Arequipa is the second most industrializedMincetur. "Export Investment Guide", p. 17 and commercial city of Peru.Chanfreau, p. 40 Its industrial activity includes manufactured goods and camelid wool products for export. The city has close trade ties with Chile, Bolivia and Brazil.
The city was founded on August 15, 1540 by Garcí Manuel de Carbajal as 'Villa Hermosa de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción". By Royal Decree of September 22, 1541, King Charles V of Spain granted Arequipa the title of 'City'. During the Colonial period, Arequipa became highly important for its economic prosperity and for its loyalty to the Spanish Crown.Linares Málaga, p. 115.
After Peru gained its independence from Spain, the city acquired greater prominence in politics, being the center of uprisings. Many Peruvian intellectual, political, and religious figures became prominent in this era. Moreover, it was declared the capital city of Peru in 1835 and 1883.
The historic center of Arequipa spans an area of 332 hectaresProvincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Compendium of rules of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 80. and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Its historic heritage, natural scenery and cultural sites, make the city a national and international tourist destination. Its religious, colonial, and republican architectural styles blend European and native characteristics into a unique style called "Escuela Arequipeña".
A local tradition states that the Inca Mayta Capac received a petition from his subjects to reach the valley of the River Chili. They asked him for permission to stay in the region as they were impressed by the beauty of the landscape and the mild climate. The Inca answered "Ari qhipay" (Quechua: "Yes, stay").
Another similar tale says that when the Europeans first arrived there, they pointed at the ground and asked for the name of the land. the local chief, not understanding the question, assumed they were asking for a permission to sit down and gave a positive answer, which sounded like "Arequipa".Lev Uspensky, «Имя дома твоего»
Chroniclers Blas Valera and Inca Garcilaso de la Vega suggested that the name of the city came from an ancient Aymara phrase, "ari qquepan", supposedly meaning "trumpet sound", in reference to the sound produced from blowing into an empty conch-like seashell.
Another possible origin of the city's name comes from the Aymara language phrase "qhipaya ari" or "Ari qipa" (from 'ari': acute, sharp or pointed; and 'qhipaya': behind), which translates to "behind the peak," referring to the nearby volcano, Misti. PRIMERA PARTE 2004.pdf Toponymy "Arequipa"
During this time, major irrigation channels were built within the valley of the Chili river, which allowed the development of agriculture by means of terraces built on both sides of the river. The Yarabaya and Chimbe tribes settled in the city's current location, and together with the Cabana and Collagua tribes they developed an agrarian economy in the desert valley.
The mitimae system of settlements in the Inca Empire was not related to the act of founding of a town. The Inca, when conquering a new land, didn't order the founding of new cities; instead, they replaced most of the native population with settlers loyal to the Inca, while moving that native population to other places within the Inca Empire. A Hispanic version of the events, detailed by chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega, who has been described as historically inaccurate, suggests that around 1170 Huayna Capac stopped with his army in the valley of the Chili River, which he called Ari qepay - an expression meaning "let's stay here". Lands were then distributed among three thousand families who founded the towns of Yanahuara, Cayma, Tiabaya, Socabaya, Characato and others, which still exist nowadays.
At the time of its foundation, Arequipa had already a city council, because the foundation of the town occurred in part as a relocation of Villa Hermosa de Camana, a coastal city. The name was partially conserved as Villa Hermosa de Arequipa. Charles V of Germany and I of Spain gave the town a status of 'city' by Royal Decree on 22 September 1541. The relocation efforts were led by Garci Manuel de Carbajal, who was selected as the political authority for the foundation of the new town.
Colonial authorities were flexible concerning liberal thinking and higher education in Arequipa. An example of this is the foundation of the Academia Lauretana de Ciencias y Artes (Lauretan Academy of Sciences and Arts) on 10 December 1821, which was also home to the first printing office in the region. The main members of the academy: Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro, Aparicio Gómez Sánchez, Francisco de Paula Gonzalez Vigil, Gualberto Valdivia, Manuel Amat y Leon and Juan de Dios Salazar took sides in favor of the independence from Spain. The result of the activity of the Lauretan Academy was the foundation of the National College of American Independence and the National University of San Agustin created in 1827.
Since its Spanish founding and over three centuries, the population of the city was mostly of Spanish origin, which represented a faithful following of Spain. Another factor was geography, because of its location Arequipa was not heavily influenced by libertarian movements, and also kept the city distant to other cities with big Aboriginal population.
