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Arequipa is the capital and largest city of the and the seat of the . It is the of Peru and according to the is the with 861,145 inhabitants.

Arequipa is the second most industrializedMincetur. "Export Investment Guide", p. 17 and commercial city of Peru.Chanfreau, p. 40 Its industrial activity includes manufactured goods and camelid wool products for export. The city has close trade ties with , and .

The city was founded on August 15, 1540 by as 'Villa Hermosa de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción". By Royal Decree of September 22, 1541, King of Spain granted Arequipa the title of 'City'. During the Colonial period, Arequipa became highly important for its economic prosperity and for its loyalty to the .Linares Málaga, p. 115.

After Peru gained its independence from Spain, the city acquired greater prominence in politics, being the center of uprisings. Many Peruvian intellectual, political, and religious figures became prominent in this era. Moreover, it was declared the capital city of Peru in 1835 and 1883.

The historic center of Arequipa spans an area of 332 hectaresProvincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Compendium of rules of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 80. and is a World Heritage Site. Its historic heritage, natural scenery and cultural sites, make the city a national and international tourist destination. Its religious, colonial, and republican architectural styles blend European and native characteristics into a unique style called "Escuela Arequipeña".


Etymology
The name of the city is a Spanish language transliteration of the name of the valley in which the city was founded. Based on traditions, there are various tales that attempt to explain the origins of the name.

A local tradition states that the received a petition from his subjects to reach the valley of the River Chili. They asked him for permission to stay in the region as they were impressed by the beauty of the landscape and the mild climate. The Inca answered "Ari qhipay" (Quechua: "Yes, stay").

Another similar tale says that when the Europeans first arrived there, they pointed at the ground and asked for the name of the land. the local chief, not understanding the question, assumed they were asking for a permission to sit down and gave a positive answer, which sounded like "Arequipa"., «Имя дома твоего»

Chroniclers and suggested that the name of the city came from an ancient phrase, "ari qquepan", supposedly meaning "trumpet sound", in reference to the sound produced from blowing into an empty conch-like seashell.

Another possible origin of the city's name comes from the language phrase "qhipaya ari" or "Ari qipa" (from 'ari': acute, sharp or pointed; and 'qhipaya': behind), which translates to "behind the peak," referring to the nearby volcano, PRIMERA PARTE 2004.pdf Toponymy "Arequipa"


History

Pre-Inca period
Centuries before the rise of the Inca Empire the area was inhabited by nomadic people who relied on activities such as , and for survival; pre-Inca cultures llamas and became with the generation of . Eventually, after the start of migration process within the region, early settlements were established, many close to the sea, and as such giving rise to the first communication channels and thereby increasing the accessibility of the territory.

During this time, major irrigation channels were built within the valley of the Chili river, which allowed the development of agriculture by means of terraces built on both sides of the river. The Yarabaya and Chimbe tribes settled in the city's current location, and together with the Cabana and Collagua tribes they developed an agrarian economy in the desert valley.


Inca period
When the arrived in the valley of the Chili river, he didn't build cities. Instead, he ordered his (settlers from lands within the Inca empire) to settle in the valley to gain control of the existing population, perform intelligence tasks and strengthen border enclaves as a way to control the unconquered villages.

The mitimae system of settlements in the Inca Empire was not related to the act of founding of a town. The Inca, when conquering a new land, didn't order the founding of new cities; instead, they replaced most of the native population with settlers loyal to the Inca, while moving that native population to other places within the Inca Empire. A Hispanic version of the events, detailed by chronicler , who has been described as historically inaccurate, suggests that around 1170 Huayna Capac stopped with his army in the valley of the Chili River, which he called Ari qepay - an expression meaning "let's stay here". Lands were then distributed among three thousand families who founded the towns of Yanahuara, Cayma, Tiabaya, Socabaya, Characato and others, which still exist nowadays.


Colonial Arequipa
Arequipa was founded on 15 August 1540 by in the valley of the Chili river as "Villa de la Asunción de Nuestra Señora del Valle Hermoso de Arequipa" in an area occupied by some villages. When the city was founded, the first blocks around the main square were given to the Pizarro Family, the (or City Hall) and the .

At the time of its foundation, Arequipa had already a city council, because the foundation of the town occurred in part as a relocation of Villa Hermosa de Camana, a coastal city. The name was partially conserved as Villa Hermosa de Arequipa. of Germany and I of Spain gave the town a status of 'city' by Royal Decree on 22 September 1541. The relocation efforts were led by , who was selected as the political authority for the foundation of the new town.

Among the first public works carried out in the city are the Main Church, the City Hall, the bridge on the Chili River and the monastery of Nuestra Señora de Gracia.


Arequipa during the Independence from Spain
Although revolutionary movements like the one commanded by and pro independence troops entered Arequipa, the city remained under Spaniard control until the Battle of Ayacucho due to internal struggles for local political power.

Colonial authorities were flexible concerning liberal thinking and higher education in Arequipa. An example of this is the foundation of the Academia Lauretana de Ciencias y Artes (Lauretan Academy of Sciences and Arts) on 10 December 1821, which was also home to the first printing office in the region. The main members of the academy: , Aparicio Gómez Sánchez, Francisco de Paula Gonzalez Vigil, Gualberto Valdivia, Manuel Amat y Leon and Juan de Dios Salazar took sides in favor of the independence from Spain. The result of the activity of the Lauretan Academy was the foundation of the National College of American Independence and the National University of San Agustin created in 1827.


Fidelismo
One aspect that distinguished Arequipa from the rest of the country was the particularly explicit and public commitment of the city to the Spanish Crown, a phenomenon called fidelismo. Among its most remarkable defenders were Francisco de Paula Quiroz, Mariano de Rivero, Nicolás Fernández, and José Miguel de Lastarria. It was this attitude of its citizens the reason why the city received the title of Faithful by Royal Charter in 1805.

Since its Spanish founding and over three centuries, the population of the city was mostly of Spanish origin, which represented a faithful following of . Another factor was geography, because of its location Arequipa was not heavily influenced by libertarian movements, and also kept the city distant to other cities with big Aboriginal population.


Republican period
After independence, the territory corresponding to the "Intendencia de Arequipa" was given the status of 'Departamento' or by decree of 26 May 1822. The Peruvian Congress of 1826 and the Constitutional Assembly of 1827 were led by Arequipa native Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro. During the government of , right after the victory of the Battle of , Arequipa was a political center against the dictatorial powers of Bolivar.

Arequipa did not have an important official status during the colonial period although it did play an important economic role. During colonial times its location was at the crossroads of the trade route of silver and after independence, the wool trade route. This privileged location allowed Arequipa to accumulate administrative, commercial and industrial power which benefited local social classes committed to the future of the city. Thus, Arequipa not only was the birthplace of significant political figures in Peru, but also the scene of several important political movements that achieved national prominence.

From the 1820s until the end of the decade, Peruvian society was in a transitional period right after its independence from Spain. Also during this time, the pillars that supported the economy of Arequipa – manufacture of wool products and the operation of the Southern Railway – began to decline. For these and other reasons, Arequipa saw the rise of a number of political leaders shaped by a growing middle class of professionals, intellectuals and technocrats, who played a role in the defense of the legal and economic stability of the city. It was during this period that the population of the city increased significantly and its citizens had a prominent political participation thus establishing the importance of Arequipa as the country's second city, and in frequent rivalry with Lima.

In 1835, moved his government from Lima to Arequipa, by presidential decree on 13 January 1835. Meanwhile in Lima, General named himself Supreme Chief of the Republic, arguing that the country was leaderless, i.e. without President, as Orbegoso was outside the capital. . Orbegoso then sought support from then Bolivian President against the claims of Deciding battles between troops and Salaverry Confederation were in Uchumayo, near the city of Arequipa, on 4 February 1836, where he defeated Salaverry, and Socabaya, three days later, on 7 February, beating On 18 February 1836, Salaverry and his top aides were shot in the main square of the city.

