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A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal . While both and are useful in conveying , writing differs in also being a reliable form of storage and transfer. The processes of writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing is usually recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer , on a blackboard, in sand, or by .

The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as , , or . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters (basic written or ) of and that encode based on the general principle that the letters (or letter pair/groups) represent . In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a or mora. In a logography, each character represents a word, , or other semantic units. Other categories include , which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, and or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing. Alphabets typically use a set of 20-to-35 symbols to fully express a language, whereas syllabaries can have 80-to-100, and logographies can have several hundreds of symbols.

Most systems will typically have an ordering of its symbol elements so that groups of them can be coded into larger clusters like or (generally ), giving rise to many more possibilities () in meanings than the symbols can convey by themselves. Systems will also enable the of these smaller groupings (sometimes referred to by the generic term 'character strings') in order to enable a full expression of the language. The reading step can be accomplished purely in the mind as an internal process, or . A special set of symbols known as is used to aid in structure and organization of many writing systems and can be used to help capture nuances and variations in the message's meaning that are communicated verbally by cues in , tone, , or intonation. A writing system will also typically have a method for formatting recorded messages that follows the spoken version's rules like its and so that the reader will have the meaning of the intended message accurately preserved.

Writing systems were preceded by , which used , and other symbols. Proto-writing lacked the ability to capture and express a full range of thoughts and ideas. The invention of writing systems, which dates back to the beginning of the in the late of the late 4th millennium BC, enabled the accurate durable recording of in a manner that was not prone to the same types of error to which is vulnerable. Soon after, writing provided of long distance communication. With the advent of , it provided the medium for an early form of mass communication.

The creation of a new alphabetic writing system for a language with an existing logographic writing system is called alphabetization, as when the People's Republic of China studied the prospect of alphabetizing the with , , , and even numbers, although the most common instance of it, converting to Latin script, is usually called .

General properties

Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that a writing system is always associated with at least one . In contrast, visual representations such as drawings, paintings, and non-verbal items on maps, such as contour lines, are not language-related. Some symbols on information signs, such as the symbols for male and female, are also not language related, but can grow to become part of language if they are often used in conjunction with other language elements. Some other symbols, such as and the , are not directly linked to any specific language, but are often used in writing and thus must be considered part of writing systems.

Every human community possesses language, which many regard as an innate and defining condition of humanity. However, the development of writing systems, and the process by which they have supplanted traditional systems of communication, have been sporadic, uneven and slow. Once established, writing systems generally change more slowly than their spoken counterparts. Thus they often preserve features and expressions which are no longer current in the spoken language. One of the great benefits of writing systems is that they can preserve a permanent record of information expressed in a language.

All writing systems require:

  • at least one set of defined base elements or , individually termed signs and collectively called a script;Coulmas, Florian. 2003. Writing systems. An introduction. Cambridge University Press. pg. 35.
  • at least one set of rules and conventions () understood and shared by a community, which assigns meaning to the base elements (), their ordering and relations to one another;
  • at least one language (generally ) whose constructions are represented and can be recalled by the interpretation of these elements and rules;
  • some physical means of distinctly representing the symbols by application to a permanent or semi-permanent medium, so they may be interpreted (usually visually, but tactile systems have also been devised).

Basic terminology
In the examination of individual scripts, the study of writing systems has developed along partially independent lines. Thus, the terminology employed differs somewhat from field to field.

Text, writing, reading and orthography
The generic term textDavid Crystal (2008), A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 6th Edition, p.481, Wiley refers to an instance of written or spoken material with the latter having been transcribed in some way. The act of composing and recording a text may be referred to as ,Hadumod Bußmann (1998), Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics, p.1294, Taylor & Francis and the act of viewing and interpreting the text as reading.Hadumod Bußmann (1998), Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics, p.979, Taylor & Francis refers to the method and rules of observed writing structure (literal meaning, "correct writing"), and particularly for systems, includes the concept of .