Arequipa did not have an important official status during the colonial period although it did play an important economic role. During colonial times its location was at the crossroads of the trade route of silver and after independence, the wool trade route. This privileged location allowed Arequipa to accumulate administrative, commercial and industrial power which benefited local social classes committed to the future of the city. Thus, Arequipa not only was the birthplace of significant political figures in Peru, but also the scene of several important political movements that achieved national prominence.
From the 1820s until the end of the decade, Peruvian society was in a transitional period right after its independence from Spain. Also during this time, the pillars that supported the economy of Arequipa – manufacture of wool products and the operation of the Southern Railway – began to decline. For these and other reasons, Arequipa saw the rise of a number of political leaders shaped by a growing middle class of professionals, intellectuals and technocrats, who played a role in the defense of the legal and economic stability of the city. It was during this period that the population of the city increased significantly and its citizens had a prominent political participation thus establishing the importance of Arequipa as the country's second city, and in frequent rivalry with Lima.
In 1835, General Orbegoso moved his government from Lima to Arequipa, by presidential decree on 13 January 1835. Meanwhile in Lima, General Felipe Santiago Salaverry named himself Supreme Chief of the Republic, arguing that the country was leaderless, i.e. without President, as Orbegoso was outside the capital.Decree assuming command of the Republic General Felipe Santiago Salaverry, February 25, 1835 . Orbegoso then sought support from then Bolivian President Andrés de Santa Cruz against the claims of Salaverry. Deciding battles between troops and Salaverry Confederation were in Uchumayo, near the city of Arequipa, on 4 February 1836, where he defeated Salaverry, and Socabaya, three days later, on 7 February, beating Santa Cruz. On 18 February 1836, Salaverry and his top aides were shot in the main square of the city.
After expressing their rejection of the Confederation, Chile sent under General Ventura Blanco Encalada a military expedition that reached the territory arequipeño 12 October 1837. Before going into battle were negotiations that allowed signing a peace treaty in Paucarpata, adjacent to the city district, on 17 November, between the Chilean military chief Gen. Quiroz, of the Confederation. Chile did not endorse the treaty and sent a second expedition under General Bulnes, the following year, in support of Ramón Castilla and other Peruvian military leaders opposed to Santa Cruz.
In the following years the city hosted insurrectionary successive military coups. On 20 February 1843, there was proclaimed as the supreme head of the Republic General Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco, whose ambitions ended with the Battle of Carmen Alto on 22 July 1844.
On 14 April 1854 from Arequipa insirió as interim president General Ramon Castilla, who managed to take power. Against this de facto government, on 1 November 1856 took up arms again in Arequipa, General Vivanco. After failing his military expeditions to Lima and Trujillo, had to return to Arequipa in late 1857 to organize its defense. The forces commanded by Miguel de San Román Vivanco faced in the battle of Paucarpata on 29 June 1857.
Montero's government had a "National Congress" installed on 22 April 1883 in the cloisters of the College Independence and National University of San Agustin, a military support consists of all males 20 to 60 years that formed an army of 4,000 men and 8,000 National Guardsmen to 10 000 and an important financial support based on quotas and taxes erogacione both the economic elite and the various southern agricultural districts.
However, Peru's Arequipa forces revolted against the authority of Lizardo Montero. On 25 October 1883, a popular uprising overthrew the government and military of Lizardo Montero Flores who retired in Arequipa to La Paz, bringing Chilean troops under Jose Velasquez occupied the city on 29 October, this being delivered by the diplomatic corps of the city.
The city was also the scene of brave civic protests against arbitrariness. The two most important were against the Odria, one on 17 June 1950, featuring students of the College of American Independence and the second for nine days of December 1955. As usual earthquakes in the department had special significance earthquakes in 1868,1878 and 1913, for the severe injury and damage that resulted.
The city's economic development was favored by the railroad Arequipa Islay built by Henry Meiggs. This was linked to the railway linking Arequipa, Cuzco and Juliaca. The first telegraph system in the region, which connected Mollendo, Arequipa and Vitor, was established in 1908. Drinking water was supplied to the city with an aqueduct leading Yumina mineral waters, opened in 1914. In 1931 he built roads Yura Arequipa-Puno and Arequipa. In Chili to from the city and 4300 masl dam was built to irrigate El Fraile 3000 ha in the plains of La Joya. This hardworking engineering work was completed in 1938. In 1940 he inaugurated the modern Alfredo Rodriguez Ballon Airport.
In the mid-nineteenth century, the expansion of international demand helped reorganize the landlords and warlords colonial exploitation of indigenous peasants in Puno through the expansion of large estates while a circle of Arequipa controlled the marketing and processing wool at the expense of rural communities.
