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San Francisco , officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the leading financial and cultural center of and the .

The only in , San Francisco encompasses a land area of about on the northern end of the , giving it a density of about 17,620 people per square mile (6,803 people per km2). It is the most densely settled large city (population greater than 200,000) in the state of California and the major city in the after . San Francisco is the in California, after , and , and the in the United States—with a Census-estimated 2012 population of 825,863. The city is also the financial and cultural hub of the larger metropolitan area, with a population of 8.4 million.

San Francisco (Spanish for "Saint Francis") was founded on June 29, 1776, when established at the and named for a few miles away. The of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the at the time. Due to the growth of its population, San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the , San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the nine years later. During , San Francisco was the port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the . After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, massive , liberalizing attitudes, and other factors led to the and the movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of .

Today, San Francisco is ranked 44th of the top tourist destinations in the world, and was the sixth most visited one in the United States in 2011. The city is renowned for its cool summers, fog, steep rolling hills, , and landmarks including the , , the former on , and its district. It is also a primary banking and finance center.


History
(Mission Dolores)]]The earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The group of the people resided in a few small villages when an overland , led by Don arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to . Seven years later, on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the , followed by a , (Mission Dolores), established by the explorer .

Upon from Spain in 1821, the area became part of . Under Mexican rule, the mission system gradually ended, and its lands became . In 1835, Englishman erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today . Together with , he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named , began to attract American settlers. Commodore claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the , and Captain arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, and Mexico officially to the United States at the . Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. ξ1

The brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their in tow,Sourdough bread was a staple of western explorers and miners of the 19th century. It became an iconic symbol of San Francisco, and is still a staple of city life today. prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival , raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849. ξ2 The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. California was quickly , and the U.S. military built at the and a fort on to secure the San Francisco Bay. Silver discoveries, including the in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. ξ1 With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, prostitution, and gambling."The miners came in forty-nine, / The whores in fifty-one, / And when they got together / They produced the native son." ξ1

Entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush. Early winners were the banking industry, with the founding of in 1852 and the in 1864. Development of the and the establishment in 1869 of overland access to the Eastern U.S. rail system via the newly completed (the construction of which the city only reluctantly helped supportConstruction of the Pacific Railroad was partially (albeit reluctantly) funded by the under the provisions of "An Act to Authorize the Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco to take and subscribe One Million Dollars to the Capital Stock of the Western Pacific Rail Road Company and the Central Pacific Rail Road Company of California and to provide for the payment of the same and other matters relating thereto." approved on April 22, 1863, as amended by §5 of the "Compromise Act of 1864" approved on April 4, 1864. The bond issue was objected to by the Mayor and the Board of Supervisors, however, and they were not delivered to the WPRR and CPRR until 1865 after Writs of Mandamus ordering such were issued by the Supreme Court of the State of California in 1864 ( "The People of the State of California on the relation of the Central Pacific Railroad Company vs. Henry P. Coon, Mayor; Henry M. Hale, Auditor; and Joseph S. Paxson, Treasurer, of the City and County of San Francisco" 25 Cal 635) and 1865 ( "The People ex rel The Central Pacific Railroad Company of California vs.The Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco, and Wilhelm Lowey, Clerk" 27 Cal 655)) helped make the Bay Area a center for trade. Catering to the needs and tastes of the growing population, opened a dry goods business and began manufacturing chocolate. Immigrant laborers made the city a polyglot culture, with railroad workers creating the city's quarter. In 1870, Asians made up 8% of the population. The first carried San Franciscans up in 1873. The city's sea of began to take shape, and civic leaders campaigned for a spacious public park, resulting in plans for . San Franciscans built schools, churches, theaters, and all the hallmarks of civic life. The developed into the most important American military installation on the Pacific coast. By 1890, San Francisco's population approached 300,000, making it the in the U.S. at the time. Around 1901, San Francisco was a major city known for its flamboyant style, stately hotels, ostentatious mansions on , and a thriving arts scene. ξ1 The first North American plague epidemic was the .

At 5:12 am on April 18, 1906, a major and northern California. As buildings collapsed from the shaking, ruptured gas lines ignited fires that spread across the city and burned out of control for several days. With water mains out of service, the Artillery Corps attempted to contain the inferno by dynamiting blocks of buildings to create firebreaks. More than three-quarters of the city lay in ruins, including almost all of the downtown core. Contemporary accounts reported that 498 people lost their lives, though modern estimates put the number in the several thousands. More than half the city's population of 400,000 were left homeless. Refugees settled temporarily in makeshift tent villages in Golden Gate Park, the Presidio, on the beaches, and elsewhere. Many fled permanently to the .