Grapheme and phoneme
A is a specific base unit of a writing system. Graphemes are the minimally significant elements which taken together comprise the set of "building blocks" out of which texts made up of one or more writing systems may be constructed, along with rules of correspondence and use. The concept is similar to that of the used in the study of spoken languages. For example, in the -based writing system of standard contemporary English, examples of graphemes include the and forms of the twenty-six letters of the alphabet (corresponding to various phonemes), marks of (mostly non-phonemic), and a few other symbols such as those for (logograms for numbers).

An individual grapheme may be represented in a wide variety of ways, where each variation is visually distinct in some regard, but all are interpreted as representing the "same" grapheme. These individual variations are known as of a grapheme (compare with the term used in linguistic study). For example, the minuscule letter a has different allographs when written as a , , or letter. The choice of a particular allograph may be influenced by the medium used, the writing instrument, the stylistic choice of the writer, the preceding and following graphemes in the text, the time available for writing, the intended audience, and the largely unconscious features of an individual's .

Glyph, sign and character
The terms , sign and character are sometimes used to refer to a grapheme. Common usage varies from discipline to discipline; compare , , Chinese character. The glyphs of most writing systems are made up of lines (or strokes) and are therefore called , but there are glyphs in non-linear writing systems made up of other types of marks, such as Cuneiform and .

Complete and partial writing systems
Writing systems may be regarded as complete according to the extent to which they are able to represent all that may be expressed in the spoken language, while a partial writing system is limited in what it can convey.Harriet Joseph Ottenheimer (2012), The Anthropology of Language: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology, p.194, Cengage Learning

Writing systems, languages and conceptual systems
Writing systems can be independent from languages, one can have multiple writing systems for a language, e.g., Hindi and Urdu; StackExchange: Is it plausible to have two written forms of one spoken language that are so different as to be indecipherable? and one can also have one writing system for multiple languages, e.g., the . Chinese characters were also borrowed by variant countries as their early writing systems, e.g., the early writing systems of Vietnamese language until the beginning of the 20th century.

To represent a conceptual system, one uses one or more languages, e.g., mathematics is a conceptual system Metaphor and Analogy in the Sciences, p.126, Springer Science & Business Media (2013) and one may use first-order logic and a together in representation.


Writing systems were preceded by , systems of and/or early symbols. The best known examples are:

The invention of the first writing systems is roughly contemporary with the beginning of the in the late of the late 4th millennium BC. The Sumerian archaic and the Egyptian hieroglyphs are generally considered the earliest writing systems, both emerging out of their ancestral proto-literate symbol systems from 3400 to 3200 BC with earliest coherent texts from about 2600 BC. It is generally agreed that Sumerian writing was an independent invention; however, it is debated whether Egyptian writing was developed completely independently of Sumerian, or was a case of cultural diffusion.

A similar debate exists for the , which developed around 1200 BC. are probably an independent invention, because there is no evidence of contact between China and the literate civilizations of the Near East,David N. Keightley, Noel Barnard. The Origins of Chinese civilization. Page 415-416 and because of the distinct differences between the Mesopotamian and Chinese approaches to and phonetic representation. Sex and Eroticism in Mesopotamian Literature. By Dr Gwendolyn Leick. Pg 3.

The Mesoamerican writing systems (including among others and ) are generally believed to have had independent origins.

A hieroglyphic writing system used by pre-colonial Mi'kmaq, that was observed by missionaries from the 17th to 19th centuries, is thought to have developed independently. Although, there is some debate over whether or not this was a fully formed system or just a series of mnemonic pictographs.

It is thought that the first consonantal alphabetic writing appeared before 2000 BC, as a representation of language developed by tribes in the Sinai-peninsula (see History of the alphabet). Most other alphabets in the world today either descended from this one innovation, many via the Phoenician alphabet, or were directly inspired by its design.

The first true alphabet is the which consistently represents since 800 BC.

(1996). 063121481X, Blackwell Publishers Ltd.. 063121481X
The , a direct descendant, is by far the most common writing system in use.

Functional classification

Several approaches have been taken to classify writing systems, the most common and basic one is a broad division into three categories: logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic (or segmental); however, all three may be found in any given writing system in varying proportions, often making it difficult to categorise a system uniquely. The term complex system is sometimes used to describe those where the admixture makes classification problematic. Modern linguists regard such approaches, including Diringer'sDavid Diringer (1962): Writing. London.