After expressing their rejection of the , Chile sent under General a military expedition that reached the territory arequipeño 12 October 1837. Before going into battle were negotiations that allowed signing a peace treaty in Paucarpata, adjacent to the city district, on 17 November, between the Chilean military chief Gen. Quiroz, of the Confederation. Chile did not endorse the treaty and sent a second expedition under , the following year, in support of and other Peruvian military leaders opposed to Santa Cruz.

In the following years the city hosted insurrectionary successive military coups. On 20 February 1843, there was proclaimed as the supreme head of the Republic General , whose ambitions ended with the Battle of Carmen Alto on 22 July 1844.

On 14 April 1854 from Arequipa insirió as interim president General , who managed to take power. Against this de facto government, on 1 November 1856 took up arms again in Arequipa, After failing his military expeditions to and , had to return to Arequipa in late 1857 to organize its defense. The forces commanded by Vivanco faced in the battle of Paucarpata on 29 June 1857.


War with Chile
Lizardo Montero arrived in Arequipa on 31 August 1882, declaring the capital of Peru. Also, Montero convened a National Congress on 28 April 1883.

Montero's government had a "National Congress" installed on 22 April 1883 in the cloisters of the College Independence and National University of San Agustin, a military support consists of all males 20 to 60 years that formed an army of 4,000 men and 8,000 National Guardsmen to 10 000 and an important financial support based on quotas and taxes erogacione both the economic elite and the various southern agricultural districts.

However, Peru's Arequipa forces revolted against the authority of Lizardo Montero. On 25 October 1883, a popular uprising overthrew the government and military of who retired in Arequipa to , bringing Chilean troops under Jose Velasquez occupied the city on 29 October, this being delivered by the diplomatic corps of the city.


Twentieth and twenty-first centuries
Reached the twentieth century, the city was the scene of military coups on 22 August 1930, when the commander was proclaimed Supreme Head and forced the resignation to President Augusto B. Leguia, and 27 October 1948, when General formed a joint government and ousted President

The city was also the scene of brave civic protests against arbitrariness. The two most important were against the , one on 17 June 1950, featuring students of the College of American Independence and the second for nine days of December 1955. As usual earthquakes in the department had special significance earthquakes in 1868,1878 and 1913, for the severe injury and damage that resulted.

The city's economic development was favored by the railroad Arequipa built by This was linked to the railway linking Arequipa, and The first telegraph system in the region, which connected , Arequipa and Vitor, was established in 1908. Drinking water was supplied to the city with an aqueduct leading Yumina mineral waters, opened in 1914. In 1931 he built roads Yura Arequipa-Puno and Arequipa. In Chili to from the city and 4300 masl dam was built to irrigate El Fraile 3000 ha in the plains of La Joya. This hardworking engineering work was completed in 1938. In 1940 he inaugurated the modern Alfredo Rodriguez Ballon Airport.

In the mid-nineteenth century, the expansion of international demand helped reorganize the landlords and warlords colonial exploitation of indigenous peasants in Puno through the expansion of large estates while a circle of Arequipa controlled the marketing and processing wool at the expense of rural communities.

The momentum of this market, broader than deep, Arequipa is built from the second half of the nineteenth century as a city of middle classes, merchants, artisans, professionals, home to an elite regional macro in modern business city located. In time, the elite arequipeña happens to collect, process and export wool, producing, acquiring lands medium farmers or indigenous highland and developing an operating system supported by income. This modern twentieth-century Arequipa, old families, industries, large middle classes and workers organized in unions, is constructed as a bourgeois city, civic, democratic.

In the early twentieth century intellectual groups emerged, such as the "Group Aquelarre" movement, whose demands were focused on political decentralization and a regional identity which coincided with a resurgence of anti-limeño/anti-centralist sentiment. These groups were disassociated from issues related to social justice and economic reform and ultimately came to an abrupt end as a result of the Prominent leaders also arose such as Victor Andres Belaunde and , who left their mark as strong-willed constitutionalists in early 1930, and from 1945 to 1948 when served as president of Peru.

In 1945 Bustamante y Rivero became the president of Peru thanks to an alliance with the APRA party and lobbying from Arequipa and other supporters in Lima and other parts of the country. However, the alliance with APRA collapsed early in his presidency weakening his government and giving rise to a military coup by Odría who suppressed APRA and its leaders.

In 1950 the lawyer Francisco Mostajo (a prominent liberal from Arequipa since 1901) led a failed revolution in Arequipa against the dictator general Odria. In 1962 and in 1963 Fernando Belaunde Terry and his party with the support of another party originally from Arequipa, the Christian Democrats, won the presidency of Peru.

Law 15,923 of 10 January 1966 authorized the creation of the industrial park of Arequipa, important motivator mediated regional manufacturing.

In the early years of this century the historic center of Arequipa was declared , there was also an 8.4 magnitude earthquake on 23 June 2001, one of the largest earthquakes in the world since 1900,. and of greater magnitude in the history of Peru because of this earthquake, many of the historic buildings in Arequipa were damaged or destroyed.


Uprisings
Throughout history Arequipa policy have led to many uprisings that earned the city the adjective of "The Lion of the South". According to Leslie Bethell Cambridge University "if Arequipa was the capital of liberalism the other regions of Peru promoted their own interests only through their ideology'. other authors conclude that revolutions were not developed under personal interests or politicians that incentivized, but by passion for law and justice, for his religious faith and his honor.

Leslie Bethell emphasizes the importance of revolutions of Arequipa stating:

This revolutionary fame known among Peruvians still won it through numerous rebellions where almost all revolutions, some with national impact, armed themselves to defend local autonomy, compared to a centralizing capital more and more taking up arms in the revolutions following:


Political trend
The starting point of the political path followed by Arequipa is marked by the new national bourgeoisie, which appears to challenge the existing bourgeois elite in Peru, where there was a significant and growing stratum of people in Peru with professional, administrative and trade.

Since the 1900s the rebellious spirit Arequipa, reborn from the pen of a group of intellectuals, a new generation of liberal anticlericalism characterized by a very Catholic society and opposition to economic and political centralization of the country, this opposition Arequipa to the political and economic centralization of the country naturally led to a constitutional position in the 1930s and the subsequent adoption of ideologies Christian Democrats in the 1940s and 1950s. Lawyers and projected a strong church influence in politics Arequipa, as well as the middle class gained further declined participation to economic prosperity in the south of the country.

These new interests take political structure more clearly inside the country whose strongest political structure was the city of Arequipa, and their potential strengths of this national election that was reflected by strength in the candidacy of Fernando Belaunde Terry in the 1956 presidential elections. The southern region, dominated by the city of Arequipa has a long history of separatism and the Republic of Peru, Arequipa and the upper class of the twentieth century has preserved a distinctive regional identity.


Geography

Location
The city is located at of elevation above sea level, with the lowest part of the city being at above sea level in the area called Huayco while the highest is located at above sea level.

The central part of the city is crossed by the Chili River from north to south; to the north and east of Arequipa are the Andes mountains, while to the south and west there are minor mountain ranges associated to the Andes. The valley of Arequipa, open toward the coast, plays a key role in allowing Arequipa to be a city that strategically links the coastal and highland regions of southern Peru.

A series of volcanic cones dominates the skyline from the city. These volcanoes form mountains like the , and . This rugged western edge of South America is characterized by thick layers of volcanic lava that cover large areas.Regional Government of Arequipa. "Analysis of the state and of the determinants of health", p. 19.


