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   » Wiki: Twenty20
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Twenty20 cricket, sometimes written Twenty-20, and often abbreviated to T20, is a short form of . It was originally introduced by the (ECB) in 2003 for professional competition in England and Wales. In a Twenty20 game the two teams have a single each, which is restricted to a maximum of 20 . Together with and cricket, Twenty20 is one of the three forms of recognised by the (ICC).

A typical Twenty20 game is completed in about three hours, with each innings lasting around 75–90 minutes and a 10–20-minute interval. This is much shorter than previously-existing forms of the game, and is closer to the timespan of other popular team sports. It was introduced to create a fast-paced form of the game which would be attractive to spectators at the ground and viewers on television.

Since its inception the game has been very successful resulting in its spread around the cricket world. On most international tours there is at least one Twenty20 match and all -playing nations have a domestic cup competition. The inaugural was played in South Africa in 2007 with winning by five runs against in the final. Pakistan won the second tournament in , and England . are the reigning champions after winning beating India by 6 wickets.


History

Origins
When the ended in 2002, the needed another one day competition to fill its place. Cricketing authorities were looking to boost the game's popularity with the younger generation in response to dwindling crowds and reduced sponsorship. It was intended to deliver fast paced, exciting cricket accessible to thousands of fans who were put off by the longer versions of the game. Stuart Robertson, the marketing manager of the ECB, proposed a 20 over per innings game to county chairmen in 2001 and they voted 11–7 in favour of adopting the new format.Newman, Paul; Meet the man who invented Twenty20 cricket – the man missing out on millions; ; 11 June 2008. Retrieved 6 January 2009

The first official Twenty20 matches were played on 13 June 2003 between the English countries in the . Matches played 13 June 2003 ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 9 June 2008 The first season of Twenty20 in England was a relative success, with the defeating the by 9 wickets in the final to claim the title. Twenty20 Cup, 2003, Final – Surrey v Warwickshire ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 9 June 2008 The first Twenty20 match held at , on 15 July 2004 between and , attracted a crowd of 27,509, the highest attendance for any game at the ground - other than a one-day final - since 1953.


Spread worldwide
Thirteen teams from different parts of the country participated in Pakistan's inaugural competition in 2004, with the first winners. On 12 January 2005 Australia's first Twenty20 game was played at the between the and the . It drew a sell-out crowd of 20,000, which was the first time in nearly 25 years the ground had been completely sold out and in Indian Premier League 2008 CSK vs KKR match played. The Attendance of the match close to 100,000 at Eden Garden stadium.

Starting 11 July 2006 19 West Indies regional teams competed in what was named the tournament. The event was financially backed by billionaire , who gave at least US$28,000,000 funding money. It was intended that the tournament would be an annual event. won the inaugural event, defeating by 5 wickets, securing US$1,000,000 in prize money.

On 5 January 2007 played the at , . A crowd of 11,000 was expected based on pre-match ticket sales. However, an unexpected 16,000 turned up on the day to buy tickets, causing disruption and confusion for surprised Gabba staff as they were forced to throw open gates and grant many fans free entry. Attendance reached 27,653.

For 1 February 2008 Twenty20 match between Australia and India, 85,824 people attended the match at the involving the Twenty20 World Champions against the ODI World Champions.

The was held in October 2008 between and , the respective winners of the English and Caribbean Twenty20 competitions, and a team formed from West Indies domestic players; Trinidad and Tobago won the competition, securing US$280,000 prize money. On 1 November, the Stanford Superstars played England in what was expected to be the first of five fixtures in as many years with the winner claiming a US$20,000,000 in each match. The Stanford Superstars won the first match, however no further fixtures were held as Allen Stanford was charged with fraud in 2009.


20–20 Internationals
On 17 February 2005 defeated in the first men's full international Twenty20 match, played at in . The game was played in a light-hearted manner – both sides turned out in kit similar to that worn in the 1980s, the New Zealand team's a direct copy of that worn by the . Some of the players also sported moustaches/beards and hair styles popular in the 1980s taking part in a competition amongst themselves for best retro look, at the request of the Beige Brigade. Australia won the game comprehensively, and as the result became obvious towards the end of the NZ innings, the players and umpires took things less seriously – jokingly replayed the from a 1981 ODI between the two sides, and showed him a mock (red cards are not normally used in cricket) in response.

The first Twenty20 international in England was played between and at the in Hampshire on 13 June 2005, which England won by a margin of 100 runs, a record victory which lasted until 2007.

On 9 January 2006 and met in the first international Twenty20 game in Australia. In a first, each player's appeared on the back of his uniform, rather than his surname. The international match drew a crowd of 38,894 people at . Australia convincingly won the match with scoring 96 runs.

