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Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, Englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.English in Wales: diversity, conflict, and change - Page 19 Nikolas Coupland, Alan Richard Thomas - 1990 "'Anglicisation' is one of those myriad terms in general use which everyone understands and hardly anyone defines. It concerns the process by which non-English people become assimilated or bound into an ..."The British World: Diaspora, Culture, and Identity - Page 89 Carl Bridge, Kent Fedorowich, Carl Bridge Kent Fedorowich - 2003 "Beyond gaps in our information about who or what was affected by anglicisation is the matter of understanding the process more fully in terms of agency, periodisation, and extent and limitations." It commonly refers to the respelling of foreign words, often to a more drastic degree than . One example is the word "dandelion", modified from the French dent-de-lion (“lion’s tooth”, because of the sharply indented leaves).

Anglicising non-English words for use in English is just one case of the that is common to many languages, sometimes involving shifts in meaning. One example is the German word Felleisen (a backpack), a germanization of the French word valise (small suitcase).

This term does not cover the unmodified adoption of foreign words into English (kindergarten); the unmodified adoption of English words into foreign languages (internet, computer, web), or the voluntary or enforced adoption of the English language or of British or American customs and culture in other countries or ethnic groups, also known as social and economic anglicisation. (Examples being the action of the English crown in the Celtic regions of the United Kingdom, in Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Cornwall; the policy on use of the English language as one of the causes contributing to the South African Wars (1879–1915);”Between 1828 and 1834 the British set up a new court system in the Cape colony, replacing Dutch with English as the official language, despite the fact that the majority of the settlers only spoke Dutch.” or the adoption of English as a personal, preferred language in countries where that language is not native, but has become for historical reasons the language of government, commerce, and instruction.)


Modified loan words
Non-English words may be anglicised by changing their form and/or pronunciation to something more familiar to English speakers. Changing grammatical endings is especially common. The Latin word obscenus has been imported into English in the modified form "obscene" . The plural form of a foreign word may be modified to more conveniently fit English norms, like using "indexes" as the plural of index, rather than indices, as in Latin. The word "opera" (itself the plural form of the Latin word opus) is understood in English to be a singular noun, so it has received an English plural form, "operas". The English word "damsel" is an anglicisation of the damoisele (modern demoiselle), meaning "young lady". Another form of anglicising is the inclusion of a foreign article as part of a noun (such as from the Arabic al-qili). "Rotten Row", the name of a London pathway that was a fashionable place to ride horses in the 18th and 19th centuries, is an adaptation of the French phrase Route du Roi. The word "genie" has been anglicized via Latin from or djinn from الجن, originally meaning demon or spirit. Some changes are motivated by the desire to preserve the pronunciation of the word in the original language, such as the word "schtum", which is phonetic spelling for the German word stumm, meaning silent. The Economist, 13 May 2017, page 53: "The ultimate concession is to give activists representation on the board in return for keeping schtum."

The word "charterparty" is an anglicisation of the French charte partie; the "party" element of "charterparty" does not mean "a party to the contract".

The French word "homage" was introduced by the Normans after 1066, and its pronunciation became anglicised as /ˈhɒmɪdʒ/, with stress on the first syllable; but in recent times showbusiness and Hollywood have taken to pronouncing "homage" in the French fashion, rhyming with "fromage".


Modified place names
Some foreign place names are commonly anglicised in English. Examples include the city København (), the city Москва Moskva (), the city Göteborg (), the city Den Haag (), the city of Sevilla (), the city of القاهرة Al-Qāhira (), and the city of Firenze ().

Such anglicisation was once more common. In the late 19th century, however, use of non-English place names in English began to become more common. When dealing with languages that use the same as English, names are now more usually written in English as in their local language, sometimes even with that do not normally appear in English. With languages that use non-Latin alphabets, such as the , , , , and other alphabets, a direct is typically used, which is then often pronounced according to English rules. Non-Latin based languages may use standard romanisation systems, such as Japanese Rōmaji or Pīnyīn. The Japanese and Chinese names in English follow these spellings with some common exceptions, usually without Chinese tone marks and without Japanese macrons for long vowels: Chóngqìng to (重慶, 重庆), Shíjiāzhuāng to (石家莊, 石家庄), both in ; Kyōto to (京都) in .

Many English names for foreign places have been directly taken over from the French version, sometimes unchanged, such as , , , , sometimes only slightly changed, like (Vienne), (Venise), (Lisbonne), (Séville). The English city-name for the Czech capital, (Praha), is taken with spelling unaltered from the French name for the city, itself descended from the Latin name for the city (Praga), which had been borrowed from an earlier Czech name (pre-dating the /g/>/h/ shift).

De-anglicisation has become a matter of national pride in some places and especially in regions that were once under rule, where vestiges of colonial domination are a sensitive subject. Following centuries of English rule in Ireland, delivered an argument for de-anglicisation before the Irish National Literary Society in Dublin, 25 November 1892: "When we speak of 'The Necessity for De-Anglicising the Irish Nation', we mean it, not as a protest against imitating what is best in the English people, for that would be absurd, but rather to show the folly of neglecting what is Irish, and hastening to adopt, pell-mell, and, indiscriminately, everything that is English, simply because it is English." Despite its status as an official language, Irish has been reduced to a minority language in Ireland due to centuries of English rule, as is the case in North America where indigenous languages have been replaced by that of the British colonists. In the process of removing the signs of their colonial past, anglicised names have been officially discouraged in many places: 's Kingstown, named by King George IV, reverted to its original Irish name of Dún Laoghaire in 1920, even before Irish independence in 1922; 's Bombay is now , even though this is not the oldest local name (see Toponymy of Mumbai) and "Bombay" is still commonly used in the city; Calcutta is now and Madras is . Bangladesh's Dacca is . Many Chinese endonyms have become de-anglicised or otherwise replaced with the more recent Romanization scheme: is now more commonly called (廣州, 广州), and is generally referred to as (北京), although this reflected a name change from Beiping (Peiping) to Beijing (Peking) with the de-anglicisation of the name taking place after the name change to reflect a pronunciation change in the newly established -based Mandarin.