The momentum of this market, broader than deep, Arequipa is built from the second half of the nineteenth century as a city of middle classes, merchants, artisans, professionals, home to an elite regional macro in modern business city located. In time, the elite arequipeña happens to collect, process and export wool, producing, acquiring lands medium farmers or indigenous highland and developing an operating system supported by income. This modern twentieth-century Arequipa, old families, industries, large middle classes and workers organized in unions, is constructed as a bourgeois city, civic, democratic.
In the early twentieth century intellectual groups emerged, such as the "Group Aquelarre" movement, whose demands were focused on political decentralization and a regional identity which coincided with a resurgence of anti-limeño/anti-centralist sentiment. These groups were disassociated from issues related to social justice and economic reform and ultimately came to an abrupt end as a result of the Great Depression. Prominent leaders also arose such as Victor Andres Belaunde and José Luis Bustamante y Rivero, who left their mark as strong-willed constitutionalists in early 1930, and from 1945 to 1948 when José Luis Bustamante y Rivero served as president of Peru.
In 1945 Bustamante y Rivero became the president of Peru thanks to an alliance with the APRA party and lobbying from Arequipa and other supporters in Lima and other parts of the country. However, the alliance with APRA collapsed early in his presidency weakening his government and giving rise to a military coup by Odría who suppressed APRA and its leaders.
In 1950 the lawyer Francisco Mostajo (a prominent liberal from Arequipa since 1901) led a failed revolution in Arequipa against the dictator general Odria. In 1962 and in 1963 Fernando Belaunde Terry and his Popular Action party with the support of another party originally from Arequipa, the Christian Democrats, won the presidency of Peru.
Law 15,923 of 10 January 1966 authorized the creation of the industrial park of Arequipa, important motivator mediated regional manufacturing.
In the early years of this century the historic center of Arequipa was declared Cultural Heritage of Humanity, there was also an 8.4 magnitude earthquake on 23 June 2001, one of the largest earthquakes in the world since 1900,The highest magnitude earthquakes since 1900. and of greater magnitude in the history of Peru because of this earthquake, many of the historic buildings in Arequipa were damaged or destroyed.
Leslie Bethell emphasizes the importance of revolutions of Arequipa stating:
This revolutionary fame known among Peruvians still won it through numerous rebellions where almost all revolutions, some with national impact, armed themselves to defend local autonomy, compared to a centralizing capital more and more taking up arms in the revolutions following:
Since the 1900s the rebellious spirit Arequipa, reborn from the pen of a group of intellectuals, a new generation of liberal anticlericalism characterized by a very Catholic society and opposition to economic and political centralization of the country, this opposition Arequipa to the political and economic centralization of the country naturally led to a constitutional position in the 1930s and the subsequent adoption of ideologies Christian Democrats in the 1940s and 1950s. Lawyers and projected a strong church influence in politics Arequipa, as well as the middle class gained further declined participation to economic prosperity in the south of the country.
These new interests take political structure more clearly inside the country whose strongest political structure was the city of Arequipa, and their potential strengths of this national election that was reflected by strength in the candidacy of Fernando Belaunde Terry in the 1956 presidential elections. The southern region, dominated by the city of Arequipa has a long history of separatism and the Republic of Peru, Arequipa and the upper class of the twentieth century has preserved a distinctive regional identity.
The central part of the city is crossed by the Chili River from north to south; to the north and east of Arequipa are the Andes mountains, while to the south and west there are minor mountain ranges associated to the Andes. The valley of Arequipa, open toward the coast, plays a key role in allowing Arequipa to be a city that strategically links the coastal and highland regions of southern Peru.
A series of volcanic cones dominates the skyline from the city. These volcanoes form mountains like the Misti, Pikchu Pikchu and Chachani. This rugged Andean western edge of South America is characterized by thick layers of volcanic lava that cover large areas.Regional Government of Arequipa. "Analysis of the state and of the determinants of health", p. 19.
The average relative humidity is 46%, with an average high of 70% in the summer season and a minimum average of 27% during the seasons of autumn, winter and spring, according to data from the weather station at Goyeneche Hospital.National Environmental Council. "To clear the air", p. 21.
The winds are influenced by a system of local winds and the passage of frontal systems of low atmospheric pressure, which are conditioned by the topographical surrounding the valley where the city is. These winds occur mainly in the evening and early morning; mountain breezes flow in a north-east direction and in the course of the day valley breezes dominate with a South-West direction. The wind velocity along the day fluctuates between 1.5 m / s and 2.5 m / s.National Environmental Council. "To clear the air", pp. 21–22.
