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Data mining is the process of extracting and discovering patterns in large involving methods at the intersection of , , and . Data mining is an interdisciplinary subfield of and with an overall goal of extracting information (with intelligent methods) from a data set and transforming the information into a comprehensible structure for further use.

(2024). 9780123814791, Morgan Kaufmann.
Data mining is the analysis step of the "knowledge discovery in databases" process, or KDD. Aside from the raw analysis step, it also involves database and aspects, data pre-processing, model and inference considerations, interestingness metrics, complexity considerations, post-processing of discovered structures, visualization, and .

The term "data mining" is a because the goal is the extraction of and knowledge from large amounts of data, not the .

(2024). 9781558604896, .
It also is a OKAIRP 2005 Fall Conference, Arizona State University and is frequently applied to any form of large-scale data or (, extraction, , analysis, and statistics) as well as any application of computer decision support system, including artificial intelligence (e.g., machine learning) and business intelligence. Often the more general terms ( large scale) and —or, when referring to actual methods, artificial intelligence and machine learning—are more appropriate.

The actual data mining task is the semi- or automatic analysis of large quantities of data to extract previously unknown, interesting patterns such as groups of data records (), unusual records (anomaly detection), and dependencies (association rule mining, sequential pattern mining). This usually involves using database techniques such as . These patterns can then be seen as a kind of summary of the input data, and may be used in further analysis or, for example, in machine learning and predictive analytics. For example, the data mining step might identify multiple groups in the data, which can then be used to obtain more accurate prediction results by a decision support system. Neither the data collection, data preparation, nor result interpretation and reporting is part of the data mining step, although they do belong to the overall KDD process as additional steps.

The difference between and data mining is that data analysis is used to test models and hypotheses on the dataset, e.g., analyzing the effectiveness of a marketing campaign, regardless of the amount of data. In contrast, data mining uses machine learning and statistical models to uncover clandestine or hidden patterns in a large volume of data.Olson, D. L. (2007). Data mining in business services. Service Business, 1(3), 181–193.

The related terms , data fishing, and refer to the use of data mining methods to sample parts of a larger population data set that are (or may be) too small for reliable statistical inferences to be made about the validity of any patterns discovered. These methods can, however, be used in creating new hypotheses to test against the larger data populations.


Etymology
In the 1960s, statisticians and economists used terms like data fishing or data dredging to refer to what they considered the bad practice of analyzing data without an a-priori hypothesis. The term "data mining" was used in a similarly critical way by economist in an article published in the Review of Economic Studies in 1983.
(1992). 185278461X, Edward Elgar. 185278461X
Lovell indicates that the practice "masquerades under a variety of aliases, ranging from "experimentation" (positive) to "fishing" or "snooping" (negative).

The term data mining appeared around 1990 in the database community, with generally positive connotations. For a short time in 1980s, the phrase "database mining"™, was used, but since it was trademarked by HNC, a -based company, to pitch their Database Mining Workstation;

(2024). 9781439860694, CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Group).
researchers consequently turned to data mining. Other terms used include data archaeology, information harvesting, information discovery, knowledge extraction, etc. Gregory Piatetsky-Shapiro coined the term "knowledge discovery in databases" for the first workshop on the same topic (KDD-1989) and this term became more popular in the AI and communities. However, the term data mining became more popular in the business and press communities. Currently, the terms data mining and knowledge discovery are used interchangeably.


Background
The manual extraction of patterns from has occurred for centuries. Early methods of identifying patterns in data include Bayes' theorem (1700s) and regression analysis (1800s). The proliferation, ubiquity and increasing power of computer technology have dramatically increased data collection, storage, and manipulation ability. As have grown in size and complexity, direct "hands-on" data analysis has increasingly been augmented with indirect, automated data processing, aided by other discoveries in computer science, specially in the field of machine learning, such as neural networks, , genetic algorithms (1950s), decision trees and (1960s), and support vector machines (1990s). Data mining is the process of applying these methods with the intention of uncovering hidden patterns.
(2024). 9780471228523, John Wiley & Sons. .
in large data sets. It bridges the gap from applied statistics and artificial intelligence (which usually provide the mathematical background) to database management by exploiting the way data is stored and indexed in databases to execute the actual learning and discovery algorithms more efficiently, allowing such methods to be applied to ever-larger data sets.