Climate
The climate of the city is predominantly dry in , and due to the low atmospheric moisture and an effective precipitation corresponding to that of a climate. Arequipa has also 300 days of sunshine a year on average. Throughout the year, temperatures do not exceed and rarely drop below . The wet season lasts from December to March and is marked by the presence of clouds in the afternoon and low rainfall. In winter (June, July), weather gets a little cooler and the temperature drops to an average of .

The average relative humidity is 46%, with an average high of 70% in the summer season and a minimum average of 27% during the seasons of autumn, winter and spring, according to data from the weather station at Goyeneche Hospital.National Environmental Council. "To clear the air", p. 21.

The winds are influenced by a system of local winds and the passage of frontal systems of low atmospheric pressure, which are conditioned by the topographical surrounding the valley where the city is. These winds occur mainly in the evening and early morning; mountain breezes flow in a north-east direction and in the course of the day valley breezes dominate with a South-West direction. The wind velocity along the day fluctuates between 1.5 m / s and 2.5 m / s.National Environmental Council. "To clear the air", pp. 21–22.


Solar radiation
The global recorded in the city ranges from 850–950 W / m 2 (watts / square meter), considered one of the highest levels of radiation in South America and the highest recorded in Peru. This phenomenon is due to its proximity to the area of influence of the and at every stage.


Cityscape

Historic Centre
On 15 August 1540 a plot was made forty-nine "blocks or islands." sides were measured and each had a length of "400 feet Castilians' (111.40 meters), separated by streets" 37 feet Castilian "(10.30 meters), so that the checkerboard foundation is characterized by perfection in drawing apples.

The writer Pedro Davalos and Lisson, in his book The First Century contains the description given by Paz Soldan in 1855:

Because of this, there is no doubt that the former "Villa Hermosa de Arequipa" he intended to occupy the regional capital. The city became a connecting link between Cuzco, ponds and the ocean. And in fact the city of Arequipa in the exploitation phase of silver in Potosi, has since become "'a major logistics hub." The urban setting near the present district of San Lazaro, where was erected the first chapel of the city occupied an area of 850 x 875 meters.Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 12.

The square foundation, located three blocks from the river and occupied an eccentric position in the founding and checkerboard patterns as Hispanic was the focal point of the city. Apples was occupied by four or eight lots, and were distributed according to their importance in the new neighborhood. With the passage of time some religious institutions came to occupy a block as the case of the Convent of Santa Catalina and San Francisco Monastery.


Republican Era
In the Republican era shows a growth process similar to the colonial era, where the urban area has grown at the expense of the countryside, a process that has worsened in recent decades. The city also experienced an expansion to the east of what is now called historic, new avenues were plotted as Parra Boulevard and Twentieth Century Avenue, was established wooded neighborhood of El Vallecito, where he built the first shawls to the 1940s, and the city extended into Yanahuara, poor people came to occupy the districts of Miraflores, Barrio Obrero, Jacinto Ibanez.

Urban architecture is extended with new construction, and moved the market town located in the Plaza de Armas to the park Duhamel and later to its present location at the Convent of the Order of St. Camillus agonizing Parents, between 1905 and 1910 Goyeneche Hospital was built, also built bridges linking the city center with the district as the bridge Yanahuara Real. By the year 1940, the first project was proposed expansion and urban facilities. This plan envisaged the creation of a ring of houses greater than existing growth plan consolidating regarding radial and concentric paths regarding land use, neighborhoods were enabled Cuarto Centenario and Selva Alegre.Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 14. He was also given a boost to urban facilities with the construction of the Municipal Theatre, the Hotel de Turistas, the Municipal Library, the Athenaeum Theatre, American Independence College, Campus of the Universidad Nacional de San Agustin.

Until the late 1950s there were two factors that substantially changed the trends of urban growth, the earthquakes in the years of 1958 and 1960 and the drought plateau, which accelerated peripheral growth.Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 15.

This period starts with greater force the displacement of resident population sectors, there is a shift in the industry that was located in the Barrio del Solar and El Barrio ObreroProvincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 24. following the creation of the industrial park, causing a process outsourcing of the city center towards commercial activities primarily in the informal sector.Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 6. An example of this exodus is the displacement of some educational institutions that previously were located in the city center as the National University of San Agustin in the year of 1962 and residential sectors to consolidate the periphery to the center of the city as a dynamic central business district.


Demographics
According to of 2007, the province of Arequipa concentrates 75.5% of the total population of the region and the city of Arequipa, the capital of the department, with 70% of the total population and 90% of urban population.


Demographic trends
One of the first references that can be found is the one by historian Ventura Travada y Córdova who in the mid-eighteenth century, wrote:

One of the first population census in the city date back to 1796 where there were 37,241 inhabitants in the 'pen' which corresponded to 22 207 Spanish, 5929 Indians, mestizos 4908, 2487 and 1710 slave castes. At the end of the first half of the twentieth century, the effects of momentum multplicadores to Arequipa by the works of 1940 demonstrated very quickly which was clearest symptom population growth, as annual population growth of 1.1% for the period of 1876 to 1917 tripled to 3.3% annually in the period that goes from 1940 to 1960.

In the early years of the second half of the twentieth century the city would rise from 85,000 in 1940 to 158,000 in 1961 in an unprecedented population explosion process, whose possible reasons have to do with the establishment of the first industrial enterprises generated as opening import substitution due to World War II and the transformation of agricultural production. The demographic trend is substantially modified by two factors: the earthquake of 1958 and the drought plateau, accelerating migration and urbanization, and peripheral growth that lasts until today. The population explosion was enhanced by the rearrangement of urban space after the earthquakes was really impressive and Arequipa's population doubled in a decade. The 158 000 inhabitants in 1961, would be 309 000 in 1972 and almost 500,000 in 1983, the invasion of rural areas generated a remarkable process in which subsistent farming actively participates in the urban cycle.

Evolution of the population of Arequipa in the period between 1796 and 2012

Sources: Population Census 1804 (Gil de Toboada) Viceroyalty of Peru in 1812, Census of inhabitants of Peru (1876) Census of the City of Arequipa in 1917 INEI, INEI 2012 population estimate


Economy
Since Arequipa is predominantly urban, industry, commerce and construction taking place in the capital of the department have a central role in the future of the town. However, the presence of fertile valleys and high Andes allows agricultural activity has great importance for the development of the city: a central axis of the demands arequipeñas is building irrigation to improve their productivity. Finally, in recent times, the mining industry has entered a stage of modernity, has ceased to be only artisanal or small business to include large-scale mining, as in the case of Cerro Verde, established in 1993 in the Arequipa.Centrum. Cerro Verde Financial Reports, p. 4.

From the twentieth century in the city have developed the related to the primary sector, highlighting the textile and agricultural industries. They constitute a center of exchange and mediation in the southern Andes, serving as a link between the and the mountains. Metropolitan Strategic Plan of Arequipa, Arequipa Economics


Economic indicators
The contribution of the city of Arequipa in Arequipa region's GDP is 74.2% of its GDP according to studies by the National University of San Agustin, also the region's GDP is the highest Arequipa after Lima.

In the period 2003–2008 was the "City with greatest economic growth in Latin America", according to the report in 2009 of "America Economia" presenting a percentage change in GDP per capita of 66.1%. Also in 2007–2008 was the city with the highest percentage change in GDP in Latin America with a variation of 9.59%.

 0–910,58712,1885,01
Source: American Journal Economics. Special Cities

According to the "Specialized Household Survey on Employment Levels" has the largest amount of "Economically able to work" within the country amounting to 625 547 people, and the most economically active population (PEA) which amounts to 376 764 people having a same employment rate above the national average with an average monthly income of 928 soles whose main areas of activity in which play is manufacturing (12.9%), trade (23%) and non-personal services (36.6%).

