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Federal republic
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A federal republic is a of with a form of government. At its core, the literal meaning of the word republic when used to reference a form of government means: "a country that is governed by elected representatives and by an elected leader (such as a president) rather than by a king or queen".

In a federal republic, there is a division of powers between the federal government, and the government of the individual subdivisions. While each federal republic manages this division of powers differently, common matters relating to security and defense, and monetary policy are usually handled at the federal level, while matters such as infrastructure maintenance and education policy are usually handled at the regional or local level. However, views differ on what issues should be a federal competence, and subdivisions usually have sovereignty in some matters where the federal government does not have jurisdiction. A federal republic is thus best defined in contrast to a , whereby the central government has complete sovereignty over all aspects of political life. This more decentralized structure helps to explain the tendency for more populous countries to operate as federal republics.Forum of Federations: [1], Schram, Sanford. Handbook of Federal Countries: United States, pg 373–391, 2005. Most federal republics codify the division of powers between orders of government in a written .

The political differences between a federal republic and other , especially under a parliamentary system of government, are largely a matter of legal form rather than political substance, as most federal states are democratic in structure if not practice with checks and balances. However, some federal monarchies, such as the United Arab Emirates are based upon principles other than democracy.


Contemporary
Argentine RepublicProvinces and one autonomous cityPresident
CIA World Factbook: Austria, 14 May 2009Republic of AustriaStatesPresident
CIA World Factbook: Bosnia and Herzegovina, 14 May 2009Bosnia and HerzegovinaEntities, Cantons and one federal DistrictCollective presidency
CIA World Factbook: Brazil, 14 May 2009Federative Republic of BrazilMunicipalities, States and one federal districtPresident
Union of the ComorosPresident
CIA World Factbook: Ethiopia, 14 May 2009Federal Democratic Republic of EthiopiaRegionsPresident
CIA World Factbook: Germany, 14 May 2009Federal Republic of GermanyStatesPresident
CIA World Factbook: India, 14 May 2009Republic of IndiaStates and union territoriesPresident
Republic of IraqGovernoratesPresident
CIA World Factbook: Mexico, 14 May 2009United Mexican StatesStates and President
Federated States of MicronesiaStatesPresident
CIA World Factbook: Nepal, 14 May 2009Federal Democratic Republic of NepalProvincesPresident
CIA World Factbook: Nigeria, 14 May 2009Federal Republic of NigeriaStates and one federal territoryPresident
CIA World Factbook: Pakistan, 14 May 2009Islamic Republic of PakistanProvinces, Autonomous territories and federal territoryPresident
Russian FederationFederal subjectsPresident
Federal Republic of SomaliaFederal member statesPresident
Republic of SudanStatesPresident
Republic of the SudanStatesPresident
CIA World Factbook: Switzerland, 14 May 2009Swiss ConfederationCantonsFederal council
CIA World Factbook: United States, 14 May 2009United States of America50 States, one federal district and several territoriesPresident
CIA World Factbook: Venezuela, 14 May 2009Bolivarian Republic of VenezuelaStates, one capital district and federal dependenciesPresident


Historic
States
Provinces
States
States
Federal subjects
Republics
Republics
Constituent republics
States


See also


Notes and references

External links
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