Process
The knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) process is commonly defined with the stages:

  1. Selection
  2. Pre-processing
  3. Transformation
  4. Data mining
  5. Interpretation/evaluation.

It exists, however, in many variations on this theme, such as the Cross-industry standard process for data mining (CRISP-DM) which defines six phases:

  1. Business understanding
  2. Data understanding
  3. Data preparation
  4. Modeling
  5. Evaluation
  6. Deployment

or a simplified process such as (1) Pre-processing, (2) Data Mining, and (3) Results Validation.

Polls conducted in 2002, 2004, 2007 and 2014 show that the CRISP-DM methodology is the leading methodology used by data miners.

The only other data mining standard named in these polls was . However, 3–4 times as many people reported using CRISP-DM. Several teams of researchers have published reviews of data mining process models,Lukasz Kurgan and Petr Musilek: "A survey of Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining process models" . The Knowledge Engineering Review. Volume 21 Issue 1, March 2006, pp 1–24, Cambridge University Press, New York, and Azevedo and Santos conducted a comparison of CRISP-DM and SEMMA in 2008.Azevedo, A. and Santos, M. F. KDD, SEMMA and CRISP-DM: a parallel overview . In Proceedings of the IADIS European Conference on Data Mining 2008, pp 182–185.


Pre-processing
Before data mining algorithms can be used, a target data set must be assembled. As data mining can only uncover patterns actually present in the data, the target data set must be large enough to contain these patterns while remaining concise enough to be mined within an acceptable time limit. A common source for data is a or . Pre-processing is essential to analyze the multivariate data sets before data mining. The target set is then cleaned. Data cleaning removes the observations containing noise and those with .


Data mining
Data mining involves six common classes of tasks:

  • Anomaly detection (outlier/change/deviation detection) – The identification of unusual data records, that might be interesting or data errors that require further investigation due to being out of standard range.
  • Association rule learning (dependency modeling) – Searches for relationships between variables. For example, a supermarket might gather data on customer purchasing habits. Using association rule learning, the supermarket can determine which products are frequently bought together and use this information for marketing purposes. This is sometimes referred to as market basket analysis.
  • – is the task of discovering groups and structures in the data that are in some way or another "similar", without using known structures in the data.
  • Classification – is the task of generalizing known structure to apply to new data. For example, an e-mail program might attempt to classify an e-mail as "legitimate" or as "spam".
  • Regression – attempts to find a function that models the data with the least error that is, for estimating the relationships among data or datasets.
  • Summarization – providing a more compact representation of the data set, including visualization and report generation.


Results validation
through a bot operated by statistician Tyler Vigen, apparently showing a close link between the best word winning a spelling bee competition and the number of people in the United States killed by venomous spiders]]Data mining can unintentionally be misused, producing results that appear to be significant but which do not actually predict future behavior and cannot be on a new sample of data, therefore bearing little use. This is sometimes caused by investigating too many hypotheses and not performing proper statistical hypothesis testing. A simple version of this problem in is known as , but the same problem can arise at different phases of the process and thus a train/test split—when applicable at all—may not be sufficient to prevent this from happening.

The final step of knowledge discovery from data is to verify that the patterns produced by the data mining algorithms occur in the wider data set. Not all patterns found by the algorithms are necessarily valid. It is common for data mining algorithms to find patterns in the training set which are not present in the general data set. This is called . To overcome this, the evaluation uses a of data on which the data mining algorithm was not trained. The learned patterns are applied to this test set, and the resulting output is compared to the desired output. For example, a data mining algorithm trying to distinguish "spam" from "legitimate" e-mails would be trained on a of sample e-mails. Once trained, the learned patterns would be applied to the test set of e-mails on which it had not been trained. The accuracy of the patterns can then be measured from how many e-mails they correctly classify. Several statistical methods may be used to evaluate the algorithm, such as ROC curves.