The contribution to the national sales tax is 20.3%, in solidarity tax on 17% being the second national taxpayer in these taxes. Arequipa has a production structure strongly biased to trade and services sectors, the primary sector of agriculture and accounted for 29.6% of GDP, the secondary sector of manufacturing industry and 20.7% in the tertiary sector and trade and services 49.7%, it was strengthened in recent years by a lack of productive investment.


Construction
The construction sector of the city is the second most dynamic in the country, after Lima, according to the Study of Urban Buildings by the Institute of Construction and Development of the Peruvian Chamber of Construction. Building activity in 2011 amounted to 611 961 m 2, 65% for housing, 10% for offices and commercial premises 4%. In the case of housing supply, departments account for 70% and 30% households of the total supply in this sector of destination.


Fairs, exhibitions and congresses
The city is seen as a place of exhibitions and events in the country, among which were:

  • International Book Fair

The III International Book Fair held in Arequipa in 2011 had an influx of 400,000 people and a collection of a million and a half soles

  • Mining Convention

Oriented mining sector entrepreneurs, investors and government delegations in the last edition in the year 2011 had the presence of 40 countries bringing together 50,000 people.


Tourism
In Arequipa tourism is a factor of the economy energizing establishing itself as the third most visited city in the country after Cusco and . In 2010, Arequipa received a total of 1.395 million visitors according to the


Industry
The city's industrial sector has the largest nationwide diversification and is the second most industrialized city of Peru product of the Industrial Park was established during the first government of After two major earthquakes, in 1958 and 1960, with the law of the "Rehabilitation and Development Board of Arequipa» Industrial Park was built with two or three factories at that time, and the Yura Cement factory.

The city's industrial sector comprises industrial parks among which may be mentioned the "Parque Industrial de Arequipa" orientaado to large and medium enterprises, the "Industrial Park APIMA" to small businesses, the "Industrial Park Rio Seco "and industrial areas in the Alfonso Ugarte Av, Alternative Uchumayo and North Cone. Finally, there is a consolidated sector and planned and Ladrilleras Umapalca Yarabamba way. Spatial occupancy for industrial zones cover an area of 286 hectares.National Environmental Council. "To clear the air", p. 26.

  • Arequipa Industrial Park, along its existence has undergone several transformations of their industries, showing a more dynamic consumer related industries (food and beverages), construction (PVC, cement and steel) and those of Export (textile companies). In this industrial companies are also engaged in the chemical industry and plastics, companies producing non-metallic minerals, stationery and printing, among others, conglomerando over 150 companies, among which we can highlight to Alicorp SAA, Processed Foods SA, Laive, La Iberica, Manuel Muñoz Najar, Bin Pan SA, Consorcio Industrial Arequipa SA, Omniagro, Backus & Johnston, Corporación Aceros Arequipa. Also in Arequipa is developed textiles both cotton and alpaca and wool factories represented by: Francky and Ricky, Michell & Cia. e IncaTops, companies are also in the Arequipa Industrial Park.


Media and Entertainment
On 15 August 1959 was the first television transmission in the city of Arequipa at the Cultural Hall of the National University of San Agustin. It was an initiative of businessman Jack Dwyre through his new company Televisora Sur Peruana in partnership with the as Channel 2 (now TV UNSA). The aforementioned university became one of the first in South America to operate a public TV station from inside its campus.

Furthermore, two other public television stations began to operate in Arequipa: Radio Television Continental (Channel 6) in 1962 and Compañía de Radiodifusión Arequipa (Channel 8) in 1987 (broadcasting as ATV Sur since 2012).

Among the newspapers that are printed in the city, El Pueblo is the oldest (active since 1 January 1905) and the second oldest in the country. Writers like Percy Gibson and Alberto Hidalgo, and politicians like Hector Cornejo Chavez, Mario Polar Ugarteche and Alfonso Montesinos started their careers in this newspaper.


Education
According to the 2007 Census data INEI in , there is a student population totaling 823,148 inhabitants of three years or more to attend a regular school, which represents 95.24% of the entire provincial population of Arequipa.


Nursery, primary and secondary
In 2007 in the districts of the city 20% nbsp; 595 students at grade level or initial childhood education, primary education, 143 543 and 219 305 secondary education. Among the oldest schools in the city are the Seminary of San Jeronimo in operation since 1622, the American Independence College, St. Francis College, Don Bosco Salesian College, College De La Salle and St. Joseph College.


Higher education
The city of Arequipa has the presence of more than 15 universities, with only one national and eight private headquartered in the city, the rest are private and national universities both at home and abroad (Chile).

In 2007 in the existing universities housed a university population of 70,894 students and colleges university not a population of 56 087 students, becoming the city with the highest number of home university of the country after the capital and the city with the highest population percentage-wise university of Peru. The population categorized with university and complete university reached 108 823 and 70 252 students respectively.


National University of San Agustin
It is the second largest public university in the country, behind the University of San Marcos,National Assembly of Rectors. "University Statistical Data", p. 10. had the predecessor to the Royal and Pontifical University Intra calustra, created by decree on 22 January 1714 and the Academy of Sciences Lauretana Arts and founded on 10 December 1821, from which was born the National University of San Agustin who was installed on 11 November 1828 but according to the university law recognizes the creation of the university on 2 June 1827.


University Campus
The construction of the university city of the National University of San Agustin is a product of the projection made by the architect Hector Velarde in 1940 but it was not until 1962 that the university decentralizes its functions and moves to the campus. The campus features correspond to a scheme totally academic teaching style of L'Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, with remarkable symmetry in the arrangement of the elements and pavilions which then lead to a neo-formal lexicon that led it to adopt a "style arequipeño" whose formal features transcended the city and were projected to other centers of Peru and the rest of America.


Private Universities
The first private university established in the city was the Catholic University of Santa Maria, the establishment of this university was followed by San Pablo Catholic University, University of San Francisco.University of San Francisco. Creating the Autonomous University of San Francisco and the University of La Salle, it belongs to International Network of Universities of La Salle, and Javier Prado Private University and Southern University.

Additionally, in the city are located branches from other universities, as a branch of the , subsidiaries of Néstor Cáceres Velásquez Andean University, Technological University of Peru, Peruvian Wings University; San Pedro Private University, the University del Mar, Chile, the University of Chimbote Los Angeles, School of Business San Francisco Xavier, the Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and San Martin de Porres University for example-that add universities established in the city of Arequipa.

! colspan="4" bgcolor="#e0e0e0"

UniversitiesNational Assembly of Rectors. "University Statistical Data", p. 19.National Assembly of Rectors. "University Statistical Data", p. 20.
  National University of San Agustin182824188Arequipa
  Catholic University of Santa Maria196312268Arequipa
  San Pablo Catholic University20044769Arequipa
  San Francisco University2010Arequipa
  University of La SalleMaestría en Ingeniería del Software AplicadaArequipa
  Private University of Health SciencesMaestría en Ingeniería del Software AplicadaArequipa
  Private Autonomous University of SouthMaestría en Ingeniería del Software AplicadaArequipa
  Javier Prado UniversityMaestría en Ingeniería del Software AplicadaArequipa
  San Francisco Xavier University2010Arequipa
  Alas Peruanas University20049743Lima
  José Carlos Mariátegui UniversityMaestría en Ingeniería del Software AplicadaLima
  Néstor Cáceres Velásquez University20061038Puno
  Technological University of Peru20071201Lima
  San Pedro Private University2010Chimbote
  University Los Angeles de Chimbote2009344Chimbote
  University of the Sea2009Chile


Culture
Arequipa culture is marked by the regionalism of its inhabitants. Arequipa, unlike other big Peruvian cities with mestizo and indigenous features, has been highlighted as a "Spanish island in an indigenous sea", resulting in regional cultural features more clearly defined than in the rest of Peru, being described both culturally and geographically as a cultural and natural oasis. This important Spanish presence is documented by many historians and chroniclers such as Ventura Travada y Córdova:

Unlike other regional sentiments within Peru, Arequipa's regionalism was connected to the fight against centralism:

This proud , expressed in numerous insurrections or revolutions that have earned the city the nickname "Ciudad Caudillo" (Warlord City) or better explained by Peruvian historian Jorge Basadre: "Arequipa is a gun pointed at the heart of Lima ', when making a reference to the antagonism between both cities.