  • pictographic script
  • ideographic script
  • analytic transitional script
  • phonetic script
  • alphabetic script
as too simplistic, often considering the categories to be incomparable. HillArchibald Hill (1967): The typology of Writing systems. In: William A. Austin (ed.), Papers in Linguistics in Honor of Leon Dostert. The Hague, 92–99. split writing into three major categories of linguistic analysis, one of which covers discourses and is not usually considered writing proper: Sampson draws a distinction between and glottography
  • semasiography, relating visible marks to meaning directly without reference to any specific spoken language
  • glottography, using visible marks to represent forms of a spoken language
    • logography, representing a spoken language by assigning distinctive visible marks to linguistic elements of André Martinet's "first articulation" (Martinet 1949), i.e. morphemes or words
    • phonography, achieving the same goal by assigning marks to elements of the "second articulation", e.g. phonemes, syllables
DeFrancis,John DeFrancis (1989): Visible speech. The diverse oneness of writing systems. Honolulu criticizing Sampson'sGeoffrey Sampson (1986): Writing Systems. A Linguistic Approach. London introduction of semasiographic writing and featural alphabets stresses the phonographic quality of writing proper
  • pictures
    • nonwriting
    • writing
        • syllabic systems
          • pure syllabic, e.g. Linear B, Yi, Kana, Cherokee
          • , e.g. Sumerian, Chinese, Mayan
          • consonantal
            • morpho-consonantal, e.g. Egyptian
            • pure consonantal, e.g. Phoenician
            • alphabetic
              • pure phonemic, e.g. Greek
              • morpho-phonemic, e.g. English
FaberAlice Faber (1992): Phonemic segmentation as an epiphenomenon. Evidence from the history of alphabetic writing. In: Pamela Downing et al. (ed.): The Linguistics of Literacy. Amsterdam. 111–134. categorizes phonographic writing by two levels, linearity and coding:

+ Classification by Daniels ! Type ! Each symbol represents ! Example
Chinese characters
or moraJapanese
(consonant or vowel)
phoneme (consonant+vowel)Indian Devanāgarī
phoneme (consonant)
Featuralphonetic featureKorean

Logographic systems
A logogram is a single written character which represents a complete grammatical word. Most traditional Chinese characters are classified as logograms.

As each character represents a single word (or, more precisely, a ), many logograms are required to write all the words of language. The vast array of logograms and the memorization of what they mean are major disadvantages of logographic systems over alphabetic systems. However, since the meaning is inherent to the symbol, the same logographic system can theoretically be used to represent different languages. In practice, the ability to communicate across languages only works for the closely related varieties of Chinese, as differences in syntax reduce the crosslinguistic portability of a given logographic system. Japanese uses extensively in its writing systems, with most of the symbols carrying the same or similar meanings. However, the grammatical differences between Japanese and Chinese are significant enough that a long Chinese text is not readily understandable to a Japanese reader without any knowledge of basic , though short and concise phrases such as those on signs and newspaper headlines are much easier to comprehend.

While most languages do not use wholly logographic writing systems, many languages use some logograms. A good example of modern western logograms are the Hindu-Arabic numerals: everyone who uses those symbols understands what 1 means whether he or she calls it one, eins, uno, yi, ichi, ehad, ena, or jedan. Other western logograms include the &, used for and, the @, used in many contexts for at, the % and the many signs representing units of currency (, ¢, , , ¥ and so on.)

Logograms are sometimes called , a word that refers to symbols which graphically represent abstract ideas, but linguists avoid this use, as Chinese characters are often compounds, symbols which include an element that represents the meaning and a phonetic complement element that represents the pronunciation. Some nonlinguists distinguish between and ideography, where symbols in lexigraphies represent words and symbols in ideographies represent words or morphemes.