The writer Pedro Davalos and Lisson, in his book The First Century contains the description given by Paz Soldan in 1855:
Because of this, there is no doubt that the former "Villa Hermosa de Arequipa" he intended to occupy the regional capital. The city became a connecting link between Cuzco, ponds and the ocean. And in fact the city of Arequipa in the exploitation phase of silver in Potosi, has since become "'a major logistics hub." The urban setting near the present district of San Lazaro, where was erected the first chapel of the city occupied an area of 850 x 875 meters.Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 12.
The square foundation, located three blocks from the river and occupied an eccentric position in the founding and checkerboard patterns as Hispanic was the focal point of the city. Apples was occupied by four or eight lots, and were distributed according to their importance in the new neighborhood. With the passage of time some religious institutions came to occupy a block as the case of the Convent of Santa Catalina and San Francisco Monastery.
Urban architecture is extended with new construction, and moved the market town located in the Plaza de Armas to the park Duhamel and later to its present location at the Convent of the Order of St. Camillus agonizing Parents, between 1905 and 1910 Goyeneche Hospital was built, also built bridges linking the city center with the district as the bridge Yanahuara Real. By the year 1940, the first project was proposed expansion and urban facilities. This plan envisaged the creation of a ring of houses greater than existing growth plan consolidating regarding radial and concentric paths regarding land use, neighborhoods were enabled Cuarto Centenario and Selva Alegre.Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 14. He was also given a boost to urban facilities with the construction of the Municipal Theatre, the Hotel de Turistas, the Municipal Library, the Athenaeum Theatre, American Independence College, Campus of the Universidad Nacional de San Agustin.
Until the late 1950s there were two factors that substantially changed the trends of urban growth, the earthquakes in the years of 1958 and 1960 and the drought plateau, which accelerated peripheral growth.Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 15.
This period starts with greater force the displacement of resident population sectors, there is a shift in the industry that was located in the Barrio del Solar and El Barrio ObreroProvincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 24. following the creation of the industrial park, causing a process outsourcing of the city center towards commercial activities primarily in the informal sector.Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 6. An example of this exodus is the displacement of some educational institutions that previously were located in the city center as the National University of San Agustin in the year of 1962 and residential sectors to consolidate the periphery to the center of the city as a dynamic central business district.
One of the first population census in the city date back to 1796 where there were 37,241 inhabitants in the 'pen' which corresponded to 22 207 Spanish, 5929 Indians, mestizos 4908, 2487 and 1710 slave castes. At the end of the first half of the twentieth century, the effects of momentum multplicadores to Arequipa by the works of 1940 demonstrated very quickly which was clearest symptom population growth, as annual population growth of 1.1% for the period of 1876 to 1917 tripled to 3.3% annually in the period that goes from 1940 to 1960.
In the early years of the second half of the twentieth century the city would rise from 85,000 in 1940 to 158,000 in 1961 in an unprecedented population explosion process, whose possible reasons have to do with the establishment of the first industrial enterprises generated as opening import substitution due to World War II and the transformation of agricultural production. The demographic trend is substantially modified by two factors: the earthquake of 1958 and the drought plateau, accelerating migration and urbanization, and peripheral growth that lasts until today. The population explosion was enhanced by the rearrangement of urban space after the earthquakes was really impressive and Arequipa's population doubled in a decade. The 158 000 inhabitants in 1961, would be 309 000 in 1972 and almost 500,000 in 1983, the invasion of rural areas generated a remarkable process in which subsistent farming actively participates in the urban cycle.
Evolution of the population of Arequipa in the period between 1796 and 2012
From the twentieth century in the city have developed the industries related to the primary sector, highlighting the textile and agricultural industries. They constitute a center of exchange and mediation in the southern Andes, serving as a link between the coast and the mountains. Metropolitan Strategic Plan of Arequipa, Arequipa Economics
In the period 2003–2008 was the "City with greatest economic growth in Latin America", according to the report in 2009 of "America Economia" presenting a percentage change in GDP per capita of 66.1%. Also in 2007–2008 was the city with the highest percentage change in GDP in Latin America with a variation of 9.59%.
|Source: American Journal Economics. Special Cities|
According to the "Specialized Household Survey on Employment Levels" has the largest amount of "Economically able to work" within the country amounting to 625 547 people, and the most economically active population (PEA) which amounts to 376 764 people having a same employment rate above the national average with an average monthly income of 928 soles whose main areas of activity in which play is manufacturing (12.9%), trade (23%) and non-personal services (36.6%).