Rebuilding was rapid and performed on a grand scale. Rejecting calls to completely remake the street grid, San Franciscans opted for speed. ξ1 's , later to become , provided loans for many of those whose livelihoods had been devastated. The influential or SPUR was founded in 1910 to address the quality of housing after the earthquake. The earthquake hastened development of western neighborhoods that survived the fire, including , where many of the city's wealthy rebuilt their homes. ξ3 In turn, the destroyed mansions of Nob Hill became grand hotels. rose again in splendorous style, and the city celebrated its rebirth at the in 1915. ξ1

It was during this period San Francisco built some of its most important infrastructure. Civil Engineer was hired by San Francisco Mayor as chief engineer for the city in September 1912 to supervise the construction of the Twin Peaks Reservoir, the , the , the , the , and new sewers. San Francisco's streetcar system, of which the J, K, L, M, and N lines survive today, was pushed to completion by O'Shaughnessy between 1915 and 1927. It was the , , and that would have the largest effect on San Francisco. An abundant water supply enabled San Francisco to develop into the city it has become today.

In ensuing years, the city solidified its standing as a financial capital; in the wake of the , not a single San Francisco-based bank failed. Indeed, it was at the height of the that San Francisco undertook two great civil engineering projects, simultaneously constructing the and the , completing them in 1936 and 1937 respectively. It was in this period that the island of , a former military stockade, began its service as a federal maximum security prison, housing notorious inmates such as , and , The Birdman of Alcatraz. San Francisco later celebrated its regained grandeur with a , the in 1939–40, creating in the middle of the bay to house it.

During World War II, the became a hub of activity, and became the primary port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the . The explosion of jobs drew many people, especially African Americans , to the area. After the end of the war, many military personnel returning from service abroad and civilians who had originally come to work decided to stay. The creating the UN was drafted and signed in San Francisco in 1945 and, in 1951, the officially ended the .

Urban planning projects in the 1950s and 1960s involved widespread destruction and redevelopment of west-side neighborhoods and the construction of new freeways, of which only a series of short segments were built before being halted by . The onset of made San Francisco's small piers obsolete, and cargo activity moved to the larger . The city began to lose industrial jobs and turned to tourism as the most important segment of its economy. The suburbs experienced rapid growth, and San Francisco underwent significant demographic change, as large segments of the white population left the city, supplanted by an increasing wave of from Asia and Latin America. From 1950 to 1980, the city lost over 10 percent of its population.

Over this period, San Francisco became a magnet for America's counterculture. writers fueled the and centered on the neighborhood in the 1950s. ξ1 flocked to in the 1960s, reaching a peak with the 1967 . In 1974, the left at least 16 people dead. In the 1970s, the city became a center of the , with the emergence of as an urban , the election of to the , and his , along with that of Mayor , in 1978.

Bank of America completed in 1969 and the was completed in 1972, igniting a wave of "" that lasted until the late 1980s, a period of extensive high-rise development downtown. ξ1 The 1980s also saw a dramatic increase in the number of homeless people in the city, an issue that remains today, despite many attempts to address it. The 1989 caused destruction and loss of life throughout the Bay Area. In San Francisco, the quake severely damaged structures in the and districts and precipitated the demolition of the damaged and much of the damaged , allowing the city to reclaim its historic downtown waterfront and revitalizing the neighborhood.

During the of the late 1990s, invigorated the economy. Large numbers of entrepreneurs and computer application developers moved into the city, followed by marketing, design, and sales professionals, changing the social landscape as once-poorer neighborhoods became increasingly . Demand for new housing and office space ignited a second wave of high-rise development, this time South of Market. By 2000, the city's population reached new highs, surpassing the previous record set in 1950. When the bubble burst in 2001, many of these companies folded and their employees were laid off. Yet high technology and entrepreneurship remain mainstays of the San Francisco economy with the fueling growth in the second decade of the new century.


Geography

San Francisco is located on the at the north end of the and includes significant stretches of the Pacific Ocean and within its boundaries. Several picturesque , and the adjacent , and small portions of , , and —are part of the city. Also included are the uninhabited , offshore in the Pacific Ocean. The mainland within the city limits roughly forms a "seven-by-seven-mile square," a common local colloquialism referring to the city's shape, though its total area, including water, is nearly .

San Francisco is famous for . There are more than 50 hills within city limits. Some neighborhoods are named after the hill on which they are situated, including , , and . Near the geographic center of the city, southwest of the downtown area, are a series of less densely populated hills. , a pair of hills forming one of the city's highest points, forms a popular overlook spot. San Francisco's tallest hill, , is high and is capped with a tall cross built in 1934. Dominating this area is , a large red and white radio and television transmission tower.

The nearby and are responsible for much earthquake activity, although neither physically passes through the city itself. The San Andreas Fault caused the earthquakes in 1906 and 1989. Minor earthquakes occur on a regular basis. The threat of major earthquakes plays a large role in the city's infrastructure development. The city constructed an and has repeatedly upgraded its building codes, requiring retrofits for older buildings and higher engineering standards for new construction. However, there are still thousands of smaller buildings that remain vulnerable to quake damage.

San Francisco's shoreline has grown beyond its natural limits. Entire neighborhoods such as the , , and , as well as large sections of the , sit on areas of . was constructed from material dredged from the bay as well as material resulting from tunneling through Yerba Buena Island during the construction of the Bay Bridge. Such land tends to be unstable during earthquakes. The resulting causes extensive damage to property built upon it, as was evidenced in the Marina district during the . Most of the city's natural watercourses, such as and , have been culverted and built over, although the is studying proposals to daylight or restore some creeks.


