Product Code Database
Example Keywords: ipod -underclothes $54-184
barcode-scavenger
   » » Wiki: Yorkshire
Tag Wiki 'Yorkshire'.
Tag

Yorkshire ( ) is an area of which was historically a county. It corresponds to the ceremonial counties of East Riding of Yorkshire, , , and , which are all part of the Yorkshire and the Humber region, and parts of Greater Manchester, , , and . Despite no longer being used for administration, Yorkshire retains a strong regional identity.

The historic county was bordered by County Durham to the north, the to the east, , , , and to the south, and Lancashire and to the west. It was the largest by area in the . The county was subdivided into three ridings – North, East, and West – which from the Middle Ages began to be used for local government functions. Between 1889 and 1974 the ridings were administrative counties.

is observed annually on 1 August and is a celebration of the general culture of Yorkshire, including its history and dialect. Its name is used by several institutions, for example the Royal Yorkshire Regiment of the British Army, in sport, and in the media. The emblem of Yorkshire is a white rose, which was originally the of the British royal House of York. The county is sometimes referred to as "God's own country". Yorkshire is represented in sport by Yorkshire County Cricket Club and Yorkshire Rugby Football Union.


Definitions
Yorkshire mostly follows the ceremonial counties of East Riding of Yorkshire, , , and . Areas outside these counties historically within Yorkshire are parts of Greater Manchester, , , and .

The defined historic county area border has to the north, the to the east, , , , and to the south, and and to the west.


Etymology
Yorkshire is so named as it is the (administrative area or county) of the city of , or York's Shire. "York" comes from the Viking name for the city, Jórvík. The word 'shire' is either from the word skyr or from scir meaning share, care, or official charge. The "shire" suffix is locally pronounced "shuh", or occasionally , a homophone of "sheer".
(2024). 9780198527589, Oxford University Press.


History

Ancient–500: Hen Ogledd

Early: Celtic Brigantes and Parisi
Early inhabitants of what became Yorkshire were (old north British Celts), who formed separate tribes, the (known to be in the north and western areas of now Yorkshire) and the Parisi (present-day East Riding). The Brigantes controlled territory that later became all of and more territory than most Celtic tribes on the island of . Six of the nine Brigantian described by in the Geographia fall within the historic county., Geographia 2.1 , 2.2

The Parisi, who controlled the area that would become the East Riding, might have been related to the Parisii of Parisiorum, (known today as Paris, France). Their capital was at , close to the Humber Estuary.


43–400s: Britannia Inferior
Although the Roman conquest of Britain began in 43 AD, the Brigantes remained in control of their kingdom as a of for an extended period, reigned over by the Brigantian monarchs and her husband . The capital was between the north and west ridings Isurium Brigantum (near Aldborough) under Roman rule. Initially, this situation suited both the Romans and the Brigantes, who were known as the most tribe in Britain.

Queen Cartimandua left Venutius for his armour bearer, , setting off a chain of events that changed control of the region. Cartimandua's good relationship with the Romans enabled her to keep control of the kingdom; however, her former husband staged against her and her Roman allies. At the second attempt, Venutius seized the kingdom, but the Romans, under general Petillius Cerialis, conquered the Brigantes in 71 AD.

The fortified city of (now York) was named as capital of Britannia Inferior and joint capital of all . The emperor Septimius Severus ruled the from Eboracum for the two years before his death.

Another emperor, Constantius Chlorus, died in Eboracum during a visit in 306 AD. Thereafter his son Constantine the Great, who became renowned for his acceptance of Christianity, was proclaimed emperor in the city. In the early 5th century, Roman rule ceased with the withdrawal of the last active Roman troops. By this stage, the Western Empire was in intermittent decline.


500s–1000s: Germanic landings

500s–800s: Celtic-Anglo kingdoms of Ebrauc, Elmet, Deira and Northumbria
After the Romans left, small Celtic kingdoms arose in the region, including the kingdoms of to the east (domain of settlements near Malton on Derwent), (domain of York) around the north and to the west. The latter two were successors of land south-west and north-east of the former Brigantia capital.

Angles (hailing from southern Denmark and northern Germany, probably along with Swedish ) consolidated (merging Ebrauc) under Deira, with York as capital. This in turn was grouped with , another former - kingdom that was north of the and had come to be headed by , to form . Elmet had remained independent from the Angles until some time in the early 7th century, when King Edwin of Northumbria expelled its last king, Certic, and annexed the region to his Deira region. The Celts never went away, but were assimilated. This explains the existence of many Celtic placenames in Yorkshire today, such as Kingston upon Hull and .

As well as the Angles and Geats, other settlers included (thought to have founded and ), Danes, and .

At its greatest extent, Northumbria stretched from the to the and from down to in the south.


800s–900s: Jórvík
Scandinavian York (also referred to as Jórvík) or Danish/Norwegian York is a term used by historians for the south of (modern-day Yorkshire) during the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings; in particular, used to refer to , the city controlled by these kings.

Norse monarchy controlled varying amounts of Northumbria from 875 to 954, however the area was invaded and conquered for short periods by between 927 and 954 before eventually being annexed into England in 954. It was closely associated with the much longer-lived Kingdom of Dublin throughout this period. An army of Danish , the Great Heathen Army as its enemies often referred to it, invaded Northumbrian territory in 866 AD. The Danes conquered and assumed what is now York and renamed it Jórvík, making it the capital city of a new Danish kingdom under the same name. The area which this kingdom covered included most of Southern Northumbria, roughly equivalent to the borders of Yorkshire extending further West.

The Danes went on to conquer an even larger area of England that afterwards became known as the ; but whereas most of the Danelaw was still English land, albeit in submission to Viking overlords, it was in the Kingdom of Jórvík that the only truly Viking territory on mainland Britain was ever established. The Kingdom prospered, taking advantage of the vast trading network of the Viking nations, and established commercial ties with the , North-West Europe, the and the Middle East.

Founded by the Dane Halfdan Ragnarsson in 875, ruled for the great part by Danish kings, and populated by the families and subsequent descendants of Danish Vikings, the leadership of the kingdom nonetheless passed into Norwegian hands during its twilight years. , an ex-king of Norway who was the last independent Viking king of Jórvík, is a particularly noted figure in history, and his bloodthirsty approach towards leadership may have been at least partly responsible for convincing the Danish inhabitants of the region to accept English sovereignty so readily in the years that followed.


800s–1000s: Yorkshire
After around 100 years of its volatile existence, the Kingdom of Jorvik finally came to an end. The Kingdom of Wessex was now in its ascendancy and established its dominance over the North in general, placing Yorkshire again within , which retained a certain amount of autonomy as an almost-independent rather than a separate kingdom. The Wessex Kings of England were reputed to have respected the Norse customs in Yorkshire and left law-making in the hands of the local aristocracy.


1000s–1400s: Normans

1000s–1100s: Harrying of the north
In the weeks leading up to the Battle of Hastings in 1066 AD, was distracted by pushing back efforts to reinstate the kingdom of Jorvik and Danelaw. His brother and , King of Norway, having won the Battle of Fulford. The King of England marched north where the two armies met at the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Tostig and Hardrada were both killed and their army was defeated decisively.