If the learned patterns do not meet the desired standards, it is necessary to re-evaluate and change the pre-processing and data mining steps. If the learned patterns do meet the desired standards, then the final step is to interpret the learned patterns and turn them into knowledge.


Research
The premier professional body in the field is the Association for Computing Machinery's (ACM) Special Interest Group (SIG) on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (). Since 1989, this ACM SIG has hosted an annual international conference and published its proceedings, Proceedings , International Conferences on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, ACM, New York. and since 1999 it has published a biannual titled "SIGKDD Explorations". SIGKDD Explorations , ACM, New York.

Computer science conferences on data mining include:

  • – ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management
  • European Conference on Machine Learning and Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases
  • – ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining

Data mining topics are also present in many data management/database conferences such as the ICDE Conference, and International Conference on Very Large Data Bases.


Standards
There have been some efforts to define standards for the data mining process, for example, the 1999 European Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM 1.0) and the 2004 Java Data Mining standard (JDM 1.0). Development on successors to these processes (CRISP-DM 2.0 and JDM 2.0) was active in 2006 but has stalled since. JDM 2.0 was withdrawn without reaching a final draft.

For exchanging the extracted models—in particular for use in predictive analytics—the key standard is the Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML), which is an -based language developed by the Data Mining Group (DMG) and supported as exchange format by many data mining applications. As the name suggests, it only covers prediction models, a particular data mining task of high importance to business applications. However, extensions to cover (for example) subspace clustering have been proposed independently of the DMG.

(2024). 9781450308373


Notable uses
Data mining is used wherever there is digital data available. Notable examples of data mining can be found throughout business, medicine, science, finance, construction, and surveillance.


Privacy concerns and ethics
While the term "data mining" itself may have no ethical implications, it is often associated with the mining of information in relation to user behavior (ethical and otherwise).

The ways in which data mining can be used can in some cases and contexts raise questions regarding , legality, and . In particular, data mining government or commercial data sets for national security or purposes, such as in the Total Information Awareness Program or in , has raised privacy concerns.

Data mining requires data preparation which uncovers information or patterns which compromise and obligations. A common way for this to occur is through data aggregation. involves combining data together (possibly from various sources) in a way that facilitates analysis (but that also might make identification of private, individual-level data deducible or otherwise apparent). Think Before You Dig: Privacy Implications of Data Mining & Aggregation , NASCIO Research Brief, September 2004 This is not data mining per se, but a result of the preparation of data before—and for the purposes of—the analysis. The threat to an individual's privacy comes into play when the data, once compiled, cause the data miner, or anyone who has access to the newly compiled data set, to be able to identify specific individuals, especially when the data were originally anonymous.

It is recommended to be aware of the following before data are collected:

  • The purpose of the data collection and any (known) data mining projects.
  • How the data will be used.
  • Who will be able to mine the data and use the data and their derivatives.
  • The status of security surrounding access to the data.
  • How collected data can be updated.

Data may also be modified so as to become anonymous, so that individuals may not readily be identified. However, even "anonymized" data sets can potentially contain enough information to allow identification of individuals, as occurred when journalists were able to find several individuals based on a set of search histories that were inadvertently released by AOL. AOL search data identified individuals , SecurityFocus, August 2006

The inadvertent revelation of personally identifiable information leading to the provider violates Fair Information Practices. This indiscretion can cause financial, emotional, or bodily harm to the indicated individual. In one instance of privacy violation, the patrons of Walgreens filed a lawsuit against the company in 2011 for selling prescription information to data mining companies who in turn provided the data to pharmaceutical companies.