Climate
A popular quote incorrectly attributed to is "The coldest winter I ever spent was a summer in San Francisco". San Francisco's climate is characteristic of the cool-summer ()Also known as Dry-Summer ( Csb) of California’s coast, "generally characterized by moist mild winters and dry summers". Climate of San Francisco: Narrative Description Golden Gate Weather Services. Retrieved September 5, 2006. Since it is surrounded on three sides by water, San Francisco's weather is strongly influenced by the of the Pacific Ocean, which moderate temperature swings and produce a remarkably mild year-round climate with little seasonal temperature variation.

Among major U.S. cities, San Francisco has the coldest daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures for June, July, and August. During the summer, rising hot air in California's interior valleys creates a low pressure area that draws winds from the through the Golden Gate, which creates the city's . The fog is less pronounced in eastern neighborhoods and during the late summer and early fall, which is the warmest time of the year.

Because of its sharp topography and maritime influences, San Francisco exhibits a multitude of distinct . The high hills in the geographic center of the city are responsible for a 20% variance in annual rainfall between different parts of the city. They also protect neighborhoods directly to their east ("banana belts" such as Noe Valley) from the foggy and sometimes very cold and windy conditions experienced in the ; for those who live on the eastern side of the city, San Francisco is sunnier, with an average of 260 clear days, and only 105 cloudy days per year.

Temperatures exceed on average only 29 days a year. The dry period of May to October is mild to warm, with average high temperatures of and lows of . The rainy period of November to April is slightly cooler, with high temperatures of and lows of . On average, there are 73 rainy days a year, and annual precipitation averages . Snowfall in the city is very rare, with only 10 measurable accumulations recorded since 1852, most recently in 1976 when up to fell on Twin Peaks. Climate of San Francisco: Snowfall Golden Gate Weather Services. Retrieved December 3, 2006. In 2013, San Francisco (like most of California) recorded its lowest precipitation since records started in the 1850s, barely 5 inches for the year.

The highest recorded temperature at the official office was on July 17, 1988, and June 14, 2000. The lowest recorded temperature was on December 11, 1932. ( Main page) The National Weather Service provides a helpful visual aid Charts San Francisco Bay Area / Monterey graphing the information in the table below to display visually by month the annual typical temperatures, the past year's temperatures, and record temperatures.


Cityscape

Neighborhoods

The historic center of San Francisco is the northeast quadrant of the city anchored by and the waterfront. It is here that the is centered, with , the principal shopping and hotel district, nearby. carry riders up steep inclines to the summit of , once the home of the city's business tycoons, and down to the waterfront tourist attractions of , and , where many restaurants feature from a still-active fishing industry. Also in this quadrant are , a residential neighborhood with the famously crooked ; , the city's and the former center of the ; and , which features . Between Russian Hill and North Beach is San Francisco's , the oldest in North America. The Official San Francisco Chinatown Website. Sanfranciscochinatown.com. Retrieved on 2012-02-16. Depicting Otherness: Images of San Francisco's Chinatown. College Street Journal (October 11, 2002). Retrieved on 2012-02-16.Bacon, Daniel: Walking the Barbary Coast Trail 2nd ed., pp. 52–53, Quicksilver Press, 1997 Chinatown/Grant Avenue. San Francisco Days The , which was once San Francisco's industrial core, has seen significant redevelopment following the addition of and an infusion of . New skyscrapers, live-work lofts, and condominiums dot the area. Further development is taking place just to the south in , a former railyard now anchored by a second campus of the .

West of downtown, across , lies the large neighborhood, which became established with a large African American population after . The Western Addition is usually divided into smaller neighborhoods including , , and , which was once the largest Japantown in North America but suffered when its residents were during World War II. The Western Addition survived the with its largely intact, including the famous "", standing alongside . To the south, near the geographic center of the city is , famously associated with 1960s culture. The Haight is now home to some expensive boutiques and a few controversial chain stores, although it still retains some character. North of the Western Addition is , a wealthy neighborhood that features the mansions built by the San Francisco business elite in the wake of the 1906 earthquake. Directly north of Pacific Heights facing the waterfront is the , a neighborhood popular with young professionals that was largely built on reclaimed land from the Bay.

In the south-east quadrant of the city is the —populated in the 19th century by and working-class immigrants from Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Scandinavia. In the 1910s, a wave of Central American immigrants settled in the Mission and, in the 1950s, immigrants from began to predominate. In recent years, gentrification has changed the demographics of parts of the Mission from Latino, to professionals. to the southwest and to the south are both increasingly popular among young families with children. East of the Mission is the neighborhood, a mostly residential neighborhood that features sweeping views of downtown San Francisco. West of the Mission, the area historically known as , now popularly called , was once a working-class Scandinavian and Irish area. It has become North America's first and best known , and is now the center of life in the city. Located near the city's southern border, the is one of the most ethnically diverse neighborhoods in San Francisco. The predominately African American in the far southeast corner of the city is one of the poorest neighborhoods and suffers from a high rate of crime, though the area has been the focus of several revitalizing and controversial projects.