Harold Godwinson was forced immediately to march his army south, where William the Conqueror was landing. The King was defeated in what is now known as the Battle of Hastings, which led to the Norman conquest of England.

The people of the North rebelled against the Normans in September 1069 AD, enlisting Sweyn II of Denmark. They tried to take back York, but the Normans burnt it before they could. What followed was the Harrying of the North ordered by William. From York to Durham, crops, domestic animals, and farming tools were . Many villages between the towns were burnt and local northerners were indiscriminately murdered. During the winter that followed, families starved to death and thousands of peasants died of cold and hunger. estimated that "more than 100,000" people from the North died from hunger.

In the centuries following, many and were built in Yorkshire. Norman landowners increased their revenues and established new towns such as , , Hull, , Scarborough and , among others. Of towns founded before the conquest, only , , and continued at a prominent level.

In the early 12th century, people of Yorkshire had to contend with the Battle of the Standard at with the . Representing the Kingdom of England led by , soldiers from Yorkshire defeated the more numerous Scots.


1300s: Scottish War of Independence and Mass Deaths
The population of Yorkshire boomed until it was hit by the Great Famine of 1315. It did not help that after the English defeat in the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, the Scottish army rampaged throughout northern England, and Yorkshire was no exception. During The Great Raid of 1322, they raided and pillaged from the suburbs of York, even as far as East Riding and the Humber. Some like Richmond had to bribe the Scots to spare the town. The then reached Yorkshire by 1349, killing around a third of the population.


1400s–1600s: Royal revolts

1400s: Wars of the Roses
When King Richard II was overthrown in 1399, antagonism between the House of York and the House of Lancaster, both branches of the royal House of Plantagenet, began to emerge. Eventually the two houses fought for the throne of England in a series of civil wars, commonly known as the Wars of the Roses. Some of the battles took place in Yorkshire, such as those at Wakefield and Towton, the latter of which is known as the bloodiest battle ever fought on English soil.
(1999). 9780415093781, Osprey Publishing. .
Richard III was the last Yorkist king.

Henry Tudor, sympathiser to the House of Lancaster, defeated and killed Richard at the Battle of Bosworth Field. He then became King Henry VII and married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Yorkist , ending the wars. The two roses of white and red, emblems of the Houses of York and Lancaster respectively, were combined to form the of England.

(2024). 9781859361221, Carnegie Publishing.
This rivalry between the royal houses of York and Lancaster has passed into popular culture as a rivalry between the counties of Yorkshire and , particularly in sport (for example the played in ), although the House of Lancaster was based in York and the House of York in London.


1500: Catholic–Protestant dissolution
The English Reformation began under Henry VIII and the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536 led to a popular uprising known as Pilgrimage of Grace, started in Yorkshire as a protest. Some in Yorkshire continued to practise their religion and those caught were executed during the reign of Elizabeth I. One such person was a York woman named Margaret Clitherow who was later .


1600s: Civil war
During the English Civil War, which started in 1642, Yorkshire had divided loyalties; Hull (full name Kingston upon Hull) famously shut the gates of the city on the king when he came to enter a few months before fighting began, while the North Riding of Yorkshire in particular was strongly . York was the base for Royalists, and from there they captured Leeds and only to have them recaptured a few months later. The royalists won the Battle of Adwalton Moor meaning they controlled Yorkshire (with the exception of Hull). From their base in Hull the Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") fought back, re-taking Yorkshire town by town, until they won the Battle of Marston Moor and with it control of all of the North of England.


1500s–1900s: Industry

1500-1600s: Explorative growth
In the 16th and 17th centuries Leeds and other wool-industry-centred towns continued to grow, along with Huddersfield, Hull and Sheffield, while coal mining first came into prominence in the West Riding of Yorkshire. The textile industry, which had previously been a cottage industry, centred on the old market towns moved to the West Riding where entrepreneurs were building mills that took advantage of water power gained by harnessing the rivers and streams flowing from the . The developing helped and Halifax grow.


1800s: Victorian revolution
The 19th century saw Yorkshire's continued growth, with the population growing and the Industrial Revolution continuing with prominent industries in coal, textile and steel (especially in , and ). However, despite the booming industry, living conditions declined in the industrial towns due to overcrowding. This saw bouts of in both 1832 and 1848. However, advances were made by the end of the century with the introduction of modern and . Several Yorkshire railway networks were introduced as railways spread across the country to reach remote areas.

As Yorkshire was too large and unwieldy to have its own , separate county councils were created for the three ridings in 1889, but their area of control did not include the large towns, which became , and included an increasingly large part of the population.Hampton, W., Local Government and Urban Politics, (1991)

Canals and roads were introduced in the late 18th century. In the following century the of and Scarborough flourished, due to people believing had curative properties.


Early 1900s: World wars
During the Second World War, Yorkshire became an important base for RAF Bomber Command and brought the county and its productive industries into the cutting edge of the war, and thus in the targets of during the Battle of Britain.
(1982). 9780850595321, PSL.


1950s–present: Divided
The County Borough of Teesside was created in 1968, drafted by the North Eastern General Review Area from 1962 to 1963 and executed under the Local Government Act 1958, adding settlements to the North Riding's north eastern edges, notably Stockton and Billingham. Twelve in total were placed into a county borough council area. This was the last county borough made and first county to use the local river and '-side' suffix before similar cross river focused counties were created in 1974.

In 1974, there were large local government reforms throughout the United Kingdom. Some of the Local Government Act 1972 changes were unpopular, historic boundaries of Yorkshire and its ridings lost notability status as entities.

In 1996, the 'East Riding of Yorkshire' was created from Yorkshire parts of abolished and North Yorkshire gained Yorkshire parts of Cleveland.Arnold-Baker, C., Local Government Act 1972, (1973) The Government Office entity currently containing most of Yorkshire is the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England. This region includes the north-eastern part of , but not northern parts of Yorkshire, as these areas, located around the , are in the North East England region. Parts in the North West England region are:


One Yorkshire Devolved Deal proposal
In 2018, eighteen of the twenty-two local councils in the Yorkshire and Humber region voted to elect a mayor to represent the county, including a for Yorkshire that would in some regards reunite the county under one deal and mayor. The proposal would allow the mayor similar powers to those possessed by the Mayor of London over . This would also allow Yorkshire to create up to 200,000 jobs across the county and provide similar funding and autonomy to that enjoyed by Greater Manchester.