The contribution to the national sales tax is 20.3%, in solidarity tax on 17% being the second national taxpayer in these taxes. Arequipa has a production structure strongly biased to trade and services sectors, the primary sector of agriculture and mining accounted for 29.6% of GDP, the secondary sector of manufacturing industry and 20.7% in the tertiary sector and trade and services 49.7%, it was strengthened in recent years by a lack of productive investment.
The city's industrial sector comprises industrial parks among which may be mentioned the "Parque Industrial de Arequipa" orientaado to large and medium enterprises, the "Industrial Park APIMA" to small businesses, the "Industrial Park Rio Seco "and industrial areas in the Alfonso Ugarte Av, Alternative Uchumayo and North Cone. Finally, there is a consolidated sector and planned and Ladrilleras Umapalca Yarabamba way. Spatial occupancy for industrial zones cover an area of 286 hectares.National Environmental Council. "To clear the air", p. 26.
Furthermore, two other public television stations began to operate in Arequipa: Radio Television Continental (Channel 6) in 1962 and Compañía de Radiodifusión Arequipa (Channel 8) in 1987 (broadcasting as ATV Sur since 2012).
Among the newspapers that are printed in the city, El Pueblo is the oldest (active since 1 January 1905) and the second oldest in the country. Writers like Percy Gibson and Alberto Hidalgo, and politicians like Hector Cornejo Chavez, Mario Polar Ugarteche and Alfonso Montesinos started their careers in this newspaper.
In 2007 in the existing universities housed a university population of 70,894 students and colleges university not a population of 56 087 students, becoming the city with the highest number of home university of the country after the capital and the city with the highest population percentage-wise university of Peru. The population categorized with university and complete university reached 108 823 and 70 252 students respectively.
Additionally, in the city are located branches from other universities, as a branch of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, subsidiaries of Néstor Cáceres Velásquez Andean University, Technological University of Peru, Peruvian Wings University; San Pedro Private University, the University del Mar, Chile, the University of Chimbote Los Angeles, School of Business San Francisco Xavier, the Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and San Martin de Porres University for example-that add universities established in the city of Arequipa.
! colspan="4" bgcolor="#e0e0e0"
|UniversitiesNational Assembly of Rectors. "University Statistical Data", p. 19.National Assembly of Rectors. "University Statistical Data", p. 20.|
|National University of San Agustin||1828||24188||Arequipa|
|Catholic University of Santa Maria||1963||12268||Arequipa|
|San Pablo Catholic University||2004||4769||Arequipa|
|San Francisco University||2010||–||Arequipa|
|University of La Salle||Maestría en Ingeniería del Software Aplicada||–||Arequipa|
|Private University of Health Sciences||Maestría en Ingeniería del Software Aplicada||–||Arequipa|
|Private Autonomous University of South||Maestría en Ingeniería del Software Aplicada||–||Arequipa|
|Javier Prado University||Maestría en Ingeniería del Software Aplicada||–||Arequipa|
|San Francisco Xavier University||2010||–||Arequipa|
|Alas Peruanas University||2004||9743||Lima|
|José Carlos Mariátegui University||Maestría en Ingeniería del Software Aplicada||–||Lima|
|Néstor Cáceres Velásquez University||2006||1038||Puno|
|Technological University of Peru||2007||1201||Lima|
|San Pedro Private University||2010||–||Chimbote|
|University Los Angeles de Chimbote||2009||344||Chimbote|
|University of the Sea||2009||–||Chile|
Unlike other regional sentiments within Peru, Arequipa's regionalism was connected to the fight against centralism:
This proud regionalism, expressed in numerous insurrections or revolutions that have earned the city the nickname "Ciudad Caudillo" (Warlord City) or better explained by Peruvian historian Jorge Basadre: "Arequipa is a gun pointed at the heart of Lima ', when making a reference to the antagonism between both cities.
His second contribution is the Spanish state and Indo-American, who initially had applications in the size of walls, faces carved churches and altars, des painting appeared as mestizo, which is a naïve tried to recreate the Christian symbolism . The art of deep chiaroscuro, anatomical and ingenuity hieratic provisions lasted for many years since the European Renaissance failed hard because of geographical distance, but so that the increased media and travel advances and ado came to the third stage, which is the art academic and romantic, then arequipeñas wealthy families brought European art, mostly from France, England and Spain, the art, but not high-level teachers, gave the foundation for what would advance the fourth state of our history of fine arts, Carlos Baca Flor, Masias and Reynoso Vinatea preamble contemporary art Teodoro Nunez Ureta, Ureta Alejandro Nunez and Luis Palao Berastain among youth of that based on the short edge new American realism and impressionism .