The construction of the in 1918 connected southwest neighborhoods to downtown via streetcar, hastening the development of , and nearby affluent and . Further west, stretching all the way to the Pacific Ocean and north to lies the vast , a large middle class area with a predominantly Asian population. The northwestern quadrant of the city contains the , also a mostly middle-class neighborhood north of Golden Gate Park, home to immigrants from other parts of Asia as well as many and immigrants. Together, these areas are known as . These two districts are each sometimes further divided into two regions: the Outer Richmond and Outer Sunset can refer to the more western portions of their respective district and the Inner Richmond and Inner Sunset can refer to the more eastern portions.


Beaches and parks
Several of San Francisco's parks and nearly all of its beaches form part of the regional , one of the most visited units of the in the United States with over 13 million visitors a year. Among the GGNRA's attractions within the city are , which runs along the Pacific Ocean shoreline and is frequented by a vibrant community, and , which is located in a cove west of the Golden Gate and part of the , a former military base. Also within the Presidio is , a former airfield that was restored to its natural . The GGNRA also administers , , , and . The National Park Service separately administers the – a fleet of historic ships and waterfront property around .

There are more than maintained by the . The largest and best-known city park is , which stretches from the center of the city west to the Pacific Ocean. Once covered in native grasses and sand dunes, the park was conceived in the 1860s and was created by the extensive planting of thousands of non-native trees and plants. The large park is rich with cultural and natural attractions such as the , and . is a fresh-water lake surrounded by parkland and near the , a city-owned park that houses more than 250 animal species, many of which are endangered. The only managed by the system located principally in San Francisco, was the state's first urban recreation area.


Culture and contemporary life

Although the , , and are well-known around the world, San Francisco is also characterized by its numerous culturally rich streetscapes featuring neighborhoods anchored around to which residents and visitors alike can walk. Because of these characteristics, San Francisco was rated "most walkable" city by the website Walkscore.com. Many neighborhoods feature a mix of businesses, restaurants and venues that cater to both the daily needs of local residents while also serving many visitors and tourists. Some neighborhoods are dotted with boutiques, cafes and nightlife such as Union Street in , 24th Street in , Valencia Street in the , and Irving Street in the . This approach especially has influenced the continuing South of Market neighborhood redevelopment with businesses and neighborhood services rising alongside high-rise residences.

Since the 1990s, the demand for skilled workers from local startups and nearby has attracted from all over the world and created a high standard of living in San Francisco. Many neighborhoods that were once , middle, and lower class have been , as many of the city's traditional business and industrial districts have experienced a renaissance driven by the redevelopment of the , including the neighborhoods and . The city's property values and household income have risen to among the highest in the nation, creating a large and upscale restaurant, retail, and entertainment scene. According to a 2008 quality of life survey of global cities, San Francisco has the second of any U.S. city." However, due to the exceptionally high cost of living, many of the city's middle and lower-class families have been leaving the city for the outer suburbs of the Bay Area, or for California's .

The international character that San Francisco has enjoyed since its founding is continued today by large numbers of immigrants from Asia and Latin America. With 39% of its residents born overseas, San Francisco has numerous neighborhoods filled with businesses and civic institutions catering to new arrivals. In particular, the arrival of many ethnic Chinese, which accelerated beginning in the 1970s, has complemented the long-established community historically based in throughout the city and has transformed the annual into the largest event of its kind outside China.

With the arrival of the writers and artists of the 1950s and societal changes culminating in the in the district during the 1960s, San Francisco became a center of activism. The and to a lesser extent the have dominated since the late 1970s, after the challenger for city office by a narrow margin. San Francisco has not voted more than 20% for a presidential or senatorial candidate since . In 2007, the city expanded its and other medical programs into the "" program, Reform Law Could Curb Healthy San Francisco's Enrollment by Up to 60% – California Healthline. Californiahealthline.org. Retrieved on 2012-02-16. which certain medical services for eligible residents. "San Francisco's Latest Innovation: Universal Health Care", by Laura A. Locke, Time, June 23, 2006 "Participant Costs", healthysanfrancisco.org. Retrieved April 10, 2010. "Universal Health Care Plan Approved in San Francisco", Insurance Journal, July 20, 2006.

San Francisco has long had an -friendly history. It was home to the first lesbian-rights organization in the United States, ; the first openly gay person to run for public office in the U.S., ; the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in the U.S., ; the first openly lesbian judge appointed in the U.S., ; and the first police commissioner, . The city's large gay population has created and sustained a politically and culturally active community over many decades, developing a powerful presence in San Francisco's civic life. One of the most popular destinations for gay tourists internationally, the city hosts , one of the largest and oldest .