Topography

Geology
Historically, the northern boundary of Yorkshire was the , the eastern boundary was the coast and the southern boundary was the and Rivers Don and . The western boundary meandered along the western slopes of the to again meet the River Tees. It is bordered by several other historic counties: the county of Durham, Lincolnshire, , Derbyshire, , Lancashire and . In Yorkshire there is a very close relationship between the major areas and the geological period in which they were formed. The Pennine chain of hills in the west is of origin. The central vale is . The North York Moors in the north-east of the county are in age while the to the south east are chalk uplands. Yorkshire is drained by several rivers. In western and central Yorkshire the many rivers empty their waters into the River Ouse which reaches the North Sea via the .
(1992). 9781871890167, Menasha Ridge Press.
The most northerly of the rivers in the Ouse system is the , which drains before passing through Richmond and meandering across the Vale of Mowbray. Next, draining , is the , which the Swale joins east of . Near the Ure is joined by the small Ouse Gill Beck, and below the confluence the river is known as the Ouse. The rises on the edge of the Yorkshire Dales National Park and flows along before reaching the Vale of York and the Ouse. The , which drains , joins the Ouse upstream of . The Rivers and Calder are more southerly contributors to the River Ouse and the most southerly Yorkshire tributary is the River Don, which flows northwards to join the main river at . Further north and east the River Derwent rises on the North York Moors, flows south then westwards through the Vale of Pickering then turns south again to drain the eastern part of the Vale of York. It empties into the River Ouse at Barmby on the Marsh.

In the far north of the county the River Tees flows eastwards through and empties its waters into the North Sea downstream of . The smaller River Esk flows from west to east at the northern foot of the North York Moors to reach the sea at . To the east of the Yorkshire Wolds the flows southwards to join the Humber Estuary at Kingston upon Hull.

The western Pennines are drained by the which flows westwards, eventually reaching the close to Lytham St Annes.


Geography
The of Yorkshire has been called "God's Own County" by its inhabitants. Yorkshire includes the North York Moors and National Parks, and part of the National Park. and the are designated Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, as is the (a part of which lies within the county). Point, and the coastal North York Moors are designated areas, and are noted for their scenic views with rugged cliffs such as the jet cliffs at Whitby, the cliffs at and the cliffs at Flamborough Head. Moor House – Upper Teesdale, most of which is part of the former North Riding of Yorkshire, is one of England's largest national nature reserves. At on the border with County Durham, the plunges over the (an intrusion of igneous rock). High Force is not, as is sometimes claimed, the highest waterfall in England ( in , also in Yorkshire, has a drop for example). However, High Force is unusual in being on a major river and carries a greater volume of water than any higher waterfall in England.

The highest mountains in Yorkshire all lie in the on the western side of the county, with and forming the underlying geology and producing distinctive layered hills. The county top is the remote (height above sea level) in the North Pennines southwest of Teesdale, which is also the highest point in the North Riding. The highest point in the West Riding is (height ) near to Ingleton in the Yorkshire Dales. Together with nearby (height ) and (height ), Whernside forms a trio of very prominent and popular summits (the Yorkshire Three Peaks) which can be climbed in a challenging single day's walk. The highest point in the Yorkshire part of the Peak District is Black Hill (height ) on the border with historic Cheshire (which also forms the historic county top of that county). The hill ranges along the eastern side of Yorkshire are lower than those of the west. The highest point of the North York Moors is (height ). The highest point of the , a range of low chalk downlands east of York, is Bishop Wilton Wold (height ), which is also the highest point of the East Riding. The view from at the southeastern edge of the North York Moors near encompasses a vast expanse of the Yorkshire lowlands with the Pennines forming a backdrop. It was called the "finest view in England" by local author and veterinary surgeon in his 1979 guidebook James Herriot's Yorkshire.

(1979). 9780312439705, St. Martin's Press.

The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds runs such as the one at with coastal wildlife such as the , and . Spurn Point is a narrow long sand spit. It is a national nature reserve owned by the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust and is noted for its cyclical nature whereby the spit is destroyed and re-created approximately once every 250 years. There are in Yorkshire with sandy beaches; Scarborough is Britain's oldest seaside resort dating back to the -era in the 17th century, while has been voted as the United Kingdom's best beach, with a "postcard-perfect harbour".

The northern extent of Yorkshire is the and the southern extent was the . East is the and west are the Pennines and the .


Cities
York has historically been recognised as a city "by ancient prescriptive right", having been the seat of a bishop for many centuries, rather than through specific charters or declarations.
(2024). 9781351951265, Taylor and Francis. .
Its status as a city was reaffirmed as part of the administrative reforms in 1974 and again in 1996. The smallest city in Yorkshire is which associated its city status with the establishment of Church of England dioceses. When the Diocese of Ripon was created in 1836 the corporation of Ripon assumed that this inferred city status, however, uncertainty surrounding this led to its status being clarified by a parliamentary bill in 1865 known as the City of Ripon Act.
(2024). 9781351951265, Taylor and Francis. .

In 1871, Wakefield had a population of around 28,000, less than half the size of the towns of Huddersfield and Halifax, yet when the Ripon diocese was divided to create a diocese for the West Riding it was the Church of All Saints, Wakefield that was chosen to be the cathedral and upon the establishment of the new diocese in 1888 Wakefield petitioned for city status with being granted soon after.

(2024). 9781351951265, Taylor and Francis. .
Bradford, Kingston upon Hull, Leeds and Sheffield became cities in the 1890s. They had all seen significant growth throughout the 19th century and were all larger than any of the preceding cities in Yorkshire.
(1988). 9780582013292, Longman.
More recently city status was conferred through local government reform in 1974 to the metropolitan boroughs created at that time, some of which were already based on existing city areas (such as Leeds and Sheffield).

Doncaster received city status by letters patent in November 2022, as part of the Platinum Jubilee Civic Honours. It was bestowed at a ceremony during a royal visit by .


Towns

Administration
Administrative boundaries for local government in Yorkshire have changed over time. During these changes the boundaries of Yorkshire and its ridings remain as non-administrative, geographical and historic areas, in contrast with the four ceremonial counties with Yorkshire in their name and the region of Yorkshire and the Humber; the latter does not match the boundaries of the historic county: North East England includes , and ; North West England includes , and while Yorkshire and the Humber includes the towns of , and .


Historic
Historically, Yorkshire was divided into three ridings and the . The term 'riding' is of Viking origin and derives from Threthingr (equivalent to third-ing) meaning one acting part of three to York's share. The three ridings in Yorkshire were named the East Riding, West Riding, and North Riding. The North Riding bordering on the Derwent to the East Riding. The East Riding and west Riding the west and north parts are bordered by the Ouse and / watershed. Each historic riding included wapentakes, local meeting points.


Current
East Riding of YorkshireCeremonial county City of Kingston upon Hull (unitary) and East Riding of Yorkshire (unitary), , , Cottingham, , , , , Hull,

Ceremonial county City of York, North Yorkshire, Redcar and Cleveland, Borough of Stockton-on-Tees (part), Borough of Middlesbrough, , , , , Pickering, , , Scarborough, , , , ,
Ceremonial/ metropolitan county and combined authority City of Sheffield, Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster, Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham, Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley, , Bentley, Chapeltown, Dinnington, , Maltby, , , ,
Ceremonial/ metropolitan county and combined authority City of Leeds, City of Bradford, Wakefield District, , , , , , , Halifax, , , ,

(part)
Combined authority Redcar and Cleveland, Borough of Stockton-on-Tees (part), Borough of MiddlesbroughGuisborough, Ingleby Barwick, Middlesbrough, Redcar, Thornaby
Local government reform in 1974 saw the three ridings abolished, and the ceremonial counties of Humberside, North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire and West Yorkshire created, with York incorporated into North Yorkshire. Some of the territory from the defunct Yorkshire also became part of the County of Cleveland.