Situation in Europe
has rather strong privacy laws, and efforts are underway to further strengthen the rights of the consumers. However, the U.S.–E.U. Safe Harbor Principles, developed between 1998 and 2000, currently effectively expose European users to privacy exploitation by U.S. companies. As a consequence of 's global surveillance disclosure, there has been increased discussion to revoke this agreement, as in particular the data will be fully exposed to the National Security Agency, and attempts to reach an agreement with the United States have failed.

In the United Kingdom in particular there have been cases of corporations using data mining as a way to target certain groups of customers forcing them to pay unfairly high prices. These groups tend to be people of lower socio-economic status who are not savvy to the ways they can be exploited in digital market places.


Situation in the United States
In the United States, privacy concerns have been addressed by the via the passage of regulatory controls such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). The HIPAA requires individuals to give their "informed consent" regarding information they provide and its intended present and future uses. According to an article in Biotech Business Week, "'in practice, HIPAA may not offer any greater protection than the longstanding regulations in the research arena,' says the AAHC. More importantly, the rule's goal of protection through informed consent is approach a level of incomprehensibility to average individuals."Biotech Business Week Editors (June 30, 2008); BIOMEDICINE; HIPAA Privacy Rule Impedes Biomedical Research, Biotech Business Week, retrieved 17 November 2009 from LexisNexis Academic This underscores the necessity for data anonymity in data aggregation and mining practices.

U.S. information privacy legislation such as HIPAA and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) applies only to the specific areas that each such law addresses. The use of data mining by the majority of businesses in the U.S. is not controlled by any legislation.


Copyright law

Situation in Europe
Under European copyright database laws, the mining of in-copyright works (such as by ) without the permission of the copyright owner is not legal. Where a database is pure data in Europe, it may be that there is no copyright—but database rights may exist, so data mining becomes subject to intellectual property owners' rights that are protected by the Database Directive. On the recommendation of the Hargreaves review, this led to the UK government to amend its copyright law in 2014 to allow content mining as a limitation and exception. UK Researchers Given Data Mining Right Under New UK Copyright Laws. Out-Law.com. Retrieved 14 November 2014 The UK was the second country in the world to do so after Japan, which introduced an exception in 2009 for data mining. However, due to the restriction of the Information Society Directive (2001), the UK exception only allows content mining for non-commercial purposes. UK copyright law also does not allow this provision to be overridden by contractual terms and conditions. Since 2020 also Switzerland has been regulating data mining by allowing it in the research field under certain conditions laid down by art. 24d of the Swiss Copyright Act. This new article entered into force on 1 April 2020.

The European Commission facilitated stakeholder discussion on text and data mining in 2013, under the title of Licences for Europe. The focus on the solution to this legal issue, such as licensing rather than limitations and exceptions, led to representatives of universities, researchers, libraries, civil society groups and publishers to leave the stakeholder dialogue in May 2013.


Situation in the United States
US copyright law, and in particular its provision for , upholds the legality of content mining in America, and other fair use countries such as Israel, Taiwan and South Korea. As content mining is transformative, that is it does not supplant the original work, it is viewed as being lawful under fair use. For example, as part of the Google Book settlement the presiding judge on the case ruled that Google's digitization project of in-copyright books was lawful, in part because of the transformative uses that the digitization project displayed—one being text and data mining.


