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A nickname is a substitute for the proper name of a person, place or thing. It is commonly used to express affection, amusement, a character trait or defamation of character. It is distinct from a , or title, although the concepts can overlap. Also known as sobriquet, it is typically informal.


Etymology
The compound word ekename, literally meaning "additional name", was attested as early as 1303. This word was derived from the phrase eac "also", related to eacian "to increase". By the 15th century, the of the phrase "an ekename" led to its rephrasing as "a nekename". Though the spelling has changed, the pronunciation and meaning of the word have remained relatively stable ever since.


Various language conventions
English nicknames are generally represented in quotes between the bearer's first and last names (e.g., Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower and ). It is also common for the nickname to be identified after a comma following the full real name or later in the body of the text, such as in an obituary (e.g., ). Any middle name is generally omitted, especially in speech. Like English, German uses (German-style) quotation marks between the first and last names (e.g., ). Other languages may use other conventions; for example, Italian writes the nickname after the full name followed by detto "called" (e.g., Salvatore Schillaci detto Totò), in Spanish the nickname is written in formal contexts at the end in quotes following alias (e.g. Alfonso Tostado, alias «el Abulense»), in Portuguese the nickname is written after the full name followed by vulgo or between parenthesis (e.g. Edson Arantes do Nascimento, vulgo Pelé / Edson Arantes do Nascimento (Pelé)) and Slovenian represents nicknames after a dash or hyphen (e.g., Franc Rozman – Stane). The latter may cause confusion because it resembles an English convention sometimes used for married and maiden names.


Various societal uses
In societies, many people had heiti, viðrnefni, or kenningarnöfn (Old Norse terms for nicknames) which were used in addition to, or instead of, the first name. In some circumstances, the giving of a nickname had a special status in Viking society in that it created a relationship between the name maker and the recipient of the nickname, to the extent that the creation of a nickname also often entailed a formal and an known in Old Norse as nafnfestr ('fastening a name').

In society, for example, people will often have two names: a (pet name) which is the name used by family and friends and a bhalonam which is their formal name.

In England, some nicknames are traditionally associated with a person's surname. A man with the surname 'Clark' will be nicknamed 'Nobby': the surname 'Miller' will have the nickname 'Dusty' (alluding to the flour dust of a miller at work): the surname 'Adams' has the nickname 'Nabby'. There are several other nicknames linked traditionally with a person's surname, including Chalky White, Bunny Warren, Tug Wilson, and Spud Baker. Other English nicknames allude to a person's origins. A Scotsman may be nicknamed 'Jock', an Irishman 'Paddy' (alluding to Saint Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland) or 'Mick' (alluding to the preponderance of Roman Catholicism in Ireland), and a Welshman may be nicknamed 'Taffy' (from Welsh , David). Some nicknames referred ironically to a person's physical characteristics, such as 'Lofty' for a short person, or 'Curly' for a bald man.

In Chinese culture, nicknames are frequently used within a community among relatives, friends, and neighbours. A typical southern Chinese nickname often begins with a "阿" followed by another character, usually the last character of the person's given name.

(2019). 9781000713022, Routledge. .
For example, Taiwanese politician (陳水扁) is sometimes referred as "阿扁" (A-Bian). In many Chinese communities of Southeast Asia, nicknames may also connote one's occupation or status. For example, the landlord might be known simply as () for "boss") to his tenants or workers while a bread seller would be called "Mianbao Shu" 面包叔 (literally, Uncle Bread).


Computing
In the context of information technology, nickname is a common synonym for the screen name or handle of a user. In computer networks it has become a common practice for every person to also have one or more nicknames for , to avoid , or simply because the natural name or technical would be too long to type or take too much space on the .


People
Nicknames are usually applied to a person and they are not always chosen by the recipient themselves. Some nicknames are derogatory .


Abbreviation or modification
A nickname can be a or modified variation on a person's real name.
  • Contractions of longer names: Margaret to Greta.
  • : using the first letters of a person's first, middle and/or last name, e.g. "DJ" for Daniel James.
  • Dropping letters: with many nicknames, one or more letters, often R, are dropped: Fanny from Frances, from Walter.
  • Phonetic spelling: sometimes a nickname is created through the phonetic spelling of a name: Len from Leonard.
  • Letter swapping: during the , the letter R would often be swapped for either L or D: Hal from Harry (which in turn comes from Henry); Molly from Mary; Sadie from Sarah; Hob, Dob, Rob, Bob, and Nob from ; Rick, Dick, and Hick from ; Bill from Will (which in turn comes from William); and Peg and Meg from Margaret. In 19th-century frontier United States, Mary and Molly were often given the nickname .


