Wi-Fi or WiFi is a technology for Wireless LAN with devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. Wi-Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance, which restricts the use of the term Wi-Fi Certified to products that successfully complete interoperability certification testing.
Devices that can use Wi-Fi technology include personal computers, video-game consoles, , digital cameras, , digital audio players and modern printers. Wi-Fi compatible devices can connect to the Internet via a WLAN network and a wireless access point. Such an access point (or hotspot) has a range of about indoors and a greater range outdoors. Hotspot coverage can be as small as a single room with walls that block radio waves, or as large as many square kilometres achieved by using multiple overlapping access points.
Wi-Fi most commonly uses the UHF and SHF ISM band radio bands. Having no physical connections, it is more vulnerable to attack than wired connections, such as Ethernet. Web pages that use Transport Layer Security (TLS) are secure, but unencrypted Internet access can easily be detected by intruders. For protection, Wi-Fi has adopted various encryption technologies. The early encryption Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) proved easy to break. Higher quality protocols, such as Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA, WPA2) were added later. An optional feature added in 2007, called Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS), had a serious flaw that allowed an attacker to recover the router's password. The Wi-Fi Alliance has since updated its test plan and certification program to ensure all newly certified devices resist threats.
A 1985 ruling by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission released the ISM band for unlicensed use. These frequency bands are the same ones used by equipment such as microwave ovens and are subject to interference.
In 1991, NCR Corporation with AT&T Corporation invented the precursor to 802.11, intended for use in cashier systems. The first wireless products were under the name WaveLAN. They are the ones credited with inventing Wi-Fi.
The Australian Radio astronomy John O'Sullivan with his colleagues Terence Percival, Graham Daniels, Diet Ostry, John Deane developed a key patent used in Wi-Fi as a by-product of a Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) research project, "a failed experiment to detect exploding mini black holes the size of an atomic particle". In 1992 and 1996, CSIRO obtained patents for a method later used in Wi-Fi to "unsmear" the signal.
The first version of the 802.11 protocol was released in 1997, and provided up to 2 Mbit/s link speeds. This was updated in 1999 with 802.11b to permit 11 Mbit/s link speeds, and this proved to be popular.
In 1999, the Wi-Fi Alliance formed as a trade association to hold the Wi-Fi trademark under which most products are sold.
Wi-Fi uses a large number of patents held by many different organizations. IEEE-SA – IEEE 802.11 and Amendments Patent Letters of Assurance In April 2009, 14 technology companies agreed to pay CSIRO $250 million for infringements on CSIRO patents. This led to Australia labeling Wi-Fi as an Australian invention, though this has been the subject of some controversy. CSIRO won a further $220 million settlement for Wi-Fi patent-infringements in 2012 with global firms in the United States required to pay the CSIRO licensing rights estimated to be worth an additional $1 billion in royalties. In 2016, the wireless local area network Test Bed was chosen as Australia's contribution to the exhibition A History of the World in 100 Objects held in the National Museum of Australia.
The Wi-Fi Alliance used the nonsense advertising slogan "The Standard for Wireless Fidelity" for a short time after the brand name was created, leading to the misconception that Wi-Fi was an abbreviation of "Wireless Fidelity." The name was however never officially "Wireless Fidelity". /ref> Nevertheless, the Wi-Fi Alliance was also called the "Wireless Fidelity Alliance Inc" in some publications and the IEEE's own website has stated "WiFi is a short name for Wireless Fidelity" (originally published 2006)
Non-Wi-Fi technologies intended for fixed points, such as Motorola Canopy, are usually described as fixed wireless. Alternative wireless technologies include mobile phone standards, such as 2G, 3G, 4G, and LTE.
The name is often written as WiFi, Wifi, or wifi, but these are not approved by the Wi-Fi Alliance.
Specifically, the certification process requires conformance to the IEEE 802.11 radio standards, the WPA and WPA2 security standards, and the EAP authentication standard. Certification may optionally include tests of IEEE 802.11 draft standards, interaction with cellular-phone technology in converged devices, and features relating to security set-up, multimedia, and power-saving.