San Francisco also has had a very active environmental community. Starting with the founding of the in 1892 to the establishment of the non-profit in 1981, San Francisco has been at the forefront of many globally discussions regarding our natural environment. The 1980 was one of the earliest curbside recycling programs. The city's GoSolarSF incentive promotes solar installations and the is rolling out the program to sell electricity from local renewable sources. SF Greasecycle is a program to recycle used cooking oil for conversion to biodiesel.

The newly completed Solar Project has installed 25,000 solar panels on the roof of the reservoir. The 5-megawatt plant more than tripled the city's 2-megawatt solar generation capacity when it opened in December 2010.


Entertainment and performing arts
San Francisco's hosts some of the most enduring performing-arts companies in the U.S. The houses the , the second-largest opera company in North AmericaThe San Francisco Opera is second in size only to New York City's as well as the , while the plays in . The stages an eclectic mix of music performances, as well as 's .

is a music venue located in the . It is the second incarnation of the historic venue that gained fame in the 1960s under concert promoter , housing the stage where now-famous musicians such as the , , and first performed, fostering the . is a zany musical revue and a civic institution that has performed to sold-out crowds in since 1974.

The (A.C.T.) has been a force in Bay Area performing arts since its arrival in San Francisco in 1967, regularly staging productions. San Francisco frequently hosts national touring productions of Broadway theatre shows in a number of vintage 1920s-era venues in the including the , , and Theatres.


Museums
The (SFMOMA) houses 20th century and contemporary works of art. It moved to its current building in the neighborhood in 1995 and now attracts more than 600,000 visitors annually. The holds primarily European antiquities and works of art at its building modeled after its . It is administered by , which also operates the in Golden Gate Park. The de Young's collection features American decorative pieces and anthropological holdings from Africa, Oceania and the Americas. Prior to construction of its current copper-clad structure, completed in 2005, the de Young also housed the , which, with artifacts from over 6,000 years of history across Asia, moved into the former next to in 2003.

Opposite the from the de Young stands the , a natural history museum that also hosts the and . Its current structure, featuring a , is an example of and opened in 2008. Located on Pier 15 on the Embarcadero, the is an interactive science museum founded by physicist in 1969. Two museum ships are moored near Fisherman's Wharf, the Liberty ship and submarine. On Nob Hill, the is a working museum featuring the cable car power house, which drives the cables, and the car depot.


Media
The major daily newspaper in San Francisco is the , which is currently Northern California's most widely circulated newspaper. The Chronicle is most famous for a former columnist, the late , whose daily musings attracted critical acclaim and represented the "voice of San Francisco". The , once the cornerstone of 's media empire and the home of , declined in circulation over the years and now takes the form of a free daily tabloid, under new ownership. claims to be the largest of several Chinese language dailies that serve the Bay Area. newspapers include the and . and are major glossy magazines about San Francisco. The national newsmagazine is also based in San Francisco.

The San Francisco Bay Area is the sixth-largest and the fourth-largest in the U.S. The city's oldest radio station, , began as an experimental station in San Jose in 1909, before the beginning of commercial broadcasting. was the city's first FM radio station when it signed on the air in 1941. All major U.S. television networks have serving the region, with most of them based in the city. There also are several unaffiliated stations. , , , , , and have regional news bureaus in San Francisco. was launched in 2011 from a studio on the Embarcadero. The city's first television station was , which began broadcasting in 1948.

outlets include both a and a , both broadcasting under the call letters KQED from a facility near the neighborhood. KQED-FM is the most-listened-to affiliate in the country. San Francisco–based and pioneered the use of the Internet as a media outlet. Satellite channel non-commercial was launched in 1999 from San Francisco.

San Francisco inventors have made significant marks on modern media. In 1877 pioneered work in photographic studies of motion and in motion-picture projection from. These were the first motion pictures. Then in 1927, image dissector camera tube transmitted its first image. This was the first television.


Sports and recreation

The of the (NFL) are the longest-tenured major professional sports franchise in the city. The team began play in 1946 as an (AAFC) league charter member, moved to the NFL in 1950 and into in 1971. In 2006, the team's owners announced plans to move the team to nearby by 2015; the team will still be named the "San Francisco 49ers", even though they will be much closer to the city of . The 49ers have won five titles in the 1980s and 1990s behind coaches and , and stars such as , , , and .

's left New York for California prior to the 1958 season. Though boasting such stars as , and , the club went 52 years until its first title in , and won an additional title in . The Giants play at , which opened in 2000, a cornerstone project of the and redevelopment. In 2012, San Francisco was ranked #1 among America's Best Baseball cities. The study examined which U.S. metro areas have produced the most Major Leaguers since 1920.

At the collegiate level, the Dons of the compete in , where guided the program to in 1955 and 1956. The Gators and the Urban Knights compete in . AT&T Park has since 2002 hosted an annual post-season , currently named the . In 2011, San Francisco hosted the football team at Candlestick Park and AT&T Park while their home stadium in Berkeley was being renovated.

is an important summer league venue for aspiring players to be discovered by talent scouts. Games are held at the 4,000 seat . Players from all levels participate with regular appearances by off season NBA professionals.