The most important (and, to a degree, the only surviving) modern logographic writing system is the Chinese one, whose characters have been used with varying degrees of modification in varieties of Chinese, Japanese, , Vietnamese, and other east Asian languages. hieroglyphs and the Mayan writing system are also systems with certain logographic features, although they have marked phonetic features as well and are no longer in current use. Vietnamese speakers switched to the Latin alphabet in the 20th century and the is increasingly rare. The Japanese writing system includes several distinct forms of writing including logography.

Syllabic systems: syllabary

''Another type of writing system with systematic syllabic linear symbols, the , is discussed below as well.

As logographic writing systems use a single symbol for an entire word, a syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) , which make up . A symbol in a syllabary typically represents a sound followed by a sound, or just a vowel alone.

In a "true syllabary", there is no systematic graphic similarity between phonetically related characters (though some do have graphic similarity for the vowels). That is, the characters for , and have no similarity to indicate their common "k" sound (voiceless velar plosive). More recent creations such as the embody a system of varying signs, which can best be seen when arranging the syllabogram set in an or onset– table.

Syllabaries are best suited to languages with relatively simple syllable structure, such as Japanese. The , on the other hand, allows complex syllable structures, with a relatively large inventory of and complex consonant clusters, making it cumbersome to write English words with a syllabary. To write English using a syllabary, every possible syllable in English would have to have a separate symbol, and whereas the number of possible syllables in Japanese is around 100, in English there are approximately 15,000 to 16,000.

However, syllabaries with much larger inventories do exist. The , for example, contains 756 different symbols (or 1,164, if symbols with a particular tone diacritic are counted as separate syllables, as in ). The , when used to write and the modern varieties of Chinese, also represents syllables, and includes separate glyphs for nearly all of the many thousands of syllables in ; however, because it primarily represents and includes different characters to represent homophonous morphemes with different meanings, it is normally considered a logographic script rather than a syllabary.

Other languages that use true syllabaries include () and Indigenous languages of the Americas such as Cherokee. Several languages of the Ancient Near East used forms of cuneiform, which is a syllabary with some non-syllabic elements.

Segmental systems: Alphabets
An alphabet is a small set of letters (basic written symbols), each of which roughly represents or represented historically a of a spoken . The word alphabet is derived from alpha and beta, the first two symbols of the .

The first type of alphabet that was developed was the . An abjad is an alphabetic writing system where there is one symbol per consonant. Abjads differ from other alphabets in that they have characters only for sounds. Vowels are not usually marked in abjads.

All known abjads (except maybe ) belong to the Semitic family of scripts, and derive from the original Northern Linear Abjad. The reason for this is that Semitic languages and the related have a morphemic structure which makes the denotation of redundant in most cases.

Some abjads, like Arabic and Hebrew, have markings for vowels as well. However, they use them only in special contexts, such as for teaching. Many scripts derived from abjads have been extended with vowel symbols to become full alphabets. Of these, the most famous example is the derivation of the from the Phoenician abjad. This has mostly happened when the script was adapted to a non-Semitic language.

The term abjad takes its name from the old order of the 's 'alif, bā', jīm, dāl, though the word may have earlier roots in Phoenician or . "Abjad" is still the word for alphabet in , Malay and Indonesian.

An is an alphabetic writing system whose basic signs denote consonants with an and where consistent modifications of the basic sign indicate other following vowels than the inherent one.

Thus, in an abugida there may or may not be a sign for "k" with no vowel, but also one for "ka" (if "a" is the inherent vowel), and "ke" is written by modifying the "ka" sign in a way that is consistent with how one would modify "la" to get "le". In many abugidas the modification is the addition of a vowel sign, but other possibilities are imaginable (and used), such as rotation of the basic sign, addition of and so on.

The contrast with "true " is that the latter have one distinct symbol per possible syllable, and the signs for each syllable have no systematic graphic similarity. The graphic similarity of most abugidas comes from the fact that they are derived from abjads, and the consonants make up the symbols with the inherent vowel and the new vowel symbols are markings added on to the base symbol.

In the Ge'ez script, for which the linguistic term abugida was named, the vowel modifications do not always appear systematic, although they originally were more so. Canadian Aboriginal syllabics can be considered abugidas, although they are rarely thought of in those terms. The largest single group of abugidas is the of scripts, however, which includes nearly all the scripts used in and .

