Shoreditch is an inner city district in the East End of London, Central London
in the London Borough of Hackney. Shoreditch includes the sub-districts of Hoxton and Haggerston and lies immediately to the north and north east of the City of London.
Shoreditch High Street railway station is just outside Shoreditch in the Bethnal Green area of Tower Hamlets. This sometimes leads to adjacent areas of Bethnal Green being informally referred to as part of Shoreditch.
The etymology of "Shoreditch" is debated. One legend holds that the place was originally named "Shore's Ditch", after Jane Shore
, the mistress of Edward IV, who is supposed to have died or been buried in a ditch in the area. This legend is commemorated today by a large painting, at Haggerston
Branch Library, of the body of Shore being retrieved from the ditch, and by a design on glazed tiles in a shop in Shoreditch High Street showing her meeting Edward IV.
[Clunn, H.P. (1970) The Face of London. Spring Books: London. pp. 312, 493]
But the area was known as "Soersditch" long before Jane Shore lived. London County Council Survey of London (v. 8) attests to at least thirty deeds between 1150 and 1250 CE which refer to Shoreditch.
A more plausible origin for the name is "Sewer Ditch", in reference to a drain or watercourse in what was once a boggy area.
[Mander 1996, p. 13.] It may have referred to the headwaters of the Walbrook, which rose in the Curtain Road area.
In another theory, antiquarian John Weever claimed that the name was derived from Sir John de Soerdich, who was lord of the manor during the reign of Edward III (132777).
Though now part of Inner London
, Shoreditch was previously an extramural
suburb of the City of London, centred on Shoreditch Church at the crossroads where Shoreditch High Street and Kingsland Road
are crossed by Old Street
and Hackney Road
Shoreditch High Street and Kingsland Road are a small sector of the Roman Ermine Street and modern A10. Known also as the Old North Road, it was a major coaching route to the north, exiting the City at Bishopsgate. The east–west course of Old Street–Hackney Road was also probably originally a Roman Road, connecting Silchester with Camulodunum, bypassing the City of London to the south.
Shoreditch Church (dedicated to St Leonard) is of ancient origin. It is featured in the famous line "when I grow rich say the bells of Shoreditch", from the English nursery rhyme "Oranges and Lemons".
Shoreditch was the site of a house of canonesses, the Augustinian Holywell Priory (named after a Holy Well on the site), from the 12th century until its dissolution in 1539. This priory was located between Shoreditch High Street and Curtain Road to east and west, and Batemans Row and Holywell Lane to north and south. Nothing remains of it today.
In 1576, James Burbage
built the first playhouse in England, known as "The Theatre
", on the site of the Priory (commemorated today by a plaque on Curtain Road, and excavated in 2008, by MoLAS
[ Shakespeare's Shoreditch theatre unearthed Maev Kennedy, The Guardian, Thursday, 7 August 2008]
Some of Shakespeare's plays were performed here and at the nearby Curtain Theatre
, built the following year and to the south (marked by a commemorative plaque in Hewett Street off Curtain Road). It was here that Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet
gained "Curtain plaudits", and where Henry V
was performed within "this wooden O". Shakespeare's Company moved the timbers of "The Theatre" to Southwark
at the expiration of the lease in 1599, in order to construct The Globe Theatre
. The Curtain continued performing plays in Shoreditch until at least 1627.
The suburb of Shoreditch was attractive as a location for these early theatres because it was outside the jurisdiction of the somewhat puritanical City fathers. Even so, they drew the wrath of contemporary moralists, as did the local "base tenements and houses of unlawful and disorderly resort" and the "great number of dissolute, loose, and insolent people harboured in such and the like noisome and disorderly houses, as namely poor cottages, and habitations of beggars and people without trade, stables, inns, alehouses, taverns, garden-houses converted to dwellings, ordinaries, dicing houses, bowling alleys, and brothel houses".
[Middlesex Justices in 1596; cited in Schoenbaum 1987, p. 126.]
During the 17th century, wealthy traders and French Huguenot silkweavers moved to the area, establishing a textile industry centred to the south around Spitalfields. By the 19th century, Shoreditch was also the locus of the furniture industry, now commemorated in the Geffrye Museum on Kingsland Road. The area declined in conditions, as did both textile and furniture industries with competition elsewhere and, by the end of the 19th century, Shoreditch was a byword for crime, prostitution and poverty. This situation was exacerbated by the extensive devastation of the housing stock in the Blitz during the Second World War, and by insensitive redevelopment in the post-war period.
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Shoreditch was a centre of entertainment to rival the West End and boasted many theatres and :
The National Standard Theatre, 2/3/4 Shoreditch High Street (1837–1940). In the late 19th century this was one of the largest theatres in London. In 1926, it was converted into a cinema called The New Olympia Picturedrome. The building was demolished in 1940. Sims Reeves, Mrs Marriott and James Anderson all appeared here; also performed were programmes of classical opera and even Shakespeare, with such luminaries as Henry Irving. There was considerable rivalry with the West End theatres. John Douglass (the owner, from 1845) wrote a letter to The Era following a Drury Lane first night, in which he commented that "seeing that a hansom cab is used in the new drama at Drury Lane, I beg to state that a hansom cab, drawn by a live horse was used in my drama ... produced at the Standard Theatre ... with real rain, a real flood, and a real balloon."