The footrace, held annually since 1912, is best known for colorful costumes and a celebratory community spirit. The attracts more than 21,000 participants. The has, since 1980, attracted 2,000 top professional and amateur triathletes for its annual race. The , founded in 1860, is the oldest in the United States. Its private golf course, situated on the border with , has hosted the on five occasions. The public is an occasional stop on the . San Francisco will host the yacht racing competition.

With an ideal climate for outdoor activities, San Francisco has ample resources and opportunities for amateur and participatory sports and recreation. There are more than of and bike routes in the city, and the and are favored sites for . Extensive public tennis facilities are available in and , as well as at smaller neighborhood courts throughout the city. San Francisco residents have often ranked among the fittest in the U.S.

Boating, sailing, and are among the popular activities on San Francisco Bay, and the city maintains a yacht harbor in the . The and are located in the Marina Harbor. The South Beach Yacht Club is located next to AT&T Park and has an extensive marina.

Historic located along the northern San Francisco shore hosts two swimming and rowing clubs. The , established in 1873, and the Dolphin Club maintain a friendly rivalry between members. Swimmers can be seen daily braving the typically cold bay waters.

Amateur men's has been played in San Francisco since 1902 through the . Over 40 teams in 4 divisions play throughout the city between the months of March and November. Premier Division games are played at the 3,500 seat . Amateur women's soccer is played on over 30 teams in the Golden Gate Women's Soccer League.

is growing in San Francisco. Annual bicycle counts conducted by the in 2010 showed the number of cyclists at 33 locations had increased 58% from the 2006 baseline counts. "City of San Francisco 2010 Bicycle Count Report", San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, 2010, p. 3 The MTA estimates that about 128,000 trips are made by bicycle each day in the city, or 6% of total trips. "2008 San Francisco State of Cycling Report", San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, 2008, p. 9. Improvements in in recent years, including additional bike lanes and parking racks, has made cycling in San Francisco safer and more convenient. Since 2006, San Francisco has received a Bicycle Friendly Community status of "Gold" from the .


Economy

Tourism, the city's largest private-sector employer, is the backbone of the San Francisco economy. Its in music, film, and popular culture has made the city and its landmarks recognizable worldwide. It is the city where "left ," where the spent many of his final years, where was said to be the favorite treat, and where , a popular American sitcom was set. San Francisco attracts the fifth-highest number of foreign tourists of any city in the U.S., ranks 44th out of the 100 most visited cities worldwide,, and claims near as the third-most popular tourist attraction in the nation. More than 16.5 million visitors arrived in San Francisco in 2012, injecting $8.9 billion into the economy. With a large hotel infrastructure and a world-class convention facility in the , San Francisco is also among the top-ten North American destinations for conventions and conferences. In a ranking of top city destinations, San Francisco was ranked the 33rd most visited city in the world.

The legacy of the turned San Francisco into the principal banking and finance center of the in the early twentieth century. in the became known as the "," home to the , the corporate headquarters, and the site of the now-defunct . , a pioneer in making banking services accessible to the middle class, was founded in San Francisco and in the 1960s, built the landmark modern skyscraper at for its corporate headquarters. Many large financial institutions, multinational banks and venture capital firms are based in or have regional headquarters in the city. With over 30 international financial institutions, seven companies, and a large support infrastructure of professional services—including law, public relations, and design—also with significant presence in the city, San Francisco is designated as one of eighteen . San Francisco ranks 18th in the world's , and in the top twenty global financial centers.

Since the 1990s, San Francisco's economy has increasingly become tied to and , its neighbors to the south, sharing the need for highly educated workers with specialized skills. San Francisco became an epicenter of the of the 1990s, and the subsequent boom of the late 2000s. Many popular and prominent Internet companies and "" such as , , , , , , and the among others have established their head offices in San Francisco.

San Francisco has been positioning itself as a and hub and research center. The neighborhood, site of a second campus of , fosters a budding industry and serves as headquarters of the , the public agency funding programs statewide. As of 2009, there were 1,800 full-time biochemists and biophysicists employed in San Francisco, with an annual mean wage of $92,620.

Small businesses with fewer than 10 employees and self-employed firms make up 85% of city establishments as lately, it has been particularly popular with entrepreneurs establishing "start-up" companies. The number of San Franciscans employed by firms of more than 1,000 employees has fallen by half since 1977. The successful penetration of national and chains into the city has been made intentionally difficult by political and civic consensus. In an effort to buoy small privately owned businesses in San Francisco and preserve the unique retail personality of the city, the Small Business Commission supports a publicity campaign to keep a larger share of retail dollars in the local economy, and the Board of Supervisors has used the planning code to limit the neighborhoods where formula retail establishments can set up shop, an effort affirmed by San Francisco voters.

, the city has had a resurgence of apparel manufacturing industry due to a variety of factors.

The top employer in the city is the city government itself, employing 6.25% (26,000 people) of the city's population, followed by . Third, at 2.04% (8,000 people), is , the largest private-sector employer. City and County of San Francisco, California Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, for the Year ended June 30, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2010.