Reform in 1996 then abolished Humberside – which was split into a new East Riding of Yorkshire (pre-reform meant the older name was used) and parts of northern Lincolnshire – and Cleveland, which was split between North Yorkshire and County Durham ceremonial counties. Certain legal functions (such as policing) still exist under the old county names from before the 1996 reform, for example Cleveland Fire Brigade, and the boundary of the 1993-created Yorkshire & the Humber region.


Economy

South and West
The City of Leeds is Yorkshire's largest city and the leading centre of trade and commerce. is also one of the UK's larger financial centres. Leeds's traditional industries were mixed, service-based industries, textile manufacturing and coal mining being examples. Tourism is also significant and a growing sector in the city. In 2015, the value of tourism was in excess of £7 billion.

, Halifax, and once were centres of wool milling. Areas such as Bradford, and Keighley have suffered a decline in their economy since.

once had heavy industries, such as coal mining and the . Since the decline of such industries Sheffield has attracted tertiary and administrative businesses including more retail trade, Meadowhall being an example.

Coal mining was extremely active in the south of the county during the 19th century and for most of the 20th century, particularly around and . As late as the 1970s, the number of miners working in the area was still in six figures. The industry was placed under threat on 6 March 1984 when the National Coal Board announced the closure of 20 pits nationwide (some of them in South Yorkshire). By March 2004, a mere three coalpits remained open in the area. Three years later, the only remaining coal pit in the region was Maltby Colliery near . Maltby Colliery closed in 2013.


East Riding and North
has an established tourist industry, supported by the presence of two national parks (Yorkshire Dales and North York Moors), , and Scarborough.

Tourism is a huge part of the economy of York with a value of over £765 million to the city and supporting 24,000 jobs in 2019. Harrogate draws numerous visitors because of its conference facilities. In 2016 such events alone attracted 300,000 visitors to Harrogate.

Kingston upon Hull is Yorkshire's largest port and has a large manufacturing base, its fishing industry has, however, declined somewhat in recent years. Businesses in Hull are Aunt Bessie's, , Seven Seas, Fenner, Rank Organisation, William Jackson Food Group, Reckitt and Sons, and SGS Europe. Harrogate and both have small legal and financial sectors. Harrogate is a European conference and exhibition destination with both the Great Yorkshire Showground and Harrogate International Centre in the town. Bettys and Taylors of Harrogate is a notable company from Harrogate.

owns and operates , between and . The company also operates the Hull Container Terminal at the Port of Hull and owns a short river port in (near ).

Other businesses in the two counties are (Scarborough), (Scarborough), (Howden) and Skipton Building Society (Skipton).


Education
Yorkshire has a large base of primary and secondary schools operated by both local authorities and private bodies, and a dozen universities, along with a wide range of colleges and further education facilities. Five universities are based in Leeds, two in Sheffield, two in York, and one each in Bradford, Hull, Middlesbrough and Huddersfield. The largest universities by enrolment are Sheffield Hallam University and the University of Leeds, each with over 31,000 students, followed by Leeds Beckett University, and the most recent to attain university status is the Leeds Arts University. There are also branches of institutions headquartered in other parts of England, such as the and Britain's first for-profit university (since 2012), the University of Law. The tertiary sector is in active cooperation with industry, and a number of spin-off companies have been launched.


Transport
The oldest road in Yorkshire, called the Great North Road, is now known as the A1. This trunk road passes through the centre of the county and is the main route from London to Edinburgh. Another important road is the more easterly A19 road which starts in Doncaster and ends just north of Newcastle upon Tyne at . The M62 motorway crosses the county from east to west from Hull towards Greater Manchester and . The M1 carries traffic from London and the south of England to Yorkshire. In 1999, about was added to make it swing east of Leeds and connect to the A1. The East Coast Main Line rail link between London and Scotland runs roughly parallel with the A1 through Yorkshire and the Trans Pennine rail link runs east to west from Hull to Liverpool via Leeds.

Before the advent of rail transport, the seaports of Hull and Whitby played an important role in transporting goods. Historically canals were used, including the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, which is the longest canal in England. Mainland Europe (the and ) can be reached from Hull via regular ferry services from P&O Ferries. Yorkshire also has services from Leeds Bradford Airport. This airport has experienced significant and rapid growth in both terminal size and passenger facilities since 1996, when improvements began, until the present day. From 2005 until 2022, South Yorkshire was served by Doncaster Sheffield Airport in . Sheffield City Airport opened in 1997 after years of Sheffield having no airport, due to a council decision in the 1960s not to develop one because of the city's good rail links with London and the development of airports in other nearby areas. The newly opened airport never managed to compete with larger airports such as Leeds Bradford Airport and East Midlands Airport and attracted only a few scheduled flights, while the runway was too short to support low cost carriers. The opening of Doncaster Sheffield Airport effectively made the airport redundant and it officially closed in April 2008. The Doncaster Sheffield Airport has since closed and left South Yorkshire without an airport.


Public transport statistics
The average amount of time people spend on public transport in Yorkshire on a weekday is 77 minutes. 26.6% of public transport users travel for more than two hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transport is 16 minutes, while 24.9% of passengers wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transport is 7 km, while 10% travel for over 12 km in a single direction. Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License .


Architecture

Fortifications
Throughout Yorkshire many were built during the Norman-Breton period, particularly after the Harrying of the North. These included , , , , and others. Later medieval castles at , and Scarborough were built as a means of defence against the invading . Middleham is notable because Richard III of England spent his childhood there. The remains of these castles, some being sites, are popular tourist destinations.


Stately
There are in Yorkshire that carry the name "castle" in a similar way to the non-distinctive use of in French. The most notable examples are and , both linked to the .
(1990). 9780226764030, University of Chicago Press. .

Castle Howard and the Earl of Harewood's residence, , are included amongst the nine Treasure Houses of England.

Large estates with significant buildings were constructed at , , Wentworth Woodhouse (the largest fronted private home in Europe), and . There are properties which are conserved and managed by the , such as , , the Rievaulx Terrace & Temples and Studley Royal Park.


Industrial
Buildings built for industry during the are found throughout the region; West Yorkshire has various cotton mills, the Leeds Corn Exchange and the Halifax .


Municipal
There are various buildings built for local authorities:
  • Grade I ; Leeds Town Hall, Sheffield Town Hall, Wakefield County Hall and
  • Grade II* listed; Middlesbrough Town Hall, Leeds Civic Hall, , Hull City Hall and Sheffield City Hall.


Religious
Religious architecture includes extant cathedrals as well as the ruins of and . Many of these prominent buildings suffered from the Dissolution of the Monasteries under Henry VIII; these include , , Gisborough Priory, , St Mary's Abbey and among others. Notable religious buildings of historic origin still in use include , the largest Gothic cathedral in northern Europe, , Bradford Cathedral, Rotherham Minster and .