Software

Free open-source data mining software and applications
The following applications are available under free/open-source licenses. Public access to application source code is also available.
  • Carrot2: Text and search results clustering framework.
  • Chemicalize.org: A chemical structure miner and web search engine.
  • : A university research project with advanced and outlier detection methods written in the Java language.
  • GATE: a natural language processing and language engineering tool.
  • : The Konstanz Information Miner, a user-friendly and comprehensive data analytics framework.
  • Massive Online Analysis (MOA): a real-time big data stream mining with concept drift tool in the Java programming language.
  • MEPX: cross-platform tool for regression and classification problems based on a Genetic Programming variant.
  • : a collection of ready-to-use machine learning algorithms written in the C++ language.
  • (Natural Language Toolkit): A suite of libraries and programs for symbolic and statistical natural language processing (NLP) for the Python language.
  • : Open neural networks library.
  • Orange: A component-based data mining and software suite written in the Python language.
  • : Data mining and statistics software under the GNU Project similar to
  • R: A programming language and software environment for computing, data mining, and graphics. It is part of the .
  • : An open-source machine learning library for the Python programming language;
  • Torch: An open-source library for the Lua programming language and scientific computing framework with wide support for algorithms.
  • : The UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture) is a component framework for analyzing unstructured content such as text, audio and video – originally developed by IBM.
  • Weka: A suite of machine learning software applications written in the Java programming language.


Proprietary data-mining software and applications
The following applications are available under proprietary licenses.

  • KnowledgeSTUDIO: data mining tool
  • : an integrated software application for data mining, business intelligence, and modeling that implements the Learning and Intelligent OptimizatioN (LION) approach.
  • : data and text mining software by Megaputer Intelligence.
  • Microsoft Analysis Services: data mining software provided by .
  • : suite of multilingual text and entity analytics products that enable data mining.
  • Oracle Data Mining: data mining software by Oracle Corporation.
  • : platform for automation of engineering simulation and analysis, multidisciplinary optimization and data mining provided by .
  • Omics Explorer: data mining software.
  • : An environment for and data mining experiments.
  • SAS Enterprise Miner: data mining software provided by the .
  • : data mining software provided by .
  • Data Miner: data mining software provided by .
  • Tanagra: Visualisation-oriented data mining software, also for teaching.
  • : data mining software provided by .
  • Google Cloud Platform: automated custom ML models managed by .
  • : managed service provided by Amazon for creating & productionising custom ML models.


See also
Methods

Application domains

Application examples

Related topics

For more information about extracting information out of data (as opposed to analyzing data), see:

Other resources
  • International Journal of Data Warehousing and Mining


Further reading
  • Cabena, Peter; Hadjnian, Pablo; Stadler, Rolf; Verhees, Jaap; Zanasi, Alessandro (1997); Discovering Data Mining: From Concept to Implementation, ,
  • M.S. Chen, J. Han, P.S. Yu (1996) " Data mining: an overview from a database perspective ". Knowledge and data Engineering, IEEE Transactions on 8 (6), 866–883
  • Feldman, Ronen; Sanger, James (2007); The Text Mining Handbook, Cambridge University Press,
  • Guo, Yike; and Grossman, Robert (editors) (1999); High Performance Data Mining: Scaling Algorithms, Applications and Systems, Kluwer Academic Publishers
  • , Micheline Kamber, and Jian Pei. Data mining: concepts and techniques. Morgan kaufmann, 2006.
  • , Tibshirani, Robert and Friedman, Jerome (2001); The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference, and Prediction, Springer,
  • Liu, Bing (2007, 2011); Web Data Mining: Exploring Hyperlinks, Contents and Usage Data, ,
  • Nisbet, Robert; Elder, John; Miner, Gary (2009); Handbook of Statistical Analysis & Data Mining Applications, /Elsevier,
  • Poncelet, Pascal; Masseglia, Florent; and Teisseire, Maguelonne (editors) (October 2007); "Data Mining Patterns: New Methods and Applications", Information Science Reference,
  • Tan, Pang-Ning; Steinbach, Michael; and Kumar, Vipin (2005); Introduction to Data Mining,
  • Theodoridis, Sergios; and Koutroumbas, Konstantinos (2009); Pattern Recognition, 4th Edition, Academic Press,
  • Weiss, Sholom M.; and Indurkhya, Nitin (1998); Predictive Data Mining,
  • (2011). 9780123748560, Elsevier.
    (See also Free Weka software)
  • Ye, Nong (2003); The Handbook of Data Mining, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum


External links
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