After the fifth stage amorphous art, symbolist and other current and conceptual styles imported from North America and Europe with vertigo by mass media, among the master of this new era are Ramiro Pareja, Germán Rondon, Ricardo Córdova, the Evaristo and brothers Dario Callo Anco, Erick Huanca, Juan Carlos Zevallos, Companoca and other young master that currently contribute at various isms and boundaries of what is visual art. The Museum of Contemporary Art and the Museum of Arequipa Fundo del Fierro are good benchmarks.
[[File:Pedro Paulet, padre de la Aeronautica.PNG|thumb| Pedro Paulet, scientist born in Arequipa in 1874, was one of the first to experiment with rocket propulsion. ]]
The eating habits are characterized by a slow diet for each day of the week, this fact shows that in most restaurants and picanterías gets used to prepare on Monday: Chaque, Tuesday: Chairo, Wednesday: Chochoca, Thursday: Suck Colorado or potato flour, Friday: Suck, Saturday: stew or Timpusca and Sunday: white broth or Pebre loins. This practice follows a global context where food has established fixed schedules and are respected by the population and most restaurants and picanterías city and moved to the availability of specific ingredients in local markets to meet demand according to the day of the week.
Among the most popular dishes are the shrimp Suck, Ocopa Arequipa, Rocoto filling Adobo Arequipa, Single cheese, potato cake, fried ribs, Cuy chactado, Cauche cheese, Locro pectoris, Chaque, among others. For dessert highlight the cream cheese, donuts, convent sweets, chocolates, and beverages such as, Chicha de Jora, the region anise (anise or aniseed liqueur).
Poetry is heading towards the teaching of Manuel González Prada vibrant, and there are poems full of ideas and concepts Jorge Polar, philosopher and jurist, author of Arequipa. Description and social studies (1891), whose statement: "Years Arequipa has fought bravely to win free institutions for the Fatherland. Not born in vain at the foot of a volcano ", summarizes the feeling that inaugurated Mariano Melgar and that in one way or another, is present in Arequipa literature of the nineteenth and much of the twentieth, and the romantic voice of Francisco Mostajo, popular leader, who openly criticized the prevailing tone and advocated without success, the vital airs of modernism in its statements to the wind, 1908.
The twentieth century imposes rhythm and casually characteristic of youth. In this area appears Group The Coven, with distinctly modernist aspirations. Their representatives make up a generation varied, but a common concern for change. They are in their ranks: Percy Gibson, Cesar Rodriguez Atahualpa, and Renato Federico Morales Agüero Well Rivera. This group Arequipa, sort of "colónidos" (Colónida group of Lima, founded by Abraham Valdelomar in the decade of 10), to which are added the poets featured Alberto Guillen and Alberto Hidalgo latter a vanguard that has not yet received the recognition it deserves, assumes a freer language, away from the prevailing rhetoric and romantic. His affiliation would be closer to some avant-garde notions.
The gathering is organized in the halls, and the talents of the poets of the time are not indexed for arequipeño masterfully, but Valdelomar Abraham, who evokes an evening of 1910 in the article "The throne of the sun. Notes of a journey." The Conde de Lemos highlights in it to Percy Gibson author of the verses of the famous waltz Melgar, who put music Benigno Ballon, who invites Colónida write in the journal.
In this Gibson he published the poem "Democratic Gospel":
For its part, the paradoxes Tower (1926), Cesar Rodriguez Atahualpa, which pays homage to his homeland, as well as his "Song of Arequipa" (1918), set the tone of the regionalist pride to which we have referred at the beginning. This group accounted mamuel happened that Gallego Sanz, brothers Jorge and Xavier Bacacorzo and Guillermo Mercado (1904–1983), the latter poet who started within indigenismo and published, among other books, Golden Soul (1925) A chullo of poems (1928) and Song of Sachaca (1940). The prose had its greatest exponent in the first half of the twentieth century, in the figure of Augusto Morales Aguirre (1888–1957), who left as proof of his masterly novel The People of the sun (the first is around 1924), which managed continental resonance. His works include Dream Flower (1906) and Prayer (1913), poems, and Justice of Huayna Capac (1919), novel.