Culture
The culture of the people of Yorkshire is an accumulated product of a number of different civilisations who have influenced its history, including; the ( and Parisii), , Angles, , and amongst others.
(2024). 9780470758366
The western part of the historic North Riding had an additional infusion of culture due to the Honour of Richmond being occupied by Alain Le Roux, grandson of Geoffrey I, Duke of Brittany. The people of Yorkshire are immensely proud of their county and local culture, and it is sometimes suggested they identify more strongly with their county than they do with their country. Yorkshire people have their own Yorkshire dialects and accents and are, or rather were, known as Broad Yorkshire or Tykes, with its roots in Old English and Old Norse.

The provides a four minute long voice recording made in 1955, by a "female housekeeper", Miss Madge Dibnahon, on its web site and an example of the Yorkshire dialect used at that time, in an unstated location. "Much of her speech remains part of the local dialect to this day", according to the Library. Due to the large size of Yorkshire, spoken dialects vary between areas. In fact, the dialect in North Yorkshire and Humberside/East Yorkshire is "quite different than and has a much stronger Scandinavian influence".

One report explains the geographic difference in detail:

This distinction was first recognised formally at the turn of the 19th / 20th centuries, when linguists drew an isophone diagonally across the county from the northwest to the southeast, separating these two broadly distinguishable ways of speaking. It can be extended westwards through Lancashire to the estuary of the River Lune, and is sometimes called the Humber-Lune Line. Strictly speaking, the dialects spoken south and west of this isophone are Midland dialects, whereas the dialects spoken north and east of it are truly Northern. It is possible that the Midland form moved up into the region with people gravitating towards the manufacturing districts of the West Riding during the Industrial Revolution.

Though distinct accents remain, dialects are no longer in everyday use. Some have argued the dialect was a fully fledged in its own right.

(1994). 9781858250168, Smith Settle.
The county has also produced a set of Yorkshire colloquialisms, which are in use in the county. Among Yorkshire's traditions is the Long Sword dance. The most famous traditional song of Yorkshire is On Ilkla Moor Baht 'at ("On without a hat"), it is considered the unofficial anthem of the county.


Literature and art
Although the first Professor of English Literature at , F. W. Moorman, claimed the first extant work of English literature, , was written in Yorkshire, this view does not have common acceptance today. However, when Yorkshire formed the southern part of the kingdom of there were several notable poets, scholars and ecclesiastics, including , Cædmon and . The most esteemed literary family from the county are the three Brontë sisters, with part of the county around being nicknamed Brontë Country in their honour. Their novels, written in the mid-19th century, caused a sensation when they were first published, yet were subsequently accepted into the canon of great English literature. Among the most celebrated novels written by the sisters are Anne Brontë's The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, Charlotte Brontë's and Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights. Wuthering Heights was almost a source used to depict life in Yorkshire, illustrating the type of people that reside there in its characters, and emphasising the use of the stormy Yorkshire moors. Nowadays, the parsonage which was their former home is now a museum in their honour. authored while living in and it includes several elements of local folklore including the beaching of the Russian ship Dmitri, which became the basis of Demeter in the book.

The novelist tradition in Yorkshire continued into the 20th and 21st centuries, with authors such as J. B. Priestley, , Stan Barstow, Dame , ( South Riding, The Crowded Street), A. S. Byatt, Barbara Taylor Bradford, and being prominent examples. Taylor Bradford is noted for A Woman of Substance which was one of the top-ten best selling novels in history. Another well-known author was children's writer , who penned the Swallows and Amazons series. , the best selling author of over 60 million copies of books about his experiences of some 50 years as a veterinarian in , North Yorkshire, the town which he refers to as Darrowby in his books (although born in ), has been admired for his easy reading style and interesting characters.

Poets include , W. H. Auden, , , and . Three well known sculptors emerged in the 20th century; contemporaries and , and Leeds-raised land artist . Some of their works are available for public viewing at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park. There are several in Yorkshire featuring extensive collections, such as Ferens Art Gallery, Leeds Art Gallery, Millennium Galleries and York Art Gallery. Some of the better known local painters are and ; many works by the latter are housed at 1853 Gallery in .


Cuisine
The traditional cuisine of Yorkshire, in common with the North of England in general, is known for using rich-tasting ingredients, especially with regard to sweet dishes, which were affordable for the majority of people. There are several dishes which originated in Yorkshire or are heavily associated with it. Yorkshire pudding, a savoury batter dish, is by far the best known of Yorkshire foods, and is eaten throughout England. It is commonly served with and vegetables to form part of the but is traditionally served as a starter dish filled with onion gravy within Yorkshire. Yorkshire pudding is the base for toad in the hole, a dish containing sausage.

Other foods associated with the county include Yorkshire curd tart, a recipe with ; parkin, a sweet which is different from standard ginger cakes in that it includes and ; and Wensleydale cheese, a cheese made with milk from and often eaten as an accompaniment to sweet foods. The beverage , flavoured with , came from Yorkshire and has existed since the mid-18th century. Liquorice sweet was first created by George Dunhill from , who in the 1760s thought to mix the liquorice plant with sugar. Yorkshire and in particular the city of York played a prominent role in the confectionery industry, with chocolate factories owned by companies such as Rowntree's, Terry's and inventing many of Britain's most popular . Another traditional Yorkshire food is pikelets, which are similar to but much thinner. The is a location within Yorkshire which supplies most of the rhubarb to locals.

In recent years curries have become popular in the county, largely due to the immigration and successful integration of Asian families. There are many famous curry empires with their origins in Yorkshire, including the 850-seater Aakash restaurant in , which has been described as "the world's largest curry house".


Beer and brewing
Yorkshire has a number of breweries including Black Sheep, Copper Dragon, , John Smith's, Sam Smith's, Kelham Island Brewery, Theakstons, Timothy Taylor, Wharfedale Brewery, Harrogate Brewery and .

The most associated with the county is bitter. As elsewhere in the North of England, when served through a , a sparkler is used giving a tighter, more solid head.

Brewing has taken place on a large scale since at least the 12th century, for example at the now derelict which at its height produced 60 barrels of strong ale every ten days. Most current Yorkshire breweries date from the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th century.


Music
Yorkshire has a heritage of folk music and folk dance including the Long Sword dance. Yorkshire folk song was distinguished by the use of dialect, particularly in the West Riding and exemplified by the song 'On Ilkla Moor Baht 'at', probably written in the late 19th century, using a Kent folk tune (almost certainly borrowed via a ), seen as an unofficial Yorkshire anthem. Famous folk performers from the county include the from Hull, who began recording Yorkshire versions of folk songs from 1965; Heather Wood (born 1945) of the ; the short-lived electric folk group (1970–72), the Deighton Family; ; ; and . Yorkshire has a flourishing folk music culture, with over forty and thirty annual . The 1982 Eurovision Song Contest was held in the Harrogate International Centre. In 2007 the Yorkshire Garland Group was formed to make Yorkshire folk songs accessible online and in schools.