Not every Wi-Fi device is submitted for certification. The lack of Wi-Fi certification does not necessarily imply that a device is incompatible with other Wi-Fi devices. The Wi-Fi Alliance may or may not sanction derivative terms, such as Super Wi-Fi, coined by the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to describe proposed networking in the UHF TV band in the US.
The IEEE 802.11 standard is a set of media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications for implementing Wireless LAN (WLAN) computer communication in the 2.4, 3.6, 5, and 60 GHz frequency bands. They are created and maintained by the IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Committee (IEEE 802). The base version of the standard was released in 1997, and has had subsequent amendments. The standard and amendments provide the basis for wireless network products using the Wi-Fi brand. While each amendment is officially revoked when it is incorporated in the latest version of the standard, the corporate world tends to market to the revisions because they concisely denote capabilities of their products. As a result, in the market place, each revision tends to become its own standard.
Wi-Fi provides service in private homes, businesses, as well as in public spaces at Wi-Fi hotspots set up either free-of-charge or commercially, often using a captive portal webpage for access. Organizations and , such as airports, hotels, and restaurants, often provide free-use hotspots to attract customers. Enthusiasts or authorities who wish to provide services or even to promote business in selected areas sometimes provide free Wi-Fi access.
Routers that incorporate a digital subscriber line modem or a cable modem and a Wi-Fi access point, often set up in homes and other buildings, provide Internet access and internetworking to all devices connected to them, wirelessly or via cable.
Similarly, battery-powered routers may include a cellular Internet radiomodem and Wi-Fi access point. When subscribed to a cellular data carrier, they allow nearby Wi-Fi stations to access the Internet over 2G, 3G, or 4G networks using the tethering technique. Many smartphones have a built-in capability of this sort, including those based on Android, BlackBerry, Bada, iOS (iPhone), Windows Phone and Symbian, though carriers often disable the feature, or charge a separate fee to enable it, especially for customers with unlimited data plans. "Internet packs" provide standalone facilities of this type as well, without use of a smartphone; examples include the MiFi- and WiBro-branded devices. Some laptops that have a cellular modem card can also act as mobile Internet Wi-Fi access points.
Wi-Fi also connects places that normally don't have network access, such as kitchens and garden sheds.
In 2005, St. Cloud, Florida and Sunnyvale, California, became the first cities in the United States to offer citywide free Wi-Fi (from MetroFi). Minneapolis has generated $1.2 million in profit annually for its provider.
In May 2010, London, UK, Mayor Boris Johnson pledged to have London-wide Wi-Fi by 2012. Several boroughs including Westminster and Islington already had extensive outdoor Wi-Fi coverage at that point.
Officials in South Korea's capital are moving to provide free Internet access at more than 10,000 locations around the city, including outdoor public spaces, major streets and densely populated residential areas. Seoul will grant leases to KT, LG Telecom and SK Telecom. The companies will invest $44 million in the project, which was to be completed in 2015.
Similarly, the Wi-Fi Alliance promotes the specification Wi-Fi Direct for file transfers and media sharing through a new discovery- and security-methodology. Wi-Fi Direct launched in October 2010.
Another mode of direct communication over Wi-Fi is Tunneled Direct Link Setup (TDLS), which enables two devices on the same Wi-Fi network to communicate directly, instead of via the access point.
Spectrum assignments and operational limitations are not consistent worldwide: Australia and Europe allow for an additional two channels (12, 13) beyond the 11 permitted in the United States for the 2.4 GHz band, while Japan has three more (12–14). In the US and other countries, 802.11a and 802.11g devices may be operated without a license, as allowed in Part 15 of the FCC Rules and Regulations.
A Wi-Fi signal occupies five channels in the 2.4 GHz band. Any two channel numbers that differ by five or more, such as 2 and 7, do not overlap. The oft-repeated adage that channels 1, 6, and 11 are the only non-overlapping channels is, therefore, not accurate. Channels 1, 6, and 11 are the only group of three non-overlapping channels in North America and the United Kingdom. In Europe and Japan using Channels 1, 5, 9, and 13 for 802.11g and 802.11n is recommended.