On 16 February 2006 defeated in a tie-breaking 3–0; 126 runs were scored apiece in the game proper. The game was the last international match played by – NZC handed out life-size cardboard masks of his face to patrons as they entered the ground.

Every two years an tournament is to take place, except in the event of an being scheduled in the same year, in which case it will be held the year before. The first tournament was in where defeated in the final. Two Associate teams had played in the first tournament, selected through the , a 50-over competition. In December 2007 it was decided to hold a qualifying tournament with a 20-over format to better prepare the teams. With six participants, two would qualify for the and would each receive $250,000 in prize money. The was won by who beat by 8 wickets in England on 21 June 2009. The tournament was held in West Indies in May 2010, where defeated by 7 wickets. The was won by the West-Indies, by defeating Sri Lanka at the finals. It was the first time in Cricket history when a T20 World Cup tournament took place in an Asian country. There were 12 participants for the title including and as .


Impact on the game
Twenty20 cricket is claimed to have resulted in a more athletic and "explosive" form of cricket. Indian fitness coach Ramji Srinivasan declared in an interview with the Indian fitness website Takath.com, that Twenty20 had "raised the bar" in terms of fitness levels for all players, demanding higher levels of strength, speed, agility and reaction time from all players regardless of role in the team. credited retirement from international cricket with aiding his performance in general and fitness in particular in the .

In June 2009, speaking at the annual at , former Australian wicketkeeper pushed for Twenty20 to be made an . "It would," he said, "be difficult to see a better, quicker or cheaper way of spreading the game throughout the world."Quoted in . "Myths; And stereotypes." The Spin, 30 June 2009.


Match format and rules

Format
Twenty20 match format is similar to in that it involves two teams, each with a single , the key difference being each team bats for a maximum of 20 . In terms of visual format, the batting team members do not arrive from and depart to traditional dressing rooms, but come and go from a "bench" (typically a row of chairs) visible in the playing arena, analogous to association football's "" or a baseball "".


General rules
The apply to Twenty20, with some exceptions:

  • Each bowler may bowl a maximum of only one-fifth of the total overs per innings. For a full, uninterrupted match, this is 4 overs.
  • If a bowler delivers a by overstepping the , it costs 1 run and his next delivery is designated a "free-hit". In this circumstance the batsman can only be dismissed through a , , or .
  • The following restrictions apply:
    • No more than five fielders can be on the at any time.
    • During the first six overs, a maximum of two fielders can be outside the (this is known as the ).
    • After the first six overs, a maximum of five fielders can be outside the fielding circle.
  • If the fielding team does not start to bowl their 20th over within 75 minutes, the batting side is credited an extra six runs for every whole over bowled after the 75-minute mark; the umpire may add more time to this if he believes the batting team is wasting time.


Tie deciders
Currently, if the match ends with the scores tied and there must be a winner, the tie is broken with a one over per side "Eliminator"

or "":

Each team nominates three batsmen and one bowler to play a one-over per side "mini-match", sometimes referred to as a "One1".The team which bats second in the match bats first in the Super Over. In turn, each side bats one over bowled by the one nominated opposition bowler, with their innings over if they lose two wickets before the over is completed. The side with the higher score from their Super Over wins. If the super over also ends up in a tie then the team wins who have scored the most number boundaries (4s 6s) in the 20 overs.

In the Australian domestic competition the the Super Over is played slightly differently, with no 2-wicket limit, and if the super over is also tied then a "" is used, with scores after the fifth ball for each team being used to determine the result. If it is still tied, then the countback goes to 4 balls and so on. The latest Super Over to decide a match was between the winning against the in the Big Bash League at the , with the Stars winning 19/0 to 9/2 in the Super Over after tying on 150.

Tied Twenty20 matches were previously decided by a "".


International
have been played since 2005. To date, 20 nations have played the format, including all .

17 February 2005
17 February 2005
13 June 2005
21 October 2005
16 February 2006
15 June 2006
28 August 2006
28 November 2006
28 November 2006
1 December 2006
1 September 2007
12 September 2007
2 August 2008
2 August 2008
2 August 2008
3 August 2008
2 February 2010
16 March 2014
16 March 2014
17 March 2014
25 July 2015


T20 International rankings
In November 2011, the ICC released the first Twenty20 International rankings, based on the same system as the Test and ODI rankings. The rankings cover a 2 to 3-year period, with matches since the most recent 1 August weighted fully, matches in the preceding 12 months weighted two-thirds, and matches in the 12 months preceding that weighted one-third. To qualify for the rankings, teams must have played at least eight Twenty20 Internationals in the ranking period. ICC Team Rankings


Domestic

This is a list of the current Twenty20 domestic competitions in each major cricketing country.


Records
These statistics are correct as of 6 November 2015 and include all -equivalent level Twenty20 matches.

Twenty 20 records

T20 International records


External links

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