Scholar and journalist, Aguirre Morales worked in newspapers and Universal Chronicle. Among his contemporaries are Juan Manuel Osorio and Juan Manuel Polar. Later, Arequipa also produce a noted literary critic, internationally recognized, Enrique Cornejo Quea (1936–1996) who applied the concept so sharply of "diversity" in American literary studies. Born in Arequipa in 1931, Oswaldo Reynoso released in 1961, "The innocent stories", and in 1964, the novel "In October there are no miracles, who have had multiple reprints. Owner of a poetic prose breath, then posted The beetle and man "(1970)", In search of Aladdin "(1993) and" The eunuchs immortal "(1995). But undoubtedly the most renowned Arequipa in the field of letters is Mario Vargas Llosa (1936), and author among other texts of the Hero (1964), The Green House (1966), The War of the End of the World (1981), The Feast of the Goat (2000) and inspired by the life of Flora Tristan, The Paradise on the other corner (2003).
Arequipa maintains an intense literary life, to mention a few names of different generations, quote Jose Ruiz Rosas, poet who, although born in Lima (1928), developed his poetic valuable in the city of Arequipa and currently resides in this, among others, the poems Grocery (1978), Poems (1980), gathered Poetry (1992) in the White City; Oswaldo Chanove (1953), poet, author of The Hero and his relationship with the heroine (1983), Study on the action and passion (1987) y.el Pale Rider (1994), or Carlos Herrera (1961), the original focus narrator who posted black and white (1995) and blind Argonaut Chronicles (2002).
In the Republican era include Manuel Aguirre who assimilated the teachings of Chopin and Schuman to give them some melanconlia and simplicity to his music. Similarly, Luis Duncker Lavalle-a master pianist who can speak both academic folk-music as Octavio Polar, Manuel Aguirre, David H. Molina, who spread his orchestral works with the Association of Arequipa and Aurelio Diaz Espinoza who was author of the Hymn of Arequipa. Also, with a more modernist highlights Carlos Sanchez Malaga. Later in the twentieth century include Roberto Ramirez-Ortiz Zevallos, Roberto Carpio Valdez, Juan Francisco Ballon Ballon, Armando Sanchez-Málaga and Benigno Ballón Farfán González, author of numerous yaravíes, sailors and popular waltz Melgar.
Most Faithful One aspect that distinguished Arequipa from other areas of Peru and Lima in particular is the explicit public commitment of the city to the Spanish crown and the close following of its directives. This phenomenon was called "fidelism" and had some notable defenders in Francisco de Paula Quiroz, Mariano de Rivero, Nicólas Fernández, and José Miguel de Aubrey. Since its Spanish foundation and over three centuries the city was mostly inhabited by families of Spanish origin. One reason that contributed to maintaining and strengthening fidelism was obviously the prevalence of Spanish people in high society and their representative organizations. Another factor was geographical because given the city's location it was not likely to be influenced by regions with libertarian movements or by areas with large concentrations of indigenous people.
The ruling classes and city leaders were always faithful and loyal to the Spanish crown during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In the eighteenth century, upon the rise of movements and rebellions from the indigenous and mestizo population, Arequipa retained its political balance. During the Tupac Amaru II uprising the city assembled at its own expense a column of troops that helped destroy the siege of the city of La Paz. This earned the city the epithet of "Restorative province of the Collao ». For these services the King Carlos IV also issued a royal decree in the city of San Lorenzo on 5 December 1805 in which he conferred the title and the name of "Most Faithful" to the city.
Excellence The city received a treatment of "excellence" by a royal decree issued in the city of Madrid on 16 November 1818. This distinction was granted following reports submitted by Don Hipólito Unanue, deputy of the province of Arequipa and the Municipality of the city, of Arequipa's involvement in defending the royal cause in the uprising of the city of La Paz in 1809.
Heroic City of the Free In the republican era, a decree issued by General Orbegoso ordered that the department and its capital city be denominated "Department of Law" and "heroic city of the free". General Orbegoso installed his government in Arequipa in 13 January 1835 and, as a consequence, General Felipe Santiago Salaverry named himself Supreme Chief of the Republic with the pretext that the country was leaderless, i.e. without President, as Orbegoso was outside the capital of Lima. Decree assuming command of the Republic General Felipe Santiago Salaverry, February 25, 1835 .