802.11a uses the U-NII, which, for much of the world, offers at least 23 non-overlapping channels rather than the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band, where adjacent channels overlap.
Additionally, other devices use the 2.4 GHz band: microwave ovens, ISM band devices, , ZigBee devices, Bluetooth devices, , cordless phones, , and, in some countries, amateur radio, all of which can cause significant additional interference. It is also an issue when municipalities or other large entities (such as universities) seek to provide large area coverage.
A service set is the set of all the devices associated with a particular Wi-Fi network. The service set can be local, independent, extended or mesh.
Each service set has an associated identifier, the 32-byte Service Set Identifier (SSID), which identifies the particular network. The SSID is configured within the devices that are considered part of the network, and it is transmitted in the packets. Receivers ignore wireless packets from networks with a different SSID.
Many newer consumer devices support the latest 802.11ac standard, which uses the 5 GHz band exclusively and is capable of multi-station WLAN throughput of at least 1 gigabit per second. According to a study, devices with the 802.11ac specification were expected to be common by 2015 with an estimated one billion spread around the world.
Wi-Fi allows cheaper deployment of local area networks (LANs). Also, spaces where cables cannot be run, such as outdoor areas and historical buildings, can host wireless LANs. However, building walls of certain materials, such as stone with high metal content, can block Wi-Fi signals.
Different competitive brands of access points and client network-interfaces can inter-operate at a basic level of service. Products designated as "Wi-Fi Certified" by the Wi-Fi Alliance are backward compatible. Unlike , any standard Wi-Fi device will work anywhere in the world.
A wireless access point (WAP) connects a group of wireless devices to an adjacent wired LAN. An access point resembles a Ethernet hub, relaying data between connected wireless devices in addition to a (usually) single connected wired device, most often an Ethernet hub or switch, allowing wireless devices to communicate with other wired devices.
Wireless adapters allow devices to connect to a wireless network. These adapters connect to devices using various external or internal interconnects such as PCI, miniPCI, USB, ExpressCard, Cardbus and PC Card. , most newer laptop computers come equipped with built in internal adapters.
integrate a Wireless Access Point, Ethernet network switch, and internal router firmware application that provides Internet Protocol routing, NAT, and DNS forwarding through an integrated WAN-interface. A wireless router allows wired and wireless Ethernet LAN devices to connect to a (usually) single WAN device such as a cable modem or a DSL modem. A wireless router allows all three devices, mainly the access point and router, to be configured through one central utility. This utility is usually an integrated web server that is accessible to wired and wireless LAN clients and often optionally to WAN clients. This utility may also be an application that is run on a computer, as is the case with as Apple's AirPort, which is managed with the AirPort Utility on Mac OS X and iOS.
Wireless network bridges connect a wired network to a wireless network. A bridge differs from an access point: an access point connects wireless devices to a wired network at the . Two wireless bridges may be used to connect two wired networks over a wireless link, useful in situations where a wired connection may be unavailable, such as between two separate homes or for devices which do not have wireless networking capability (but have wired networking capability), such as consumer entertainment devices; alternatively, a wireless bridge can be used to enable a device which supports a wired connection to operate at a wireless networking standard which is faster than supported by the wireless network connectivity feature (external dongle or inbuilt) supported by the device (e.g. enabling Wireless-N speeds (up to the maximum supported speed on the wired Ethernet port on both the bridge and connected devices including the wireless access point) for a device which only supports Wireless-G). A dual-band wireless bridge can also be used to enable 5 GHz wireless network operation on a device which only supports 2.4 GHz wireless networking functionality and has a wired Ethernet port.
Wireless range-extenders or wireless repeaters can extend the range of an existing wireless network. Strategically placed range-extenders can elongate a signal area or allow for the signal area to reach around barriers such as those pertaining in L-shaped corridors. Wireless devices connected through repeaters will suffer from an increased latency for each hop, as well as from a reduction in the maximum data throughput that is available. In addition, the effect of additional users using a network employing wireless range-extenders is to consume the available bandwidth faster than would be the case where but a single user migrates around a network employing extenders. For this reason, wireless range-extenders work best in networks supporting very low traffic throughput requirements, such as for cases where but a single user with a Wi-Fi equipped tablet migrates around the combined extended and non-extended portions of the total connected network. Additionally, a wireless device connected to any of the repeaters in the chain will have a data throughput that is also limited by the "weakest link" existing in the chain between where the connection originates and where the connection ends. Networks employing wireless extenders are also more prone to degradation from interference from neighboring access points that border portions of the extended network and that happen to occupy the same channel as the extended network.