In the field of classical music, Yorkshire has produced some major and minor composers, including , George Dyson, , , William Baines, , Bernadette Farrell, , , , Arthur Wood, , , , and in the area of TV, film and radio music, John Barry and . is based at the Grand Theatre, Leeds. Leeds is also home to the Leeds International Piano Competition. The Huddersfield Contemporary Music Festival takes place annually in November. Huddersfield Choral Society is one of the UK's most celebrated amateur choirs. The National Centre for Early Music is located in York.

The county is home to successful brass bands such as Black Dyke, Brighouse & Rastrick, Carlton Main Frickley, Hammonds Saltaire, and Yorkshire Imperial.

During the 1970s , himself of a father from in the West Riding of Yorkshire, hired three musicians from Hull: , and ; together they recorded Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, an album considered by a magazine article as one of a 100 greatest and most influential of all time. In the following decade, , from , achieved worldwide fame, particularly in America. Their 1983 album Pyromania and 1987 album Hysteria are among the most successful albums of all time. Yorkshire had a very strong scene which went on to achieve widespread acclaim and success, including: the Sisters of Mercy, , , Gang of Four, ABC, the Human League, New Model Army, , , the Wedding Present and the Mission. Pulp from Sheffield had a massive hit in "Common People" during 1995; the song focuses on working-class northern life. In the 21st century, and post-punk revival bands from the area gained popularity, including the , and the , the last-named holding the record for the fastest-selling debut album in British music history with Whatever People Say I Am, That's What I'm Not.

Influenced by the local post punk scene, but also by national and international extreme metal acts such as , Candlemass, and , Yorkshire-based bands Paradise Lost and My Dying Bride laid the foundations of what would become the genre in the early to mid-1990s.


Television productions
Among prominent British television shows filmed in (and based on) Yorkshire are the and the sitcom Last of the Summer Wine; the latter in particular is noted for holding the record of longest-running comedy series in the world, from 1973 until 2010. Other notable television series set in Yorkshire include , All Creatures Great and Small, The Beiderbecke Trilogy, , Open All Hours, Band Of Gold, Dalziel and Pascoe, , Heartbeat, , , Drifters and . During the first three series of the sitcom The New Statesman, Alan B'Stard represented as MP the fictional constituency of Haltenprice in North Yorkshire.

Yorkshire has remained a popular location for filming in more recent times. For example, much of ITV's highly acclaimed Victoria was filmed in the region, at locations such as Harewood House in Leeds and Beverley Minster (the latter being used to depict Westminster Abbey and St James' Palace), whilst Channel 5 has programmed numerous Yorkshire-themed documentary series such as Our Yorkshire Farm and The Yorkshire Steam Railway: All Aboard across its schedule.

has particularly benefited from a great deal of production activity. For example, portions of the BBC television series Happy Valley and Last Tango in Halifax were filmed in the area, in Huddersfield and other cities; in addition to exteriors, some of the studio filming for Happy Valley was done at North Light Film Studios at Brookes Mill, Huddersfield. Although set in the fictional town of Denton, popular ITV detective series A Touch Of Frost was filmed in Yorkshire, mainly in and around Leeds. The BBC's Jamaica Inn and Remember Me and the ITV series were also filmed at the studios and in nearby West Yorkshire locations. More recently, many of the exteriors of the BBC series Jericho were filmed at the nearby Rockingstone Quarry, and some interior work was done at North Light Film Studios.


Film productions
Several noted films are set in Yorkshire, including Kes, This Sporting Life, Room at the Top, , Mischief Night, Rita, Sue and Bob Too, The Damned United, , God's Own Country and . The Full Monty, a comedy film set in Sheffield, won an and was voted the second-best British film of all time by Asian News International.


Sport
Yorkshire has a long tradition in the field of sports, with participation in , football, and being the most established sporting ventures.
(1989). 9780948929328, Hyperion Books.


Cricket
Yorkshire County Cricket Club represents the historic county in the domestic first class cricket County Championship; with a total of 33 championship titles (including one shared), 13 more than any other county, Yorkshire is the most decorated county cricket club. Some of the most highly regarded figures in the game were born in the county, amongst them:

The four ECB Premier Leagues in the county are: Bradford, North-Yorkshire-&-South-Durham, Yorkshire North and Yorkshire South. The league winners qualify to take part in a yearly Yorkshire Championship, the highest NYSD club based in Yorkshire qualifies if a Durham side wins.


Football

Association
Football clubs founded in Yorkshire include, four of which have been league champions:

  • Barnsley
  • Bradford City
  • Doncaster Rovers
  • Halifax Town
  • Harrogate Town
  • Huddersfield Town
  • Hull City
  • Leeds United
  • Middlesbrough
  • Rotherham United
  • Sheffield United
  • Sheffield Wednesday
  • York City

Yorkshire is officially recognised by as the birthplace of club football, as Sheffield FC founded in 1857 are certified as the oldest association football club in the world. The world's first inter-club match and local derby was competed in the county, at the world's oldest ground . The Laws of the Game, used worldwide, were drafted by Ebenezer Cobb Morley from Hull.

(2005). 9780415350181, Routledge. .

Huddersfield were the first club to win three consecutive league titles. Leeds United reached the 2001 UEFA Champions League semi-finals and had a dominance period in the 1970s. Sheffield Wednesday who have had similar spells of dominance, such as the early 1990s. Middlesbrough won the 2004 League Cup and reach the 2006 UEFA Cup Final.

Noted players from Yorkshire who have influenced the game include World Cup-winning goalkeeper and two time European Footballer of the Year award winner . Prominent managers include , , Bill Nicholson, and .

The Yorkshire football team, controlled by the Yorkshire International Football Association (YIFA), represents Yorkshire in matches. The team was founded in 2017, joined CONIFA on 6 January 2018 and plays at various venues throughout Yorkshire.


Rugby Union
Yorkshire has along history of rugby union in the county with (formerly Yorkshire Carnegie) featuring in the Aviva Premiership for eight seasons between 2001 and 2011 when they were relegated to the Championship. From 2020 the teams has reverted to its amateur status and plays in National League 1. also played in the top tier of English rugby in 2000–01 and 2003–04.

Many England international players have emerged from Yorkshire including World Cup winners Jason Robinson and . Other successful players from the region include , , Brian Moore, , and .