Law and government
San Francisco—officially known as the City and County of San Francisco—is a , a status it has held since the 1856 secession of what is now . It is the only such consolidation in California. The is also the county executive, and the county acts as the . The government of San Francisco is a and is constituted of two co-equal branches. The executive branch is headed by the mayor and includes other citywide elected and appointed officials as well as the civil service. The 11-member Board of Supervisors, the legislative branch, is headed by a president and is responsible for passing laws and budgets, though San Franciscans also make use of to pass legislation. The members of the Board of Supervisors are elected as representatives of specific districts within the city. Upon the death or resignation of mayor, the President of the Board of Supervisors becomes acting mayor until the full Board elects an interim replacement for the remainder of the term. In 1978, assumed the office following the assassination of and was later selected by the Board to finish the term. In 2011, was selected by the Board to finish the term of , who resigned to take office as .

Because of its unique city-county status, local government exercises jurisdiction over property that would otherwise be located outside of its corporation limit. , though located in , is owned and operated by the City and County of San Francisco. San Francisco also has a county jail complex located in San Mateo County, in an adjacent to . San Francisco was also granted a perpetual leasehold over the and in by the in 1913.

San Francisco serves as the regional hub for many arms of the federal bureaucracy, including the , the , and the . Until in the early 1990s, the city had major military installations at the , , and —a legacy still reflected in the annual celebration of . The State of California uses San Francisco as the home of the and other state agencies. Foreign governments maintain more than seventy consulates in San Francisco.

The municipal budget for fiscal year 2013–14 was $7.9 billion. The city employs around 27,000 workers.


Demographics
The reported that San Francisco had a population of 805,235. The was 17,160 per square mile (6,632/km2). The ethnic makeup and population of San Francisco included: 390,387 (48.1%), 267,915 (33.3%), 48,870 (6.1%), 4,024 (0.5%), 3,359 (0.4%), 53,021 from (6.6%), and 37,659 from two or more races (4.7%). There were 121,744 or of any race (15.1%). Whites not of Hispanic origin made up 41.9% of the population, making San Francisco a city, though non-Hispanic whites form a plurality of the population.

The Census reported that 780,971 people (97.0% of the population) lived in households, 18,902 (2.3%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 5,362 (0.7%) were institutionalized. The U.S. Census Bureau estimates San Francisco's population increased to 825,863 as of July 2012.

In 2010, residents of constituted the largest single ethnic minority group in San Francisco at 21.4% of the population; the other Asian groups are (4.5%), (1.6%), (1.3%), (1.2%), (1.2%), (0.3%), (0.2%), (0.2%), and both and make up less than 0.1% of the city's population.

There were 345,811 households, out of which 63,577 (18.4%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 109,437 (31.6%) were living together, 28,844 (8.3%) had a female householder with no husband present, 12,748 (3.7%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 21,677 (6.3%) , and 10,384 (3.0%) . 133,366 households (38.6%) were made up of individuals and 34,234 (9.9%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26. There were 151,029 (43.7% of all households); the average family size was 3.11.

The age distribution of the city was as follows:107,524 people (13.4%) under the age of 18, 77,664 people (9.6%) aged 18 to 24, 301,802 people (37.5%) aged 25 to 44, 208,403 people (25.9%) aged 45 to 64, and 109,842 people (13.6%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.5 years. For every 100 females there were 102.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.8 males.

There were 376,942 housing units, at an average density of 1,625.5 per square mile (627.6/km2), of which 123,646 (35.8%) were owner-occupied, and 222,165 (64.2%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.3%; the rental vacancy rate was 5.4%. 327,985 people (40.7% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 452,986 people (56.3%) lived in rental housing units.

With over 17,000 people per square mile, San Francisco is the major American city (among cities greater than 200,000 population).After New York City, only for cities with greater than 200,000 population. Otherwise it is not 2nd. San Francisco is the traditional focal point of the and forms part of the San Francisco-Oakland- and the greater -San Francisco- (CSA) whose population is over seven million, making it the fifth largest in the United States as of the 2000 Census.

Native-born Californians form a relatively small percentage of the city's population: only 37.7% of its residents were born in California, while 25.2% were born in a different U.S. state. More than a third of city residents (35.6%) were born outside the United States.

The population of Chinese ancestry is most heavily concentrated in Chinatown, , and , whereas Filipinos are most concentrated in the (which is continuous with the Filipino community of , the city with one of the highest concentrations of Filipinos in North America), as well as in . After declining in the 1970s and 1980s, the Filipino community in the city has experienced a significant resurgence. The San Francisco Bay Area is home to over 382,950 Filipino Americans, one of the largest communities of Filipinos outside of the . The is home to a large portion of the city's Vietnamese population as well as businesses and restaurants, which is known as the city's Little Saigon. Koreans and Japanese have a large presence in the , which is where the city's is located. The population is 0.4% (0.8% including those with partial ancestry). Over half of the Pacific Islander population is of descent, with residence in the and areas; Pacific Islanders make up more than three percent of the population in both communities.