Dialect
An element of culture in Arequipa City is its Spanish dialect that incorporates a distinctive rhythmic way of speaking, which usually elongates the last vowel of the final word in each sentence. Spanish language in Arequipa, also incorporates several Quechua words, besides the use of the


Voseo
Many sources agree that the province of Arequipa is the representative area of Peruvian , that is, the use in Spanish language of the pronoun 'vos' to replace the use of 'tú' or 'usted' (all meaning the pronoun 'you'). In Peru, the voseo is sometimes heard only in rural areas except in Arequipa, where that way of speaking is heard in both rural and urban areas.


Loncco
It is a rural dialect of the city, has been largely lost due to migration from other provinces and the standardization of Castilian by the media in the capital, however, always in schools competitions are promoted lonccos poems.


Visual arts
Its principle is based or iconographic art of petroglyphs and pre-Columbian pottery. The site with more graphs in stone are the Toro Muerto has been the subject of many studies, most notably those of Dr. Eloy Linares Málaga and Dr. Antonio Núñez Jiménez Cuban.

His second contribution is the Spanish state and Indo-American, who initially had applications in the size of walls, faces carved churches and altars, des painting appeared as mestizo, which is a naïve tried to recreate the Christian symbolism . The art of deep chiaroscuro, anatomical and ingenuity hieratic provisions lasted for many years since the European Renaissance failed hard because of geographical distance, but so that the increased media and travel advances and ado came to the third stage, which is the art academic and romantic, then arequipeñas wealthy families brought European art, mostly from France, England and Spain, the art, but not high-level teachers, gave the foundation for what would advance the fourth state of our history of fine arts, Carlos Baca Flor, Masias and Reynoso Vinatea preamble contemporary art , Ureta Alejandro Nunez and Luis Palao Berastain among youth of that based on the short edge new American realism and impressionism .

After the fifth stage amorphous art, symbolist and other current and conceptual styles imported from North America and Europe with vertigo by mass media, among the master of this new era are Ramiro Pareja, Germán Rondon, Ricardo Córdova, the Evaristo and brothers Dario Callo Anco, Erick Huanca, Juan Carlos Zevallos, Companoca and other young master that currently contribute at various isms and boundaries of what is visual art. The Museum of Contemporary Art and the Museum of Arequipa Fundo del Fierro are good benchmarks.

[[File:Pedro Paulet, padre de la Aeronautica.PNG|thumb| Pedro Paulet, scientist born in Arequipa in 1874, was one of the first to experiment with rocket propulsion. ]]


Gastronomy
The city has a great diversity of foods compared to many other parts of Peru, with a registered 194 varieties of dishes, which represent 40 entrees, 11 soups or lunches, 11 wines, 70 dishes, 51 desserts and 11 drinks. The cuisine of the city stands by the use of seasonings and preparation methods introduced by both Andean and Europeans, because many dishes were created to satisfy the tastes of Spanish merchants, soldiers and priests who had settled in Arequipa.

The eating habits are characterized by a slow diet for each day of the week, this fact shows that in most restaurants and picanterías gets used to prepare on Monday: Chaque, Tuesday: Chairo, Wednesday: Chochoca, Thursday: Suck Colorado or potato flour, Friday: Suck, Saturday: stew or Timpusca and Sunday: white broth or Pebre loins. This practice follows a global context where food has established fixed schedules and are respected by the population and most restaurants and picanterías city and moved to the availability of specific ingredients in local markets to meet demand according to the day of the week.

Among the most popular dishes are the shrimp Suck, Ocopa Arequipa, Rocoto filling Adobo Arequipa, Single cheese, potato cake, fried ribs, Cuy chactado, Cauche cheese, Locro pectoris, Chaque, among others. For dessert highlight the cream cheese, donuts, convent sweets, chocolates, and beverages such as, Chicha de Jora, the region anise (anise or aniseed liqueur).


Literature
The identity of Arequipa literature is linked to the early nineteenth-century libertarians. is, in that sense, a compulsory reference, as to the quality of his lyrics, his example and his vital attention to the themes and modes land drew the line that would guide the creative writing in his hometown. In the mid-nineteenth century, the poetic voices from Benito Bonifaz, Manuel Castillo, José Mariano Llosa, Ignacio Gamio, among others, gave prestige to the letters Arequipa. Later that century, the novel George, the son of the village (1892), Maria Nieves and Bustamante, on the line of Victor Hugo, in the opinion of Luis Alberto Sanchez, gave us in his interesting 'Introduction', some signs preciosistas White City.

Poetry is heading towards the teaching of vibrant, and there are poems full of ideas and concepts Jorge Polar, philosopher and jurist, author of Arequipa. Description and social studies (1891), whose statement: "Years Arequipa has fought bravely to win free institutions for the Fatherland. Not born in vain at the foot of a volcano ", summarizes the feeling that inaugurated and that in one way or another, is present in Arequipa literature of the nineteenth and much of the twentieth, and the romantic voice of Francisco Mostajo, popular leader, who openly criticized the prevailing tone and advocated without success, the vital airs of modernism in its statements to the wind, 1908.

The twentieth century imposes rhythm and casually characteristic of youth. In this area appears Group The Coven, with distinctly modernist aspirations. Their representatives make up a generation varied, but a common concern for change. They are in their ranks: Percy Gibson, Cesar Rodriguez Atahualpa, and Renato Federico Morales Agüero Well Rivera. This group Arequipa, sort of "colónidos" (Colónida group of Lima, founded by in the decade of 10), to which are added the poets featured Alberto Guillen and Alberto Hidalgo latter a vanguard that has not yet received the recognition it deserves, assumes a freer language, away from the prevailing rhetoric and romantic. His affiliation would be closer to some avant-garde notions.

The gathering is organized in the halls, and the talents of the poets of the time are not indexed for arequipeño masterfully, but , who evokes an evening of 1910 in the article "The throne of the sun. Notes of a journey." The Conde de Lemos highlights in it to Percy Gibson author of the verses of the famous waltz Melgar, who put music Benigno Ballon, who invites Colónida write in the journal.

In this Gibson he published the poem "Democratic Gospel":

For its part, the paradoxes Tower (1926), Cesar Rodriguez Atahualpa, which pays homage to his homeland, as well as his "Song of Arequipa" (1918), set the tone of the regionalist pride to which we have referred at the beginning. This group accounted mamuel happened that Gallego Sanz, brothers Jorge and Xavier Bacacorzo and Guillermo Mercado (1904–1983), the latter poet who started within indigenismo and published, among other books, Golden Soul (1925) A chullo of poems (1928) and Song of Sachaca (1940). The prose had its greatest exponent in the first half of the twentieth century, in the figure of Augusto Morales Aguirre (1888–1957), who left as proof of his masterly novel The People of the sun (the first is around 1924), which managed continental resonance. His works include Dream Flower (1906) and Prayer (1913), poems, and Justice of Huayna Capac (1919), novel.