+Leading Rugby Union teams based in Yorkshire (2023–24) !League !Team !Venue !Capacity !Location, county
Doncaster KnightsCastle Park5,000 (1,650 seats), South Yorkshire
National League 2 NorthHuddersfieldLockwood Park1,500 (500 seats), West Yorkshire
Ferens Ground1,500 (288 seats)Kingston upon Hull, East Riding
Brantingham Park1,500 (240 seats), East Riding
The Sycamores , Leeds, West Yorkshire
Otley5,000 (Leeds), West Yorkshire
2,500, South Yorkshire
3,200 (100 seats),
Sheffield TigersDore Moor , South Yorkshire
WharfedaleThe Avenue2,000, North Yorkshire
Regional 1 North EastMoorend , West Yorkshire
Doncaster PhoenixCastle Park5,000 (1,650 seats), South Yorkshire
Show Ground , East Riding of Yorkshire
Rudding Lane , North Yorkshire
West Vale , Halifax, West Yorkshire
IlkleyStacks Field2,000 (40 seats), West Yorkshire
PontefractMoor Lane , West Yorkshire
Milnthorpe Green (Wakefield), West Yorkshire
Clifton Park , North Yorkshire


Rugby League
The Rugby Football League and with it the sport of was founded in 1895 at the George Hotel, Huddersfield, after a North-South schism within the Rugby Football Union. The top league is the and the most decorated Yorkshire clubs are Huddersfield Giants, Hull FC, , Hull Kingston Rovers, Wakefield Trinity, Castleford Tigers and . In total six Yorkshiremen have been inducted into the Rugby Football League Hall of Fame amongst them is , and .


Multi-sport events
In the area of boxing from Sheffield achieved title success and widespread fame, in what the describes as "one of British boxing's most illustrious careers". Along with Leeds-born who in 2012 became the first female athlete to win a boxing gold medal at the Olympics. Nicola Adams Makes Olympic Boxing History , 9 August 2012.

A number of athletes from or associated with Yorkshire took part in the 2012 Summer Olympics as members of ; the stated that Yorkshire's athletes alone secured more gold medals than those of Spain. Notable Yorkshire athletes include Jessica Ennis-Hill and the Brownlee brothers, Jonathan and Alistair. Jessica Ennis-Hill is from and won gold at the 2012 Olympics in London and silver at the 2016 Olympics in Rio. Alastair and Jonny Brownlee have won two golds and a silver and bronze respectively.


Animal related
Yorkshire also has an array of : in North Yorkshire there are Catterick, Redcar, , Thirsk and ; in the East Riding of Yorkshire there is Beverley; in West Yorkshire there are Pontefract and Wetherby; while in South Yorkshire there is Doncaster.

England's oldest horse race, which began in 1519, is run each year at Kiplingcotes near . Continuing this tradition in the field of horse racing, there are currently in the county. Britain's oldest organised is the , founded in 1668.


Knurr and Spell
The sport of Knurr and Spell was unique to the region, being one of the most popular sports in the area during the 18th and 19th centuries, before a decline in the 20th century to virtual obscurity.


Cycling
Yorkshire is considered to be particularly fond of cycling. In 2014 the County hosted the Grand Départ of the Tour de France. Spectator crowds over the two days were estimated to be of the order of 2.5 million people, making it the highest attended event in the UK. The inaugural Tour de Yorkshire was held from 1–3 May 2015, with start and finishes in Bridlington, Leeds, Scarborough, Selby, Wakefield and York, watched by 1.2 million. Yorkshire hosted the 2019 UCI Road World Championships between 22 and 29 September, which were held in Harrogate. Notable racing cyclists from Yorkshire include Brian Robinson, and .


Hockey

Field
Field Hockey is a popular game in the county with 58 clubs running 271 organised teams in the historical county. The largest clubs include City of York HC (16 teams), Doncaster HC, Leeds HC and Sheffield Hallam HC (all 14 teams). The most recent team from Yorkshire to have played in the EH Premier League was Sheffield Hallam who finished in 9th place in 2013–14. England and Great Britain's most capped player of all time hails from the town of Doncaster in the county. Hockey in the county was formerly organised by the Yorkshire Hockey Association but is now run by Yorkshire & North East Hockey who have run leagues and organised representative teams since September 2021.
+Men's National League Teams (2023–24) !League !Team !Venue !Location
MHL Division 1 NorthLeedsWeetwood Playing Fields, West Yorkshire
MHL Conference NorthBen RhyddingCoutances Way, West Yorkshire
DoncasterTown Field Sports Club, South Yorkshire
Sheffield Hallam, South Yorkshire
WakefieldCollege Grove, West Yorkshire
+Women's National League Teams (2023–24) !League !Team !Venue !Location
WHL Division 1 NorthBen RhyddingCoutances Way, West Yorkshire
WakefieldCollege Grove, West Yorkshire
WHL Conference MidlandsDoncasterTown Fields Sports Club, South Yorkshire
WHL Conference NorthHarrogateGranby Hockey Centre, North Yorkshire
LeedsWeetwood Playing Fields, West Yorkshire


Other professional sports franchise teams
Sheffield is home to the who play in the British Basketball League and, from 2021, Leeds Rhinos have featured in the Netball Superleague.


Politics and identity

Representation
From 1290, Yorkshire was represented by two members of parliament of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England. After the union with Scotland, two members represented the county in the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. In 1832 the county benefited from the disfranchisement of Grampound by taking an additional two members. Yorkshire was represented at this time as one single, large, county constituency. Like other counties, there were also some within Yorkshire, the oldest of which was the City of York, which had existed since the ancient Montfort's Parliament of 1265. After the Reform Act 1832, Yorkshire's political representation in parliament was drawn from its subdivisions, with members of parliament representing each of the three historic Ridings of Yorkshire; East Riding, North Riding, and West Riding constituencies.

For the 1865 general elections and onwards, the West Riding was further divided into Northern, Eastern and Southern parliamentary constituencies, though these only lasted until the major Redistribution of Seats Act 1885. This act saw more localisation of government in the United Kingdom, with the introduction of 26 new parliamentary constituencies within Yorkshire, while the Local Government Act 1888 introduced some reforms for the , of which there were eight in Yorkshire by the end of the 19th century.

With the Representation of the People Act 1918 there was some reshuffling on a local level for the 1918 general election, revised again during the 1950s. The most controversial reorganisation of local government in Yorkshire was the Local Government Act 1972, put into practice in 1974. Under the act, the Ridings lost their lieutenancies, shrievalties, and administrative counties. County boroughs and their councils were abolished, to be replaced by metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties with vastly changed borders. Although some government officials and King Charles have asserted such reform is not meant to alter the ancient boundaries or cultural loyalties, there are pressure groups such as the Yorkshire Ridings Society who want greater recognition for the historic boundaries. In 1996 the East Riding of Yorkshire was reformed as a unitary authority area and together with the adjoining unitary authority of Kingston upon Hull forms a ceremonial county. The Yorkshire and the Humber region of Government Office covers most, but not all of the historic county.


