Spelling is a linguistic process of phonemic orthography (correct writing) with the necessary letters and present in a comprehensible order, usually with some degree of standardization; it is "the conventions which determine how the of a writing system are used to write a language".
[Coulmas, F. (1996), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems, Oxford:Blackwells] In another words it is interpretation of speech sound (phoneme) into writing (grapheme). Spelling is one of the elements of orthography, and highly standardized spelling is a prescriptive element.
Spellings originated as transcriptions of the sounds of speech language according to the alphabetic principle. They remain largely reflective of the sounds, although fully phonemic spelling is an ideal that most languages' orthographies only approximate, some more closely than others. This is true for various reasons, including that pronunciation changes over time in all languages, yet spellings as visual norms may resist change. In addition, words from other languages may be adopted without being adapted to the spelling system, and different meanings of a word or may be deliberately spelled in different ways to differentiate them visually.
Spelling standards and conventions
Uniformity in the spelling of words is one of the features of a standard language in modern times, and official languages usually have standard spellings. However, this is a relatively recent development linked to the compiling of dictionaries, the founding of national academies and other institutions of language maintenance, including widespread education
, and often doesn't apply to minority and regional languages.
In countries where there is an official language academy; such as France, the Netherlands, and Germany, reforms are regularly made so that spelling better matches the changing pronunciation.
German orthography reform of 1996
Portuguese spelling reform
French rectifications orthographiques of 1990.
English-language spelling reform proposals have been regularly made since the 16th century, but have made little impact apart from a few spellings preferred by Noah Webster having contributed to American and British English spelling differences.
Learning proper spelling by rote is a traditional element of elementary education and divergence from standard spelling is often perceived as an indicator of low intelligence, illiteracy
, or Social class
[ 1992: Gaffe with an 'e' at the end, by Paul Mickle / The Trentonian]
are commonly used to assess a student's mastery over the words in the spelling lessons the student has received so far. They can also be an effective practice method. are competitions to determine the best speller of a group. Prominent spelling bees are even televised, such as the National Spelling Bee in the United States.
Divergent spelling is a popular advertising technique, used to attract attention or to render a trademark
"suggestive" rather than "merely descriptive." The pastry chains Dunkin' Donuts and Krispy Kreme
, for example, employ non-standard spellings.
While some words admit multiple spellings, some spellings are not considered standard, and thus labeled as misspellings. A misspelled word can be a series of letters that represents no correctly spelled word of the same language at all (such as "leik" for "like") or a correct spelling of another word (such as writing "here" when one means "hear", or "no" when one means "know"). Misspellings of the latter type can easily make their way into printed material because they are not caught by simple computerized
Misspellings may be due to either typo (e.g. the transposition error teh for the), or lack of knowledge of the correct spelling. Whether or not a word is misspelled may depend on context, as is the case with American / British English distinctions. Misspelling can also be a matter of opinion when variant spellings are accepted by some and not by others. For example, "miniscule" (for "minuscule") is a misspelling to many,
[ "miniscule", Merriam Webster's Online Dictionary; states that this spelling is "widely regarded as an error"] and yet it is listed as an acceptable variant in some dictionaries. [ "miniscule", The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language] [ "miniscule", Cambridge Dictionary of American English]
A well-known Internet scam involves the registration of domain names that are deliberate misspellings of well-known corporate names in order to mislead or defraud. The practice is commonly known as "typosquatting".
[ "Typosquatters Act May Apply to Misspelling Domain Names to Mislead Surfers", Shari Claire Lewis, New York Law Journal, September 15, 2004]
Notable English misspellings in history
Cleveland, Ohio – the leader of the crew that surveyed the town's territory was General Moses Cleaveland, and the region was named in his honor; reportedly the town's first newspaper, the Cleveland Advertiser, could not fit the town's name in its masthead without removing the first "a" from the name.
[ Ohio, p. 138, Victoria Sherrow, Marshall Cavendish, 2008]
Google – accidental misspelling of googol.
[ QI: Quite Interesting facts about 100, telegraph.co.uk] According to Google's vice president, as quoted on a BBC The Money Programme documentary, January 2006, the founders – noted for their poor spelling – registered Google as a trademark and web address before someone pointed out that it was not correct. It's possible Google took this spelling from Steve Martin's "Googlephonics" track from his 1979 album "Comedy Is Not Pretty." In it, he described Googlephonic as being "...the highest number of speakers before infinity."
Ovaltine, a popular bedtime drink in the United Kingdom and Australia, came about because someone misspelled the original name Ovomaltine on the trademark documentation.
Referer – common misspelling of the word referrer. It is so common, in fact, that it made it into the official specification of HTTP – the communication protocol of the World Wide Web – and has, therefore, become the standard industry spelling when discussing .
[ referer – Definitions from Dictionary.com]
Sequim, Washington – "In 1879 the first post office was built and named 'Seguin' for the surrounding area. ... In 1907, due to a Postal Official's error in reading an official report, the post office was titled 'Seguim' for approximately a month. With the next report, the Official read the letter 'g' as a 'q' and the post office here became known as 'Sequim.' The name change apparently did not worry the residents enough to protest. It has been known as Sequim ever since."
According to some, the name of Quartzsite, a mining town in Arizona, was spelled wrongly. It should be Quartzite, after the mineral quartzite.
[ Town of Quartzsite 2003 General Plan]
Zenith – Arabic zamt was misread; in Latin letters, at the time, the letter i was never dotted, so "m" looked like "ni".
[Norbury, J. K. W. Word Formation in the Noun and Adjective.]
Arab, Alabama – This town in north Alabama was named Arad, after its founder, Arad Thompson, but the name was misspelled on a US Post Office map as "Arab", and the misspelled name stuck.
- English spelling
American and British English spelling differences
English terms with diacritical marks
English spelling reform
Pronunciation respelling for English
- Other languages
List of languages by writing system
Latin spelling and pronunciation