In Scotland, many place names in were anglicised, sometimes deliberately, sometimes accidentally because of unfamiliarity with Gaelic. Often the etymology of a place name is lost or obscured, such as in the case of , from "Cinn a' Ghiuthsaich" (“The Heads of the Pine Forest”). In , a large number of place names were anglicised, with some examples including: became Carnarvon, became Conway, became Llanelly, Caerdydd became . Many of these place names have since reverted, especially in the west of the country (as is the case for Llanelli, Caernarfon, Conwy and Porthmadog), though in the east Welsh and English spellings of place names are often seen side-by side even when very similar to each other, such as with /Y Rhyl, or /Blaenafon.

In other cases, now well-established anglicised names, whatever their origin, have remained in common use where there is no national pride at stake. This is the case with (Gent, or Gand), (München), (Köln), (Wien), (Napoli), (Roma), (Milano), (Αθήνα, Athina), (Москва, Moskva), (Санкт-Петербург, Sankt-Peterburg), (Warszawa), (Praha), (Bucureşti), (Београд, Beograd), (Lisboa), and other European cities whose names have been familiar in their anglicised forms for centuries. However, the present local names sometimes appear as alternatives on maps, and in public places (airports, road signs).

Sometimes a place name might appear anglicised compared with the current name, but the form being used in English is actually an older name that has since been changed. For example, in the province of was named Turin in the original Piedmontese language, but is now officially known as in Italian. The International Olympic Committee made the choice to regard the city officially as "Torino" throughout the 2006 Winter Olympics. The English and French name for in Italy is closer to the original name in ( Florentia) than is the modern Italian name (Firenze).


Personal names

Historic names
In the past, the names of people from other language areas were anglicised to a higher extent than today. This was the general rule for names of Latin or (classical) Greek origin. Today, the anglicised name forms are often retained for the more well-known persons, like for Aristoteles, and (or later ) for Hadrianus. However, less well-known persons from antiquity are now often given their full original-language name (in the case, regardless of its case in the English sentence).

For royalty, the anglicisation of personal names was a general phenomenon, especially until recently, such as for Carlos, Karoly, and Karl, or Frederic for Friedrich or Fredrik. Anglicisation of the Latin is still the rule for popes: Pope John Paul II instead of Ioannes Paulus II, Pope Benedict XVI instead of Benedictus XVI, instead of Franciscus.

The anglicisation of medieval Scottish names consists of changing them from a form consistent with to the , which is an Anglo-Frisian language. For instance, the king known in Scottish Gaelic as Domnall mac Causantín (Domnall son of Causantín) is known in Scots as Donald, son of Constantine.


Immigrant names
During the time in which there were large influxes of immigrants from to the and during the 19th and 20th centuries, the names of many immigrants were never changed by immigration officials (as demonstrated in The Godfather Part II)
  • a "...arrives at in 1901 (film version) and accepts the change of his name to "Corleone..." — pg. 214, ¶ 2. but only by personal choice.

immigrants to the United States (of or background) often accommodated those unfamiliar with pronunciations and spellings by altering their surnames in either of two ways: spellings were changed to fit the traditional pronunciation (Pariseau became Parizo, Boucher became Bushey, Mailloux became Mayhew), or pronunciations were changed to fit the spelling (Benoît, pronounced , became ). In some cases, it could go either way (Gagné, pronounced , became or Gonyea), or something only slightly similar; (Bourassa became Bersaw).

Most Irish names have been anglicised. An example is the surnames of many families – for example, Ó Briain has often become O'Brien, Ó Rothláin became Rowland, Ó Néill became O'Neill, Mac Cana became McCann and some surnames may be shortened, like Ó Gallchobhair to just Gallagher. Likewise, native names were altered such as Somhairle to Sorley, Mac Gill-Eain to MacLean, and Mac Aoidh to MacKay. Many names have also been altered, such as "ap Hywell" to Powell, or "ap Siôn" to Jones.

German names of immigrants were also anglicised (such as Bürger to Burger, Schneider to Snyder) in the course of German immigration waves during times of political and economic instability in the late 19th and early 20th century. A somewhat different case was the politically motivated change of dynasty name in 1917 by the royal family of the United Kingdom from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the House of Windsor. Incidentally, Saxe-Coburg was already an anglicisation of the German original Sachsen-Coburg.

Many Bengali surnames have been anglicised. Banerjee, Chatterjee and Mukherjee are anglicised forms of Bandhopadhay, Chatophadhay and Mukhopadhay respectively.

The anglicisation of a personal name now usually depends on the preferences of the bearer. Name changes are less common today for Europeans emigrating to the United States than they are for people originating in countries (except for , which no longer has large-scale emigration). However, unless the spelling is changed, European immigrants put up with (and in due course accept) an anglicised pronunciation: "" will be so pronounced, unless the "w" becomes a "v", as in "Levi". "Głowacki" will be pronounced "Glowacki", even though in Polish pronunciation it is "Gwovatski". "" is usually pronounced with different values for the two "-ein-" parts, (.


Ethnonyms
As is the case with place names and personal names, in some cases ethnic designations may be anglicised based on a term from a language other than that of the group described. For example, the names Germany (the country), German (the language), and Germans (the people) are minor modifications of the Latin designation ( Germania), and not of the local names (Deutschland, Deutsch, Deutsche).


See also


Notes
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