Scholar and journalist, Aguirre Morales worked in newspapers and Universal Chronicle. Among his contemporaries are Juan Manuel Osorio and Juan Manuel Polar. Later, Arequipa also produce a noted literary critic, internationally recognized, Enrique Cornejo Quea (1936–1996) who applied the concept so sharply of "diversity" in American literary studies. Born in Arequipa in 1931, Oswaldo Reynoso released in 1961, "The innocent stories", and in 1964, the novel "In October there are no miracles, who have had multiple reprints. Owner of a poetic prose breath, then posted The beetle and man "(1970)", In search of Aladdin "(1993) and" The eunuchs immortal "(1995). But undoubtedly the most renowned Arequipa in the field of letters is (1936), and author among other texts of the Hero (1964), The Green House (1966), The War of the End of the World (1981), The Feast of the Goat (2000) and inspired by the life of , The Paradise on the other corner (2003).

Arequipa maintains an intense literary life, to mention a few names of different generations, quote Jose Ruiz Rosas, poet who, although born in Lima (1928), developed his poetic valuable in the city of Arequipa and currently resides in this, among others, the poems Grocery (1978), Poems (1980), gathered Poetry (1992) in the White City; Oswaldo Chanove (1953), poet, author of The Hero and his relationship with the heroine (1983), Study on the action and passion (1987) y.el Pale Rider (1994), or Carlos Herrera (1961), the original focus narrator who posted black and white (1995) and blind Argonaut Chronicles (2002).


Museums and cultural centers
Cultural events are mainly in the cultural institutes, organizations such as the Alliance Française, the Peruvian Center for German and Peruvian North American Cultural Center organized activities around the arts, music, dance and literature, among others. Meanwhile, the Centro Cultural de la Rosa Chaves National University of San Agustin and the Catholic University of Santa Maria promote cultural activities.

In the 1990s banking institutions showed great interest in promoting and managing cultural activities, private companies, meanwhile, joined this movement by sponsoring various projects.

  • Cathedral Museum Andina: New Museum of Arequipa Cathedral opens its doors
  • Virtual Hall of Arequipa,Provincial Municipality Virtual Room Arequipa located at the "Gateway to the City" are contained several aspects of urban town of the historic center of Arequipa, more precisely the area that has been declared as a World Heritage Site and some nearby; here shows the evolution of the architecture over time arequipeña.
  • Regional Museum of the Central Reserve Bank.Andean BCR Museum. The center has a numismatic room, where you can see notes and coins that were minted in the Central Reserve Bank of Arequipa in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The museum also has a gallery comprising 17 eighteenth-century paintings of the Cusco School, and archaeological pieces in metal and ceramics from the Chavin, Chimu, Moche, Viru, Recuay, Nasca and Inca.
  • Archaeological Museum José María Morante UNSA Museum
  • Archaeological Museum of the University of St. Augustine, located in a seventeenth-century mansion, the museum exhibits a varied collection comprising lithic, bone remains of human sacrifices, pottery elementary and pre-Columbian textiles.

  • UCSM Archaeological Museum, Guide Museums: Archaeological UCSM displays about 1000 objects developed different cultural groups in the region from 12 000 a year. C. until the colony: Nasca, Tiahuanaco, Wari, Churajón, Acari, Aruni and Inca, and colonial and transitional material.
  • Andean Sanctuaries Museum of the Catholic University of Santa Maria, was created on 26 March 1997, following the significant archaeological research by Project 'height Sanctuaries Southern Andes ", led by Professors and Jose Antonio Chavez. In this museum is the Mummy Juanita who was sacrificed on Mount Ampato, despite being an attractive displays, museum work has been questioned.
  • Numismatic Museum
  • Museum of Contemporary Art, is devoted to painting and photography from 1900 onwards, houses an interesting collection of twentieth-century art, photography and exhibitions of Miguel Vargas and Carlos Vargas, Cusco photographer Martin Chambi, was mentor of the two brothers, that through his work documenting daily life and customs of the city of Arequipa twentieth-century. Also on display are works by young local artists, paintings Peruvian artists like and , Ramiro Llona, José Tola, Gerardo Chavez, Natalia Iguíñiz, Jaime Higa, Light Letts, Carlos Runcie Tanaka, Amelia Weiss, Claudia Cuzzi and Venancio Shinki.
  • Museum of Natural History, Natural History Museum located in the metropolitan district of Yanahuara, under the administration of the convent of La Recoleta.
  • Museo de Santa Catalina Museum of Santa Catalina
  • Graphic Museum Gazette, the house museum located in Bolivar, it shows the evolution of writing from cave paintings to the first printing presses and machinery involved in the production process of official gazette El Peruano. In this museum you can see the resolution of Arequipa passport and Original Declaration in which Arequipa is declared on 4 September 1882 as "Capital of Peru".
  • Colonial Art Museum Santa Teresa
  • Columbian Museum La Recoleta
  • Chiribaya Culture Museum
  • The Amazonian Museum, located in the district of Yanahuara exhibiting objects from the activity of the missionaries in the jungle during the XVI, XVII, XVIII.
  • Forestry Museum Ecological Police, this museum located in the metropolitan district of Paucarpata has a sample of more than 300 animal species of Peruvian wildlife, especially the one in danger of extinction. Also has 35 live animals.


Music
Since late viceroyalty there are important academic composers like (who was best known in his role as poet), Pedro Jiménez Tirado April and Florentino Diaz is apparently coming to Arequipa one of the cities in the country with more of the best composers and musical training.

In the Republican era include Manuel Aguirre who assimilated the teachings of Chopin and Schuman to give them some melanconlia and simplicity to his music. Similarly, Luis Duncker Lavalle-a master pianist who can speak both academic folk-music as Octavio Polar, Manuel Aguirre, David H. Molina, who spread his orchestral works with the Association of Arequipa and Aurelio Diaz Espinoza who was author of the Hymn of Arequipa. Also, with a more modernist highlights Carlos Sanchez Malaga. Later in the twentieth century include Roberto Ramirez-Ortiz Zevallos, Roberto Carpio Valdez, Juan Francisco Ballon Ballon, Armando Sanchez-Málaga and Benigno Ballón Farfán González, author of numerous yaravíes, sailors and popular waltz Melgar.


Symbols

Coat of arms
Nearly a year after the founding of the town, King elevated it to the rank of by royal decree on 22 December 1540, awarding it a coat of arms on which a mythical animal carries a banner with the inscription Karlos V or Del Rey. Peruvian writer in his Peruvian Traditions, explains the position and meaning of some components in the shield based on the report of a chronicler with knowledge of heraldry. In Palma's tradition of "The godson of providence", it is explained:


Flag
The origin of the crimson flag of the city has been a subject of debate among historians. In 1940 various scientific publications such as those by historians Francisco Mostajo and Victor M. Barriga firmly confirmed the crimson color of the banner, as opposed to the blue banner proposed as the original by historian Victor Benavente. This matches the color used in sports activities in the city. On September 2, 1940, Francisco Mostajo sent a letter to the Mayor of the City to explain his views regarding the color of the Banner of Arequipa, basing his claims on the ' Act of the oath of King Carlos III " of 11 August 1788. On September 23 of the same year, Father Victor M. Barriga also published an important document in the Catholic newspaper El Deber that contains a description of the royal standard of Arequipa found in the "Act of 3 September 1789".

Both of these documents state that the standard color is crimson and that its origins date back to the colonial flag of the city, which is described as cited:


Anthem
The anthem of the city is called the Fourth Centenary Anthem. It was written by Emilio Pardo Valle with music by Aurelio Diaz Espinoza, who won a contest organized by the city council in 1939 for the creation of the music and lyrics of the anthem. The award was given in 1940 and the hymn has been sung ever since at all important civic events held in the city.