The city, as the regional capital, is home to the Regional Government of Arequipa. It is also headquarters of the different regional offices of ministries that make up the Civil Government of Peru.
|List of mayors of Arequipa in recent years ! Period ! Mayor ! Political party|
|1994–1995||Fernando Sebastián Ramírez Alfaro||Neighborhood Unity Front|
|1996–1998||Roger Luis Caceres Peréz||FRENATRACA|
|1999–2002||Juan Manuel Guillen Benavides||Arequipa.Tradition and future|
|2003–2006||Peyson Yamel Romero Peralta||APRA|
|2007–2011||Simon Balbuena Marroquín||PNP|
|2011–2015||Zegarra Alfredo Tejada||Arequipa Reborn|
The city is the "Legal Capital of Peru" and "Official Headquarters of the Constitutional Court", as a result of a project decentralist the first vice presidential candidate, Manuel Seoane Corrales, who proposed the initiative of the city of Arequipa was the headquarters of the Superior Court of Justice, which would make the city was the Legal Capital of Peru. Due to the military coup that began in Peru, the initiative was in the air, to be reborn after the election of the Constituent Assembly in 1978. This time, the initiative did not succeed due to the high opposition, but later concluded that Arequipa would host the then "Constitutional Court", as stated in Article 304 º of the Constitution of Peru, 1979: "The Constitutional Court is based in the city of Arequipa ".
Later, by the Constitution of 1993, created the "Constitutional Court", which, according to its Charter, is based in Arequipa, although under Regulation Regulatory Constitutional Court.Regulation Regulatory Constitutional Court, p. 2.
! align="center" width="20"
|No. ! align="center" width="150"||District ! align="center" width="20"||No. ! align="center" width="150"||District|
|5||Yanahuara||11||JL Bustamante y Rivero|
|6||Alto Selva Alegre||12||Mariano Melgar|
In the city itself is a stylistic school called "School Arequipa" of crucial importance in the region and whose influence reached Potosi. This school is characterized by profuse decoration planiform textilográfica and the open spaces and the design and size of their covers, which differ in these aspects of Cuzco and Lima covers.
The architecture in the historic center is characterized by the prominence of ashlar, the use of which begins in the last third of the s. XVI. This volcanic stone, white or pink exceptionally soft, lightweight, and weatherproof, emerged as a seismic structural solution. The ashlar was unable to take the early years, except for the covers of the main church and some houses. The original city was built with adobe, masonry, sticks and straw roofs or mud pie. Houses of this type were made until the nineteenth century and were common in the eighteenth century, some remain in the original district of San Lazaro. Later came the brick and tile houses with tile found in the Monastery of Santa Catalina. The cataclysm of 1582 settled these systems and raised the earthquake reconstruction. Then came the ashlar as prime structural solution.Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 18.
Major earthquakes which milestones in the formation of Arequipa architecture. You can mention five periods:
Outside this monumental natural areas that stand out are the following:
These pathways longitudinal nature are interconnected by bus routes, forming a ring around the central area consists of: Av Venezuela, Lieutenant Ferré, Progress, Av Arequipa, Gomez de la Torre Av, Av La Marina, San Martin, Avenida Salaverry, Mariscal Cáceres, Socabaya Malecon and Avenida Venezuela.
This system is completed with some main roads as Cayma Av, Av Arequipa, Goyeneche Avenue, Kennedy Avenue, Dolores Av, Av Lambramani, flows carrying local roads to bus and vice versa.
In 2011 in the city of Arequipa are registered 182,000 vehicles according to the Superintendency of Public Registries, Stat of the Superintendency of Public Registries in the same year the fleet was increased to 64 000 vehicles, of which 12 000 360 were recorded as new units. new cars sold in 2011 (Automobile Association of Peru)
In 2011 introduced a passenger flow of 1,025,466 passengers between domestic flights and international and a load flow of 2193 tons in 2010, becoming the second in the southern region in the fluid passenger traffic after Alejandro Velasco Astete International Airport, Cuzco city, and third in the country.
The airport holds daily air connections with the cities of Lima, Cusco, Tacna and Juliaca and international destinations such as Arica, Iquique, Antofagasta and Santiago de Chile, along with regular flights coming to Buenos Aires, Argentina.
In 2011 there are four airlines that offer their services on domestic flights, with a total of 38 daily flights in low season its main destinations and 52 daily flights in high season. The company makes three Sky Airline flights each reguales international destinations (Arica, Iquique, Antofagata, Santiago de Chile) per week, and next to the city of Buenos Aires with Argentine Airlines codeshare.
Apart from having the International Bus Station Bus Terminal has the Arequipa regional usage and services towards the mountains and the coast. In the city of Arequipa interregional routes exist, consisting Uchumayo variant that serves as the connection with the coast, out to Yura that serves as a connection to the Sierra and the departure of Jesus which connects to the highlands of Arequipa and Chiguata area.