The security standard, Wi-Fi Protected Setup, allows embedded devices with limited graphical user interface to connect to the Internet with ease. Wi-Fi Protected Setup has 2 configurations: The Push Button configuration and the PIN configuration. These embedded devices are also called The Internet of Things and are low-power, battery-operated embedded systems. A number of Wi-Fi manufacturers design chips and modules for embedded Wi-Fi, such as GainSpan.GainSpan specifically designs for Wi-Fi technology between Wi-Fi devices. Extremely useful.
In June 2014 Texas Instruments introduced the first ARM Cortex-M4 microcontroller with an onboard dedicated Wi-Fi MCU, the SimpleLink CC3200. It makes embedded systems with Wi-Fi connectivity possible to build as single-chip devices, which reduces their cost and minimum size, making it more practical to build wireless-networked controllers into inexpensive ordinary objects.
An access point compliant with either 802.11b or 802.11g, using the stock antenna might have a range of . The same radio with an external semi parabolic antenna (15 dB gain) might have a range over 20 miles.
Higher gain rating (dBi) indicates further deviation (generally toward the horizontal) from a theoretical, perfect isotropic radiator, and therefore the further the antenna can project a usable signal, as compared to a similar output power on a more isotropic antenna. For example, an 8 dBi antenna used with a 100 mW driver will have a similar horizontal range to a 6 dBi antenna being driven at 500 mW. Note that this assumes that radiation in the vertical is lost; this may not be the case in some situations, especially in large buildings or within a waveguide. In the above example, a directional waveguide could cause the low power 6 dBi antenna to project much further in a single direction than the 8 dBi antenna which is not in a waveguide, even if they are both being driven at 100 mW.
IEEE 802.11n, however, can more than double the range. Range also varies with frequency band. Wi-Fi in the 2.4 GHz frequency block has slightly better range than Wi-Fi in the 5 GHz frequency block used by 802.11a (and optionally by 802.11n). On wireless routers with detachable antennas, it is possible to improve range by fitting upgraded antennas which have higher gain in particular directions. Outdoor ranges can be improved to many kilometers through the use of high gain directional antennas at the router and remote device(s). In general, the maximum amount of power that a Wi-Fi device can transmit is limited by local regulations, such as FCC Part 15 in the US. Equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) in the European Union is limited to 20 dBm (100 mW).
To reach requirements for wireless LAN applications, Wi-Fi has fairly high power consumption compared to some other standards. Technologies such as Bluetooth (designed to support wireless personal area network (PAN) applications) provide a much shorter Radio propagation range between 1 and 100 m section 1.2 (scope) and so in general have a lower power consumption. Other low-power technologies such as ZigBee have fairly long range, but much lower data rate. The high power consumption of Wi-Fi makes battery life in mobile devices a concern.
Researchers have developed a number of "no new wires" technologies to provide alternatives to Wi-Fi for applications in which Wi-Fi's indoor range is not adequate and where installing new wires (such as CAT-6) is not possible or cost-effective. For example, the ITU-T G.hn standard for high speed local area networks uses existing home wiring (coaxial cables, phone lines and power lines). Although G.hn does not provide some of the advantages of Wi-Fi (such as mobility or outdoor use), it is designed for applications (such as IPTV distribution) where indoor range is more important than mobility.
For the best performance, a number of people only recommend using wireless networking as a supplement to wired networking.
Due to the complex nature of radio propagation at typical Wi-Fi frequencies, particularly the effects of signal reflection off trees and buildings, algorithms can only approximately predict Wi-Fi signal strength for any given area in relation to a transmitter. This effect does not apply equally to long-range Wi-Fi, since longer links typically operate from towers that transmit above the surrounding foliage.