Distinctive identity and devolution campaigns
A number of claims have been made for the distinctiveness of Yorkshire, as a geographical, cultural and political entity, and these have been used to demand increased political autonomy. In the early twentieth century, F. W. Moorman, the first professor of English language at , claimed Yorkshire was not settled by Angles or following the end of Roman rule in Britain, but by a different Germanic tribe, the . As a consequence, he claimed, it is possible the first work of English literature, , believed to have been composed by Geats, was written in Yorkshire, and this distinctive ethnic and cultural origin is the root of the unique status of Yorkshire today. One of Moorman's students at Leeds University, , was greatly influenced by Moorman's ideas on Yorkshire identity, and claimed that until recent times Yorkshire was effectively an island, cut off from the rest of England by rivers, fens, moors and mountains. This distancing of Yorkshire from England led Read to question whether Yorkshire people were really English at all. Combined with the suggested ethnic difference from the rest of England, Read quoted Frederic Pearson, who wrote:

During the premiership of William Pitt the Younger the hypothetical idea of Yorkshire becoming independent was raised in the British parliament in relation to the question whether Ireland should become part of the United Kingdom. This resulted in the publication of an anonymous pamphlet in London in 1799 arguing at length that Yorkshire could never be an independent state as it would always be reliant on the rest of the United Kingdom to provide it with essential resources.Anonymous pamphlet, Thoughts on national independence, suggested by Mr. Pitt's speeches on the Irish union by a member of the honourable society of Lincoln's Inn, (London: Printed Privately, 1799), pp.25–27

Although in the devolution debates in the House of Commons of the late 1960s, which paved the way for the 1979 referendums on the creation of a Scottish parliament and Welsh assembly, parallel devolution for Yorkshire was suggested, this was opposed by the Scottish National Party Member of Parliament for Hamilton, . Ewing argued that it was offensive to Scots to argue that an English region had the same status as an 'ancient nation' such as Scotland.Hansard Parliamentary Papers, HC Deb, 14 February 1969, vol. 777, cc1725-76

The relationship between Yorkshire and Scottish devolution was again made in 1975 by Richard Wainwright, MP for Colne Valley, who claimed in a speech in the House of Commons:

In more recent years, in 1998 the Campaign for Yorkshire was established to push for the creation of a Yorkshire regional assembly, sometimes dubbed the Yorkshire Parliament. In its defining statement, the Campaign for Yorkshire made reference to the historical notions that Yorkshire had a distinctive identity:

The Campaign for Yorkshire was led by Jane Thomas as Director and Paul Jagger as chairman. Jagger claimed in 1999 that Yorkshire had as much right to a regional parliament or assembly as Scotland and Wales because Yorkshire 'has as clear a sense of identity as Scotland or Wales.' One of those brought into the Campaign for Yorkshire by Jane Thomas was Herbert Read scholar , who organised a series of events in 2000 to highlight the distinctiveness of Yorkshire culture. This included a major exhibition of Yorkshire artists. Paraskos also founded a Yorkshire Studies degree course at . Interviewed by The Guardian newspaper, Paraskos linked the start of this course to the contemporary devolution debates in Yorkshire, Scotland and Wales, claiming:

In March 2013, the Yorkshire Devolution Movement was founded as an active campaign group by Nigel Sollitt, who had administered the social media group by that name since 2011, Gareth Shanks, a member of the social media group, and Stewart Arnold, former Chair of the Campaign for Yorkshire. In September 2013, the executive committee was joined by Richard Honnoraty and Richard Carter (as an advisor), who had also been involved in the Campaign for Yorkshire. The Movement campaigns for a directly elected parliament for the whole of the traditional county of Yorkshire with powers second to no other devolved administration in the UK.

Two combined authorities, which devolve certain powers to local leadership, have been established in Yorkshire: the West Yorkshire Combined Authority, and the South Yorkshire Mayoral Combined Authority. A mayoralty has been established in South Yorkshire, which held elections in 2018 and 2022, and in West Yorkshire, which held elections in 2021 and 2024. These mayors operate alongside the councils for the districts within their combined authorities.

An alternative proposal was also made for a cross-Yorkshire Authority, dubbed "One Yorkshire", which was supported by 18 of the 20 Yorkshire councils, with Sheffield and Rotherham both preferring the South Yorkshire alternative. The government rejected the devolution deal, and alongside the two existing authorities, further proposals have been made in North Yorkshire and the East Riding, although some support for the whole Yorkshire deal has continued.

In 2014, Richard Carter, Stewart Arnold and Richard Honnoraty, founded Yorkshire First, a political party campaigning for the creation of a Yorkshire parliament by 2050 based on the Scottish Parliament. It was later renamed the . A Social democratic party, it has parish, town, district and county councillors, and stood in 28 constituencies in the 2019 general election. Yorkshire Party candidates have also run for the position of directly elected mayors in Doncaster in 2017 (receiving 3,235 votes, 5.04%) and the Sheffield City Region in 2018 (receiving 22,318 votes, 8.6).


Monarchy and peerage
When the territory of Yorkshire began to take shape as a result of the invasion of the Danish vikings, they instituted a monarchy based at the settlement of Jórvík, York. The reign of the Viking kings came to an end with the last king dying in battle in 954 after the invasion and conquest by the Kingdom of England from the south. Jórvík was the last of the independent kingdoms to be taken to form part of the Kingdom of England and thus the local monarchal title became defunct.

Though the monarchal title became defunct, it was succeeded by the creation of the Earl of York title of nobility by king of England Edgar the Peaceful in 960. (The covered the general area of Yorkshire and is sometimes referred to as the Earl of Yorkshire.) The title passed through the hands of various nobles, decided upon by the king of England. The last man to hold the title was William le Gros, however the earldom was abolished by Henry II as a result of a troubled period known as .

The peerage was recreated by Edward III in 1385, this time in the form of the prestigious title of Duke of York which he gave to his son Edmund of Langley. Edmund founded the House of York; later the title was merged with that of the King of England. Much of the modern-day symbolism of Yorkshire, such as the White Rose of York, is derived from the Yorkists, giving the house a special affinity within the culture of Yorkshire. Especially celebrated is the Yorkist king Richard III who spent much of his life at in Yorkshire. Since that time the title has passed through the hands of many, being merged with the crown and then recreated several times. The title of Duke of York is given to the second son of the .


Notable people

See also
  • Outline of England
  • List of collieries in Yorkshire (1984–2015)
  • List of Commissioners' churches in Yorkshire
  • List of Jewish communities in Yorkshire
  • Lord Lieutenant of Yorkshire
  • Royal Yorkshire Regiment
  • Yorkshire Ambulance Service
  • Yorkshire and the Humber
  • Yorkshire coast fishery
  • Yorkshire Forward
  • Yorkshire pudding
  • Yorkshire Society
  • Yorkshire Terrier
  • Yorkshire Air Ambulance
  • Historic counties of England


Explanatory notes
Though the Wars of the Roses were fought between royal houses bearing the names of York and Lancaster, the wars took place over a wide area of England. They were a dynastic clash between cadet branches of the House of Plantagenet. The most prominent family in Yorkshire, below the monarchy, the Nevilles of and , fought for the Yorkists, as did the Scropes of Bolton, the Latimers of Danby and Snape, as well as the Mowbrays of and Burton in Lonsdale. Yet some fought for the Lancastrians, such as the Percies, the Cliffords of , Ros of , Greystock of , Stafford of , and Talbot of .


External links

Page 1 of 1
1
Page 1 of 1
1

Account

Social:
Pages:  ..   .. 
Items:  .. 

Navigation

General: Atom Feed Atom Feed  .. 
Help:  ..   .. 
Category:  ..   .. 
Media:  ..   .. 
Posts:  ..   ..   .. 

Statistics

Page:  .. 
Summary:  .. 
1 Tags
10/10 Page Rank
5 Page Refs
16s Time