Names and Honorific Titles
Very noble and very loyal Arequipa was one of the cities of the that received frequent and intense praise for its weather and its loyalty History and legend, Mariano Melgar Among the praises for the city found in the literature is a reference in the play "" by classic Spanish writer Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, who mentions that the Spanish poet Diego Rivera Martinez, having been to Arequipa, praised the city with the phrase "In Arequipa, eternal spring".Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. La Galatea, The song of Calliope, Madrid (1585), the reference to Martinez de Ribera, in 66 and 67 octaves.

The city was also awarded various distinctions and titles by the Spanish Crown such as its Coat of Arms and the titles of Very Noble and Loyal, Faithful, and the treatment of Excellence.

Most Faithful One aspect that distinguished Arequipa from other areas of Peru and Lima in particular is the explicit public commitment of the city to the Spanish crown and the close following of its directives. This phenomenon was called "fidelism" and had some notable defenders in Francisco de Paula Quiroz, Mariano de Rivero, Nicólas Fernández, and José Miguel de Aubrey. Since its Spanish foundation and over three centuries the city was mostly inhabited by families of Spanish origin. One reason that contributed to maintaining and strengthening fidelism was obviously the prevalence of Spanish people in high society and their representative organizations. Another factor was geographical because given the city's location it was not likely to be influenced by regions with libertarian movements or by areas with large concentrations of indigenous people.

The ruling classes and city leaders were always faithful and loyal to the Spanish crown during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In the eighteenth century, upon the rise of movements and rebellions from the indigenous and mestizo population, Arequipa retained its political balance. During the Tupac Amaru II uprising the city assembled at its own expense a column of troops that helped destroy the siege of the city of La Paz. This earned the city the epithet of "Restorative province of the Collao ». For these services the King Carlos IV also issued a royal decree in the city of San Lorenzo on 5 December 1805 in which he conferred the title and the name of "Most Faithful" to the city.

Excellence The city received a treatment of "excellence" by a royal decree issued in the city of Madrid on 16 November 1818. This distinction was granted following reports submitted by Don Hipólito Unanue, deputy of the province of Arequipa and the Municipality of the city, of Arequipa's involvement in defending the royal cause in the uprising of the city of La Paz in 1809.

Heroic City of the Free In the republican era, a decree issued by General Orbegoso ordered that the department and its capital city be denominated "Department of Law" and "heroic city of the free". General Orbegoso installed his government in Arequipa in 13 January 1835 and, as a consequence, General named himself Supreme Chief of the Republic with the pretext that the country was leaderless, i.e. without President, as Orbegoso was outside the capital of Lima. Decree assuming command of the Republic General Felipe Santiago Salaverry, February 25, 1835 .


Sports
Among the scenarios that the city has for the practice of football we mention Virgen de Chapi Stadium (property of San Agustin National University), , Los Palitos Stadium and Umacollo Stadium.


Soccer
Association football or Soccer is the most popular sport in Arequipa, with the most popular team being Melgar F.C. This team currently plays in the Peruvian of association football, winning its first national championship in 1981.


Law and Government
Arequipa, as the capital of the , is governed by the Provincial Municipality of Arequipa that has jurisdiction over the entire territory of the province. The district municipalities within the province also have jurisdiction over matters relating to their own districts.

The city, as the regional capital, is home to the Regional Government of Arequipa. It is also headquarters of the different regional offices of that make up the Civil Government of Peru.


City administration
The Provincial Municipality of Arequipa regulates important citywide, metropolitan and issues like urban planning, , municipal collection, management of road safety (jointly with the ), the maintenance of public roads and urban greenery, etc. It is also responsible for the construction of municipal facilities such as sports centers, libraries and social services centers.

List of mayors of Arequipa in recent years ! Period ! Mayor ! Political party
1994–1995Fernando Sebastián Ramírez AlfaroNeighborhood Unity Front

1996–1998Roger Luis Caceres PerézFRENATRACA

1999–2002Juan Manuel Guillen BenavidesArequipa.Tradition and future

2003–2006Peyson Yamel Romero PeraltaAPRA

2007–2011Simon Balbuena Marroquín

2011–2015Zegarra Alfredo TejadaArequipa Reborn


Seat of the Constitutional Court
The Constitutional Court is the highest authority and control interpretation of the Constitution. It is autonomous and independent of other constitutional bodies. Subject only to the Constitution and the Organic Law. The court has seven judges elected by the Congress with the favorable vote of at least two thirds of the legal number of members for a period of five years.

The city is the "Legal Capital of Peru" and "Official Headquarters of the Constitutional Court", as a result of a project decentralist the first vice presidential candidate, Manuel Seoane Corrales, who proposed the initiative of the city of Arequipa was the headquarters of the Superior Court of Justice, which would make the city was the Legal Capital of Peru. Due to the military coup that began in Peru, the initiative was in the air, to be reborn after the election of the Constituent Assembly in 1978. This time, the initiative did not succeed due to the high opposition, but later concluded that Arequipa would host the then "Constitutional Court", as stated in Article 304 º of the Constitution of Peru, 1979: "The Constitutional Court is based in the city of Arequipa ".

Later, by the Constitution of 1993, created the "Constitutional Court", which, according to its Charter, is based in Arequipa, although under Regulation Regulatory Constitutional Court.Regulation Regulatory Constitutional Court, p. 2.


Administrative division
The city is bounded by the district lines that comprise his constituency, the figure for the same population of the city is not adjusted to the total population of the districts that could be partially or fully recitals within the city, as RENIEC entities considered that the city is divided into 15 administrative districts, coordinated by the provincial municipality, which in turn are subdivided into , however INEI uses other methodologies for the delimitation of the city.

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No. ! align="center" width="150" District ! align="center" width="20" No. ! align="center" width="150" District
17Paucarpata
2Cayma8James Hunter
39Miraflores
4Sachaca10Tiabaya
5Yanahuara11
6Alto Selva Alegre12
7Sabandía14Socabaya


Metropolitan area
The metropolitan area is to head to the city and consists of 19 districts with metropolitan category, extends over a surface of of which are distinctly urban. A metropolitan level unemployment level reaches the level of 8%, in contrast to 5% unemployment in the city.


Sights and attractions

The Old Town
In its 332 hectares has 5817 propertiesProvincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 39. of which 500 are categorized as heritage properties, generally have been built in the nineteenth century, on the site of earlier colonial buildings destroyed by the earthquake of 1868. The houses, usually made in , are characterized by semi-circular arches and vaulted ceilings. Ashlar structures always have thick walls: 1 to 1.5 meters for rooms, 2 meters for churches. Through the use of lime mortar, the walls are shown homogeneous image that is reinforced with brick vaults or ashlar that are justified in the rarity of the wood.Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 40.

In the city itself is a stylistic school called "School Arequipa" of crucial importance in the region and whose influence reached Potosi. This school is characterized by profuse decoration planiform textilográfica and the open spaces and the design and size of their covers, which differ in these aspects of Cuzco and Lima covers.

The architecture in the historic center is characterized by the prominence of ashlar, the use of which begins in the last third of the s. XVI. This volcanic stone, white or pink exceptionally soft, lightweight, and weatherproof, emerged as a seismic structural solution. The ashlar was unable to take the early years, except for the covers of the main church and some houses. The original city was built with adobe, masonry, sticks and straw roofs or mud pie. Houses of this type were made until the nineteenth century and were common in the eighteenth century, some remain in the original district of San Lazaro. Later came the brick and tile houses with tile found in the Monastery of Santa Catalina. The cataclysm of 1582 settled these systems and raised the earthquake reconstruction. Then came the ashlar as prime structural solution.Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 18.