The practical range of Wi-Fi essentially confines mobile use to such applications as inventory-taking machines in warehouses or in retail spaces, barcode-reading devices at check-out stands, or receiving/shipping stations. Mobile use of Wi-Fi over wider ranges is limited, for instance, to uses such as in an automobile moving from one hotspot to another. Other wireless technologies are more suitable for communicating with moving vehicles.
When multiple access points are deployed they are often configured with the same SSID and security settings to form an "extended service set". Wi-Fi client devices will typically connect to the access point that can provide the strongest signal within that service set.
An attacker who has gained access to a Wi-Fi network router can initiate a DNS spoofing attack against any other user of the network by forging a response before the queried DNS server has a chance to reply.
Wi-Fi Protected Access encryption (WPA2) is considered secure, provided a strong passphrase is used. A proposed modification to WPA2 is WPA-OTP or WPA3, which stores an on-chip optically generated onetime pad on all connected devices which is periodically updated via strong encryption then hashed with the data to be sent or received. This would be unbreakable using any (even quantum) computer system as the hashed data is essentially random and no pattern can be detected if it is implemented properly. Main disadvantage is that it would need multi-GB storage chips so would be expensive for the consumers.
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) encryption was designed to protect against casual snooping but it is no longer considered secure. Tools such as AirSnort or Aircrack-ng can quickly recover WEP encryption keys. Because of WEP's weakness the Wi-Fi Alliance approved Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) which uses TKIP. WPA was specifically designed to work with older equipment usually through a firmware upgrade. Though more secure than WEP, WPA has known vulnerabilities.
The more secure WPA2 using Advanced Encryption Standard was introduced in 2004 and is supported by most new Wi-Fi devices. WPA2 is fully compatible with WPA."WPA2 Security Now Mandatory for Wi-Fi CERTIFIED Products"
A flaw in a feature added to Wi-Fi in 2007, called Wi-Fi Protected Setup, allows WPA and WPA2 security to be bypassed and effectively broken in many situations. The only remedy as of late 2011 is to turn off Wi-Fi Protected Setup,http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/723755 US CERT Vulnerability Note VU#723755 which is not always possible.
Virtual Private Networks are often used to secure Wi-Fi.
During the early popular adoption of 802.11, providing open access points for anyone within range to use was encouraged to cultivate wireless community networks, particularly since people on average use only a fraction of their downstream bandwidth at any given time.
Recreational logging and mapping of other people's access points has become known as wardriving. Indeed, many access points are intentionally installed without security turned on so that they can be used as a free service. Providing access to one's Internet connection in this fashion may breach the Terms of Service or contract with the ISP. These activities do not result in sanctions in most jurisdictions; however, legislation and case law differ considerably across the world. A proposal to leave graffiti describing available services was called warchalking. A Florida court case determined that owner laziness was not to be a valid excuse.
Piggybacking often occurs unintentionally – a technically unfamiliar user might not change the default "unsecured" settings to their access point and operating systems can be configured to connect automatically to any available wireless network. A user who happens to start up a laptop in the vicinity of an access point may find the computer has joined the network without any visible indication. Moreover, a user intending to join one network may instead end up on another one if the latter has a stronger signal. In combination with automatic discovery of other network resources (see DHCP and Zeroconf) this could possibly lead wireless users to send sensitive data to the wrong middle-man when seeking a destination (see Man-in-the-middle attack). For example, a user could inadvertently use an unsecure network to log in to a website, thereby making the login credentials available to anyone listening, if the website uses an unsecure protocol such as plain HTTP without TLS (HTTPS).
An unauthorized user can obtain security information (factory preset passphrase and/or Wi-Fi Protected Setup PIN) from a label on a wireless access point can use this information (or connect by the Wi-Fi Protected Setup pushbutton method) to commit unauthorized and/or unlawful activities.
A review of studies involving 725 people who claimed electromagnetic hypersensitivity, "...suggests that 'electromagnetic hypersensitivity' is unrelated to the presence of EMF, although more research into this phenomenon is required."