Name portions
  • Front of a name. Sometimes a nickname can come from the beginning of a given name: from Christopher/Christina; Ed from Edward, Edmond, Edgar or Edwin, Iz or Izzy from Isaac, Isaiah, Isidore, Isabel, or Isabella; Joe or Jo from Joseph, Josephine, or Joanna.
  • End of name: Drew from Andrew; Xander from Alexander; Enzo or Renzo from Lorenzo; Beth from Elizabeth; Bel, Bell, Bella or Belle from Isabelle/Isabella.
  • Middle of name: Liz from Elizabeth; Tori from Victoria; Del or Della from Adelaide.
  • Addition of diminutives: before the 17th century, most nicknames had the diminutive ending "-in" or "-kin", where the ending was attached to the first syllable: Watkin for Walter via Wat-kin; Hobkin from Robert via Hob-kin; or Thompkin from Thomas via Thom-Kin. While most of these have died away, a few remain, such as Robin (Rob-in, from Robert), Hank (Hen-Kin from Henry), Jack (Jan-kin from John), and Colin (Col-in from Nicolas).
  • Many nicknames drop the final one or two letters and add ether ie/ee/y as a diminutive ending: Davy from David, Charlie from Charles, Mikey from Michael, Jimmy from James, and Marty from Martin.
  • Initialization, which forms a nickname from a person's initials: A. E. Housman from Alfred Edward Housman, or Dubya for George W. Bush, a Texan pronunciation of the name of the letter 'W', President Bush's middle initial. Brazilian striker Ronaldo was given the nickname R9 (initial and shirt number).
  • Nicknames are sometimes based on a person's last name ("Tommo" for Bill Thompson, "Campo" for ) or a combination of first and last name such as "A-Rod" for ).
  • Loose ties to a person's name with an attached suffix: Gazza for English footballer (though used more widely in Australia for Gary) and similar "zza" forms (Hezza, , etc.) for other prominent personalities whose activities are frequently reported in the British press (see also Oxford "-er" for a similar but wider phenomenon).
  • Use of the .
  • Use of the generational suffix, like "Junior", or nicknames associated with a particular generational suffix, like Trey or Tripp for III.
  • Combination of the first and middle name, or variations of a person's first and middle name. For example, a person may have the name Mary Elizabeth but has the nickname "Maz" or "Miz" by combining Mary and Liz.
  • Doubling of part of a first name. For example, forming "NatNat" from Nathan/Natasha or "JamJam" from James.


Relationship
A nickname may refer to the relationship with the person. This is a term of endearment.
  • In , Japanese honorifics are designed so that a term of endearment conveys the exact status of the relationship between two people. Recipients are allowed to restrict use to a certain person.
  • Nicknames have been a part of human culture since time immemorial. They serve as endearing terms of familiarity, often used by friends, family, or close acquaintances to add an extra layer of intimacy to personal relationships.


Geography

Placenames
Many geographical places have titles, or alternative names, which have positive implications. , for example, is the "City of Light", is the "Eternal City", is "La Serenissima", and is the "Garden State". These alternative names are often used to boost the status of such places, contrary to the usual role of a nickname. Many places or communities, particularly in the US, adopt titles because they can help in establishing a civic identity, help outsiders recognize a community or attract people to a community, promote civic pride, and build community unity. Titles and slogans that successfully create a new community "ideology or myth" are also believed to have economic value. Their economic value is difficult to measure, but there are anecdotal reports of cities that have achieved substantial economic benefits by "branding" themselves by adopting new slogans.Andia, Alfredo (September 10, 2007) "Branding the Generic City" , MU.DOT magazine

By contrast, older may be critical: is still occasionally referred to as "The Smoke" in memory of its notorious "pea-souper" (smoke-filled fogs) of the 19th and early 20th centuries, and was "Auld Reekie" for the same reason, as countless coal fires polluted its atmosphere.


Residents
Besides or replacing the , some places have collective nicknames for their inhabitants. Many examples of this practice are found in and in Belgium in general, where such a nickname is referred to in French as "".


See also


External links
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