Major earthquakes which milestones in the formation of Arequipa architecture. You can mention five periods:


Religious Monuments
In historical existence is accounted for 14 churches or temples, four chapels, five convents and 3 monasteries,Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 65. among the monuments of this type include: It is the most important neoclassical ediicio Peru, product reconstruction started in 1844 and finished three years later and led by architect Lucas Poblete.UNESCO. History of Humanity, p. 221. Its interior is faced with trs ships with one of the side walls of the main square which fills a side façade is divided by Corinthian columns.

  • Church of the Company
It is the monument maximum Arequipeña School, is one of the most splendid creations of Peruvian Baroque and starting point of this school,Arellano, p. 256. in its façade has an inscription inscribed with the year 1698 which shows that the beginning of the eighteenth century this regional art had reached its peak, therein lies a more exaggerated baroque altar.


Civil-Public Monuments
There are 10 buildings that origin were engaged in civic purposes, such as Phoenix theaters. and the Municipal Theatre, the Goyeneche Hospital and the Hospital of Priests of St. Peter, bridges Bolognesi and Grau, the Instituto de la Rosa Chavez, Railway Station, Mercado San Camilo and the Molino de Santa Catalina.


Military Monuments
The historic center of Arequipa lacked a wall as we had the city of Lima, they persist despite military monuments as Twentieth Century Prison and Penal Fundo El Fierro women.Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 66.


Civil-Domestic Monuments
Within the historic center there are 246 houses were declared monuments household, this type of construction is characterized by thick walls made solid as drawer, with arches and domes similar to those built in the temples and monasteries religious, giving the same robustness and monumentality to these constructions built from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and generally used for housing.


Parks and gardens
In the historic center of the city's parks and squares for a total of 26 hectares of green areas that are complemented by of countryside within this historic area,Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 51. between the squares and parks include the following areas:

Outside this monumental natural areas that stand out are the following:

  • Ecological Park of Alto Selva Alegre. is located in the middle of an urban area east of the city, right outside Cayma District and Rio Chili in the territory of the district of Selva Alegre. The park and surrounding areas occupy an area of 1008 hectares of which 460 hectares covering only the ecological park. The back of the park is located in the buffer zone of the National Reserve of Salinas Aguada Blanca.
  • Fundo Paradise. is part of the Natural Park of Selva Alegre and occupies an area of 67 hectares
  • Chilina Valley countryside. is part of the Natural Park of Selva Alegre and occupies an area of 151 hectares
  • Chilpinilla Metropolitan Park. 14 hectares
  • Military College Forest Park. 14 hectares.
  • Selva Alegre Park. 20 hectares.


Suburbs

  • Cayma Villa, from the centre of town. Place known for its taverns and where there is a beautiful seventeenth-century church. With a viewpoint which affords a beautiful view of Arequipa.

  • The thermal baths of Yura, . Its waters come from inside the volcano Chachani. Also, near the city are the medicinal sources of Jesus and Socosani.

  • Sabandía natural valley with most crystalline waters in the region. Here is the Sabandía mill was built and in operation since the eighteenth century.

  • The farm Sachaca or the Founder's Mansion, Founder's Mansion is from the city. Built on the river Socabaya, is a residence that belonged to different owners of historic renown in Peru but became especially known for being one of the family properties princiales Goyeneche. This beautiful piece of architecture is now open to the public.


Infrastructure

Healthcare
As the administrative and economic capital of the Arequipa Region, the city has the largest number of both public health centers and private which total 680 establishments.National Institute of Statistics and Information, Health Facilities Public health institutions that are present in the city are:


Transportation

Roads
Metropolitan road network has a structure that supports radiocentric four primary routes or trunks: Army Av, Av Jesus, Av and Av Alcides Carrion Parra and allow the movement of the population from the intermediate and peripheral areas activity centers.

These pathways longitudinal nature are interconnected by bus routes, forming a ring around the central area consists of: Av Venezuela, Lieutenant Ferré, Progress, Av Arequipa, Gomez de la Torre Av, Av La Marina, San Martin, Avenida Salaverry, Mariscal Cáceres, Socabaya Malecon and Avenida Venezuela.

This system is completed with some main roads as Cayma Av, Av Arequipa, Goyeneche Avenue, Kennedy Avenue, Dolores Av, Av Lambramani, flows carrying local roads to bus and vice versa.

In 2011 in the city of Arequipa are registered 182,000 vehicles according to the Superintendency of Public Registries, Stat of the Superintendency of Public Registries in the same year the fleet was increased to 64 000 vehicles, of which 12 000 360 were recorded as new units. new cars sold in 2011 (Automobile Association of Peru)


Integrated Transport System
A public transport system is under construction in Arequipa. Implemented by the Ministry of Transport and Communications and the Provincial Municipality of Arequipa, the system consists of a network scheme called rationalized based two trunk routes operated transit buses Rapid Transit (BRT) called ArequipaBus interacting with structuring routes and feeder networks.

  • Exclusive trunk route or corridor, consisting of two segregated lanes along which articulated buses (BRT), its northern terminus is located in the area of Rio Seco in the district of Cerro Colorado and its southern terminal at Socabaya district.
  • Feeder Routes: 43 routes formed by converging on the trunk route, nine of which operate in the northern and southern suburbs of the city and 34 in intermediate areas.
  • Structuring routes, comprising 35 routes and according to its characteristics provide a direct service with an origin and destiny.

Its opening is planned for the first quarter of 2014 coordinating all routes operate a payment system and an interconnected system of passenger flow control.


Air transport
Arequipa is served by located in the district of about northwest of downtown, for its features and facilities is one of the best in the country,Mincetur. "Export Investment Guide", p. 26. from 2011 to through a grant administered by the consortium "Andean South Airports". Airport Concession South Andean

In 2011 introduced a passenger flow of 1,025,466 passengers between domestic flights and international and a load flow of 2193 tons in 2010, becoming the second in the southern region in the fluid passenger traffic after , city, and third in the country.

The airport holds daily air connections with the cities of , Cusco, and and international destinations such as , , and , along with regular flights coming to ,

In 2011 there are four airlines that offer their services on domestic flights, with a total of 38 daily flights in low season its main destinations and 52 daily flights in high season. The company makes three flights each reguales international destinations (Arica, Iquique, Antofagata, Santiago de Chile) per week, and next to the city of with codeshare.


Rail transport
The railway network system has been operating in Arequipa since 1871, enables communication between the coast and the mountains and different levels of progress and expansion of population centers located in its path. The system consists of the lines: Cusco-Puno-Arequipa and Arequipa-Mollendo. Is of great strategic importance in a multimodal communication system in the southern macro region, since it is the most effective and economical way to transport heavy loads over long distances.


Bus transport
The International Terrapuerto Arequipa is located in the district of James Hunter from which the city and the region of Arequipa is connected by land throughout Peru and , , and

Apart from having the International Bus Station Bus Terminal has the Arequipa regional usage and services towards the mountains and the coast. In the city of Arequipa interregional routes exist, consisting Uchumayo variant that serves as the connection with the coast, out to that serves as a connection to the Sierra and the departure of Jesus which connects to the highlands of Arequipa and area.


Twin towns – Sister cities
The city of Arequipa is actively involved in town twinning policy reason has had throughout its history various with different cities and regions. The twin cities of Arequipa are:

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See also


Comments


Bibliography

Books


Publications

External links


References
    ^ (1988). 9789802440177 .
    ^ (1991). 9780521266529
    ^ (1997). 9788476352786 .
    ^ (2019). 9789972510977 .
    ^ (2019). 9789972403156
    ^ (1994). 9788489034013 .
    ^ (1997). 9789972420627 .
    ^ (1998). 9789972460616 .
    ^ (2019). 9789879393406 .

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