The Shoreditch Empire, also known as The London Music Hall, 95–99 Shoreditch High Street (1856–1935). The theatre was rebuilt in 1894 by Frank Matcham. the architect of the Hackney Empire. Charlie Chaplin is recorded as performing here, in his early days, before he achieved fame in America.
The Royal Cambridge Music Hall, 136 Commercial Street (1864–1936), was destroyed by fire in 1896, then rebuilt in 1897 by Finch Hill, architect of the Britannia Theatre, in nearby Hoxton. The Builder of 4 December 1897 said "The New Cambridge Music Hall in Commercial Street, Bishopsgate, is now nearing completion. The stage will be wide by deep. The premises will be heated throughout by hot water coils, and provision has been made for lighting the house by electric light."
None of these places of entertainment survives today. Music hall was revived for a brief time in Curtain Road by the temporary home of the Brick Lane Music Hall.
This too has now moved on.
A number of playbills and posters from these music halls survive in the collections of both the Bishopsgate Institute and the Victoria and Albert Museum.
The historic heart of Shoreditch is Shoreditch High Street and Shoreditch Church. In the past the area of Shoreditch was defined by the borders of the parish of Shoreditch, which later defined the borders of the Metropolitan Borough of Shoreditch. Since 1965, when the latter unit of local government was dissolved, it has been more fuzzily defined. Hoxton to the north of Old Street was historically part of Shoreditch parish and borough, and is still often conflated with it.
To the north and west of Shoreditch is Old Street and Hoxton (and the southern end of Hackney Road) on the street of the same name (Old Street) while to the south it is met with Bishopsgate though the various side streets and with the northern end of Commercial Road and Quaker Street acting as the southern border with Spitalfields, and the very southeast boundary being shared with Whitechapel on Buxton Street and Vallence Road. With the boundaries with Bethnal Green being Brick Lane (south end), the Great Eastern Main Line and Chilton Road, Sharklewel Street, Brick Lane (north end), Swanfield Street and Vinginia Road.
The medieval parish of Shoreditch (St Leonard's) was once part of the county of Middlesex
, but became part of the new County of London in 1889. The parish remained the local administrative unit until the creation of the Metropolitan Borough of Shoreditch in 1899. The Borough was made up of three districts—Shoreditch, Hoxton and Haggerston—and administered from Shoreditch Town Hall, which can still be seen on Old Street. It has been restored and is now run by the Shoreditch Town Hall Trust. Shoreditch was incorporated into the much larger London Borough of Hackney in 1965.
Shoreditch has, since around 1996, become a popular and fashionable part of London. Often conflated with neighbouring Hoxton, the area has been subject to considerable gentrification
in the past twenty years, with accompanying rises in land and property prices.
More recently, during the second 'dot-com' boom, the both the area and Old Street has become popular with London-based web technology companies who base their head offices around the new tech district East London Tech City. These include Last.fm, Dopplr, Songkick, SocialGO and 7digital. These companies have tended to gravitate towards Old Street Roundabout, giving rise to the term "Silicon Roundabout" to describe the area, as used by Prime Minister David Cameron in a speech in November 2010.
Formerly a predominantly working-class area, Shoreditch and Hoxton have, in recent years, been gentrified by the creative industries and those who work in them. Former industrial buildings have been converted to offices and flats, while Curtain Road and Old Street are notable for their clubs and pubs which offer a variety of venues to rival those of the West End. Art galleries, bars, restaurants, media businesses and the building of the Hackney Community College campus are further features of this transformation.
In fact, the word Shoreditch is now synonymous with the concept of contemporary 'hipsterfication' of regenerated urban areas. As a pioneer among similar transformations across the UK, various phrases have been coined, from "Shoreditchification" to "Very Shoreditch".
In September 2015, a demonstration against gentrification in London took the form of a protest at Cereal Killer Cafe, a hipster café on Brick Lane which serves cereal.
South Shoreditch is currently undergoing an enormous transformation. Several five- or six-storey buildings have been knocked down in the area of Shoreditch that borders the City of London. In their place will be erected a variety of very tall buildings, mirroring the architectural styles in the City.
The developments will result in more residential units being available for sale in Shoreditch than were produced by the Olympics athletes' village.
Notable local residents
Adeline Blair, photographer
Andrew Weatherall, DJ, producer, and remixer
Anissa Helou, cookbook author, teacher and chef specialising in the cuisines of the Mediterranean, Middle East and North Africa
Barbara Windsor, comedian, film and television actress was born there.
Christopher Marlowe, Elizabethan era Playwright lived in Norton Folgate, the southern continuation of Shoreditch High Street, and wrote plays for the Shoreditch theatres.
