs
3s Time