The name abugida is derived from the first four characters of an order of the Ge'ez script used in some contexts. It was borrowed from Ethiopian languages as a linguistic term by Peter T. Daniels.

Featural systems
A featural script represents finer detail than an alphabet. Here symbols do not represent whole phonemes, but rather the elements (features) that make up the phonemes, such as voicing or its place of articulation. Theoretically, each feature could be written with a separate letter; and abjads or abugidas, or indeed syllabaries, could be featural, but the only prominent system of this sort is . In hangul, the featural symbols are combined into alphabetic letters, and these letters are in turn joined into syllabic blocks, so that the system combines three levels of phonological representation.

Many scholars, e.g. , reject this class or at least labeling hangul as such. The Korean script is a conscious script creation by literate experts, which Daniels calls a "sophisticated ". These include and constructed scripts of hobbyists and fiction writers (such as ), many of which feature advanced graphic designs corresponding to phonologic properties. The basic unit of writing in these systems can map to anything from phonemes to words. It has been shown that even the Latin script has sub-character "features".See .

Ambiguous systems
Most writing systems are not purely one type. The English writing system, for example, includes numerals and other logograms such as #, $, and &, and the written language often does not match well with the spoken one. As mentioned above, all logographic systems have phonetic components as well, whether along the lines of a syllabary, such as Chinese ("logo-syllabic"), or an abjad, as in Egyptian ("logo-consonantal").

Some scripts, however, are truly ambiguous. The of ancient Spain were syllabic for plosives such as p, t, k, but alphabetic for other consonants. In some versions, vowels were written redundantly after syllabic letters, conforming to an alphabetic orthography. Old Persian cuneiform was similar. Of 23 consonants (including null), seven were fully syllabic, thirteen were purely alphabetic, and for the other three, there was one letter for /C u/ and another for both /C a/ and /C i/. However, all vowels were written overtly regardless; as in the Brahmic abugidas, the /C a/ letter was used for a bare consonant.

The phonetic glossing script for Chinese divides syllables in two or three, but into , , and rather than consonant and vowel. is similar, but can be considered to divide syllables into either onset-rime or consonant-vowel (all consonant clusters and diphthongs are written with single letters); as the latter, it is equivalent to an abugida but with the roles of consonant and vowel reversed. Other scripts are intermediate between the categories of alphabet, abjad and abugida, so there may be disagreement on how they should be classified.

Graphic classification
Perhaps the primary graphic distinction made in classifications is that of linearity. Linear writing systems are those in which the characters are composed of lines, such as the and Chinese characters. Chinese characters are considered linear whether they are written with a ball-point pen or a calligraphic brush, or cast in bronze. Similarly, Egyptian hieroglyphs and were often painted in linear outline form, but in formal contexts they were carved in . The earliest examples of writing are linear: the of c. 3300 BC was linear, though its descendants were not. Non-linear systems, on the other hand, such as , are not composed of lines, no matter what instrument is used to write them.

Cuneiform was probably the earliest non-linear writing. Its glyphs were formed by pressing the end of a reed stylus into moist clay, not by tracing lines in the clay with the stylus as had been done previously. The result was a radical transformation of the appearance of the script.

Braille is a non-linear adaptation of the Latin alphabet that completely abandoned the Latin forms. The letters are composed of raised bumps on the writing substrate, which can be leather ('s original material), stiff paper, plastic or metal.

There are also transient non-linear adaptations of the Latin alphabet, including , the of various , and semaphore, in which or are positioned at prescribed angles. However, if "writing" is defined as a potentially permanent means of recording information, then these systems do not qualify as writing at all, since the symbols disappear as soon as they are used. (Instead, these transient systems serve as signals.)