Damien Hirst, artist; instrumental in the development of the area's art scene in the early 1990s
Emmanuel Ray, TV presenter/socialite
Henry Hate, celebrity tattoo artist; clients include Boy George, Alexander McQueen, Amy Winehouse and Pete Doherty
Hetty King, a famous male impersonator of the music hall, was born here. Her father, William Emms, was a local comedian known as William King.
Hoxton Tom McCourt, influential in the late 1970s and early 1980s mod and oi/punk scenes and founder of the band, the 4-Skins, was born in Shoreditch in 1961.
James Burbage, Tudor period actor and impresario: built The Theatre; buried in Shoreditch church
Jem Smith, bare knuckle prize fighter
Jon Kortajarena, Spanish model and actor lives here
John Appold, FRS (1800–1865), a pioneer of the centrifugal pump
Joshua Compston, curator & founder of Factual Nonsense; instrumental in the development of the area's art scene in the early 1990s; lived & died in Charlotte Road.
Luke Evans, Welsh singer, musical performer and film actor lives here
Matt Monro, singer dubbed "the singer's singer" and "the British Sinatra", famous for singing the title songs of the films Born Free, From Russia with Love, and 'On Days Like These' from the film The Italian Job
Miquita Oliver, T4 presenter
Nat Wei, Baron Wei, youngest non-hereditary peer ever upon entry to the House of Lords and government advisor on Big Society
Noel Fielding, comedian, film and television actor
Paul Galvin, Irish fashion designer and former Gaelic footballer
Richard Burbage, actor in the Lord Chamberlain's Men, Shakespeare's own Company. Renowned for his performance of Shakespeare's greatest roles: Hamlet, Richard III, etc. Buried in the church.
Richard Tarleton, Elizabethan era comedian. Shakespeare's Yorick is believed to be a homage to his memory. Buried in Shoreditch church.
Russell Brand, actor and comedian
Szabotage, graffiti artist and designer
Thomas Fairchild (gardener),the first person who succeeded in scientifically producing an artificial hybrid
William James Blacklock, British landscape artist, was born in Shoreditch in 1816
William Shakespeare, lodged in nearby Bishopsgate and wrote and performed plays for both The Theatre and Curtain Theatre.
William Sommers, Henry VIII's jester; buried in Shoreditch church.
Schools in the area include,
Thomas Buxton Primary School (party in Whitechapel)
Virginia Primary School
In the mid-1960s, the main streets of Shoreditch (Old Street, Shoreditch High Street and Curtain Road, Great Eastern Street) were formed into a mile-long one-way system, which became associated with traffic congestion, poor conditions for walking and cycling, high speeds, high collision rates, and delays for bus services. The gyratory system came to be seen as "the main factor holding back the cultural regeneration of South Shoreditch"
[Teo Greenstraat of The Circus Space, quoted in More Light, More Power, No. 6, Autumn 2000]
and "a block to economic recovery".
[Michael Pyner of Shoreditch New Deal Trust, quoted in More Light, More Power, No. 6, Autumn 2000]
Following a lengthy campaign,
[ The long road back to a two-way Shoreditch Hackney Cyclists, 2002]
the then newly formed Transport for London agreed to revert most of the streets to two-way working, a project which was completed in late 2002.
provides all local bus services the district, 8, 135, 205, 388 and night routes N8 and N205 in South Shoreditch
and 26, 35, 47, 48, 67, 78 and night route N26 in Central Shoreditch
, 55, 149, 242, 243 and night route N55 in North Shoreditch
and D prefix route D3 in South East Shoreditch
- London Overground
In 2005 funding was announced for the East London Line Extension which would extend the existing line from Whitechapel tube station bypassing Shoreditch tube station (which closed in June 2006) and creating a new station titled Shoreditch High Street, this is now served by London Overground services at the site of the old Bishopsgate Goods Yard which was demolished in 2004.
- London Underground
While Shoreditch has no access to the London Underground since 2006 when Shoreditch tube station was shut down on the East London line, there has since been discussions of creating an interchange with the Central line between Liverpool Street and Bethnal Green at Shoreditch High Street which runs almost underneath the station. However, this would not be able to happen until after the Crossrail
project is complete, due to extreme crowding on the Central line during peak hours.
- Disused stations
Shoreditch railway station (closed 1940)
Shoreditch tube station (closed 2006)
Ackroyd, Peter (2000) London: The Biography. Chatto & Windus, London.
Clifton, L. (2002) Baby Oil and Ice: Striptease in East London. The Do-Not Press Limited: London.
Harrison, P. (1985) Inside the Inner City: Life Under the Cutting Edge. Penguin: Harmondsworth.
Schoenbaum, S. (1987) William Shakespeare: a Compact Documentary Life, OUP.
Shapiro, J. (2005) 1599: A Year in the Life of William Shakespeare. Faber and Faber, London.
Sugden, K. (n.d.) Under Hackney: The Archaeological Story. FHA.
Taylor, W. (2001) This Bright Field. Methuen: London.
Wood, M (2003) In Search of Shakespeare. BBC Worldwide, London.