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   » » Wiki: Shrub
Tag Wiki 'Shrub'.

A shrub (often also called a bush) is a small-to-medium-sized . Unlike , shrubs have persistent woody stems above the ground. Shrubs can be either deciduous or evergreen. They are distinguished from by their multiple and shorter , less than tall.

(2022). 9781844070794, Routledge. .
(2022). 9780198833338, Oxford Oxford University Press.
Small shrubs, less than 2 m (6.6 ft) tall are sometimes termed as . Many have species that are shrubs, and others that are trees and herbaceous plants instead.

Some definitions state that a shrub is less than and tree is over 6 m. Others use as the cut-off point for classification. Many species of tree may not reach this mature height because of hostile less than ideal growing conditions, and resemble a shrub-sized plant. However such species have the potential to grow taller under the ideal growing conditions for that plant. In terms of longevity, most shrubs fit in a class between and trees; some may only last about five years even in good conditions, others, usually the larger and more woody ones, may live to 70 or more, but on average they last 7-10 years.

is the natural landscape dominated by various shrubs; there are many distinct types around the world, including , , , and . In gardens and parks, an area largely dedicated to shrubs (now somewhat less fashionable than a century ago) is called a , shrub border or shrub garden. There are many garden of shrubs, bred for flowering, for example , and sometimes even leaf colour or shape.

Compared to trees and herbaceous plants, perhaps a relatively small number of shrubs have agricultural or commercial uses. Apart from the several -bearing species (using the culinary rather than botanical definition), few are eaten directly, and they are generally too small for much use unlike trees. does not come from roses. Those that are used include several perfumed species such as lavender and , and a wide range of plants with medicinal uses. Tea and are on the tree-shrub boundary; they are normally harvested from shrub-sized plants, but these would be large enough to become small trees if left to grow instead.

Shrubs are perennial woody plants, and therefore have persistent woody above ground (compare with succulent stems of ). Usually shrubs are distinguished from trees by their height and multiple stems. Some shrubs are (e.g. ) and others (e.g. ). philosopher divided the plant world into trees, shrubs and herbs.
(1994). 9780140238020, Viking Studio Books. .

Small, low shrubs, generally less than tall, such as , and most small garden varieties of , are often termed as .

(1990). 9781567993196, Friedman/Fairfax Publishers. .

Most definitions characterize shrubs as possessing multiple stems with no main trunk below. This is because the stems have branched below ground level. There are exceptions to this, with some shrubs having main trunks, but these tend to be very short and divide into multiple stems close to ground level without a reasonable length beforehand. Many trees can grow in multiple stemmed forms also while being tall enough to be trees, such as or ash.

Use in gardens and parks
An area of cultivated shrubs in a or a is known as a .
(2022). 9781856230087, Permanent Publications. .
When clipped as , suitable species or varieties of shrubs develop dense and many small leafy growing close together.
(2010). 9780643101975, Csiro Publishing. .
Many shrubs respond well to renewal , in which hard cutting back to a "", removes everything but vital parts of the plant, resulting in long new stems known as "canes". Other shrubs respond better to selective pruning to dead or unhealthy, or otherwise unattractive parts to reveal their structure and character.

Shrubs in common garden practice are generally considered , though some smaller such as and are also shrubby in structure. Species that grow into a shrubby habit may be either or .

(2008). 9781429012904, Applewood Books. .

Botanical structure
In and , a shrub is more specifically used to describe the particular physical canopy structure or of woody plants which are less than high and usually multiple stems arising at or near the surface of the ground. For example, a descriptive system widely adopted in is based on structural characteristics based on life-form, plus the height and amount of foliage cover of the tallest layer or dominant .Costermans, L. F. (1993) Native trees and shrubs of South-Eastern Australia. rev. ed.

For shrubs that are high the following structural forms are categorized:

  • dense foliage cover (70–100%) — closed-shrubs
  • mid-dense foliage cover (30–70%) — open-shrubs
  • sparse foliage cover (10–30%) — tall shrubland
  • very sparse foliage cover (<10%) — tall open shrubland

For shrubs less than high the following structural forms are categorized:

  • dense foliage cover (70–100%) — closed-heath or closed low shrubland—( North America)
  • mid-dense foliage cover (30–70%) — open-heath or mid-dense low shrubland—( North America)
  • sparse foliage cover (10–30%) — low shrubland
  • very sparse foliage cover (<10%) — low open shrubland

List of shrubs
Those marked with * can also develop into tree form if in ideal conditons.

  • (Gorse)
  • Ulmus pumila celer (Turkestan elm – Wonder Hedge)
  • (Mexican Buckeye)

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