Scripts are also graphically characterized by the direction in which they are written. Egyptian hieroglyphs were written either left to right or right to left, with the animal and human glyphs turned to face the beginning of the line. The early alphabet could be written in multiple directions:
(1980). 9783110073447, W. de Gruyter.
horizontally (side to side), or vertically (up or down). Prior to standardization, alphabetical writing was done both left-to-right (LTR or sinistrodextrally) and right-to-left (RTL or dextrosinistrally). It was most commonly written : starting in one (horizontal) direction, then turning at the end of the line and reversing direction.

The and its successors settled on a left-to-right pattern, from the top to the bottom of the page. Other scripts, such as and , came to be written right-to-left. Scripts that incorporate Chinese characters have traditionally been written vertically (top-to-bottom), from the right to the left of the page, but nowadays are frequently written left-to-right, top-to-bottom, due to influence, a growing need to accommodate terms in the , and technical limitations in popular electronic document formats. Chinese characters sometimes, as in signage, especially when signifying something old or traditional, may also be written from right to left. The Old Uyghur alphabet and its descendants are unique in being written top-to-bottom, left-to-right; this direction originated from an ancestral Semitic direction by rotating the page 90° counter-clockwise to conform to the appearance of vertical Chinese writing. Several scripts used in the Philippines and , such as Hanunó'o, are traditionally written with lines moving away from the writer, from bottom to top, but are read horizontally left to right. While is written bottom to top and read vertically, commonly on the corner of a stone.

The direction of writing in the Semitic languages evolved throughout the years. Different findings show that in some past periods the language was written from time to time from left to right and sometimes also one line left next line right and over again. This decision of writing from right to left is related in the physical way of writing the letters: in the ancient times, the writings were done on stone, thing that needed work with tools. since most people are right handed, it was more comfortable to "work" from right to left. when the writing developed into use of color on paper, which does not need physical power, the European systems that were developing also in that times, preferred to write from left to right and so to avoid "smearing" of the color and that in writing from left to right there is no hiding of the written sentence to the writer. That's the reason why most of the later script systems (Greek and its derivatives- and ) were written from left to right, while the Semitic scripts just preserved the writing from right to left.

On computers
In computers and telecommunication systems, writing systems are generally not codified as such, but graphemes and other grapheme-like units that are required for text processing are represented by "characters" that typically manifest in encoded form. There are many , such as ISO/IEC 8859-1 (a character repertoire and encoding scheme oriented toward the Latin script), (Chinese, Japanese, Korean) and bi-directional text. Today, many such standards are re-defined in a collective standard, the ISO/IEC 10646 "Universal Character Set", and a parallel, closely related expanded work, The Unicode Standard. Both are generally encompassed by the term . In Unicode, each character, in every language's writing system, is (simplifying slightly) given a unique identification number, known as its code point. Computer use code points to look up characters in the file, so the characters can be displayed on the page or screen.

A keyboard is the device most commonly used for writing via computer. Each key is associated with a standard code which the keyboard sends to the computer when it is pressed. By using a combination of alphabetic keys with such as , , and , various character codes are generated and sent to the . The intercepts and converts those signals to the appropriate characters based on the and input method, and then delivers those converted codes and characters to the running application software, which in turn looks up the appropriate in the currently used font file, and requests the operating system to draw these on the .

See also


  • Cisse, Mamadou. 2006. "Ecrits et écritures en Afrique de l'Ouest". Sudlangues n°6,
  • Coulmas, Florian. 1996. The Blackwell encyclopedia of writing systems. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Coulmas, Florian. 2003. Writing systems. An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Daniels, Peter T, and , eds. 1996. The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. .
  • DeFrancis, John. 1990. The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  • (2018). 9783406479984, C. H. Beck.
  • Hannas, William. C. 1997. Asia's Orthographic Dilemma. University of Hawaii Press. (paperback); (hardcover)
  • . 2010. The Mathematics of Direction in Writing. International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Vol.61, No.3, 347-356.
  • Rogers, Henry. 2005. Writing Systems: A Linguistic Approach. Oxford: Blackwell. (hardcover); (paperback)
  • Sampson, Geoffrey. 1985. Writing Systems. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. (paper), (cloth).
  • Smalley, W. A. (ed.) 1964. Orthography studies: articles on new writing systems. London: United Bible Society.

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