San Francisco has a population, as non-Hispanic comprise less than half of the population, 41.9%, down from 92.5% in 1940. The principal groups in the city were those of (7.4%), (2.0%), (0.9%), (0.8%), and (0.5%), ancestry. The Hispanic population is most heavily concentrated in the , Tenderloin District, and . San Francisco's population has declined in recent decades, from 13.4% of the population in 1970 to 6.1%. The current percentage of African Americans in San Francisco is similar to that of the state of California; conversely, the city's percentage of Hispanic residents is less than half of that of the state. The majority of the city's black population reside within the neighborhoods of , and in southeastern San Francisco, and in the in the northeastern part of the city.

According to the 2005 American Community Survey, San Francisco has the highest percentage of gay and lesbian individuals of any of the 50 largest U.S. cities, at 15.4%. San Francisco also has the highest percentage of same-sex households of any American county, with the Bay Area having a higher concentration than any other .

Of all major cities, San Francisco has the second-highest percentage of residents with a college degree, behind only . Over 44% of adults within the city limits have a bachelor's or higher degree. reported that Rob Pitingolo, a researcher who measured college graduates per square mile, found that San Francisco had the highest rate at 7,031 per square mile, or over 344,000 total graduates in the city's .

San Francisco ranks third of American cities in median household income with a 2007 value of $65,519. Median family income is $81,136, and San Francisco ranks 8th of major cities worldwide in the number of billionaires known to be living within city limits. Following a national trend, an emigration of middle-class families is contributing to widening income disparity and has left the city with a lower proportion of children, 14.5%, than any other large American city.

The city's is 11.8% and the number of families in poverty stands at 7.4%, both lower than the national average. The unemployment rate stands at 5.6% as of September 2013. has been a chronic and controversial problem for San Francisco since the early 1980s. The homeless population is estimated to be 13,500 with 6,500 living on the streets. The city is believed to have the highest number of homeless inhabitants per capita of any major U.S. city. of reported violent and property crimes for 2009 (736 and 4,262 incidents per 100,000 residents, respectively) are slightly lower than for similarly sized U.S. cities.

{ class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;text-align: right;font-size: 90%;" ! Demographic profile ! 2012 ! 2010 ! 2000 ! 1990 ! 1980
59.2%
22.0%
12.7%
0.5%
5.6%
12.4%
53.1%
Source: US Census |}


Languages
As of 2010, 54.58% (411,728) of San Francisco residents age 5 and older spoke at home as a , while 18.60% (140,302) spoke , 11.68% (88,147) , 3.42% (25,767) , 1.86% (14,017) , 1.45% (10,939) , 1.05% (7,895) , 0.90% (6,777) , 0.88% (6,624) , 0.56% (4,215) , 0.53% (3,995) , and were spoken as a by 0.47% (3,535) of the population over the age of five. In total, 45.42% (342,693) of San Francisco's population age 5 and older spoke a other than English.


Crime
The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.

In 2011, 50 murders were reported, which is 6.1 per 100,000 people. There were about 134 rapes, 3,142 robberies, and about 2,139 assaults. There were about 4,469 burglaries, 25,100 thefts, and 4,210 motor vehicle thefts. The area has the highest crime rate in San Francisco: 70% of the city's violent crimes, and around one-fourth of the city's murders, occur in this neighborhood. The Tenderloin also sees high rates of homelessness, drug abuse, gang violence, and prostitution. Another area with high crime rates is the area. Homelessness is also a growing problem in the city.

Several street gangs operate in the city, including , and to some extent the in Bayview - Hunters-Point. There is a presence of Asian gangs in Chinatown. In 1977, an ongoing rivalry between two Chinese gangs led to a , which left 5 people dead and 11 wounded. None of the victims in this attack were gang members. Five members of the gang were arrested and convicted of the crime. In 1990, a gang-related shooting killed one man and wounded six others outside a nightclub near Chinatown. In 1998, six teenagers were shot and wounded at the Chinese Playground; a 16-year-old boy was subsequently arrested.

The city is mainly patrolled by the . The , (public transit only), , and many other local, state, and federal agencies perform law enforcement tasks in the city.


Education

Colleges and universities

The is the sole campus of the entirely dedicated to graduate education in health and biomedical sciences. It is ranked among the top-five medical schools in the United States and operates the , which ranks among the top 15 hospitals in the country. UCSF is a major local employer, second in size only to the city and county government. A campus was opened in 2003, complementing its original facility in . It contains research space and facilities to foster biotechnology and life sciences entrepreneurship and will double the size of UCSF's research enterprise. All in all, UCSF operates 20 facilities across San Francisco. The , founded in in 1878, is the oldest law school in California and claims more judges on the state bench than any other institution. San Francisco's two University of California institutions have recently formed an official affiliation in the .

is part of the system and is located near . The school has approximately 30,000 students and awards undergraduate, master's and doctoral degrees in more than 100 disciplines. The , with its main facility in the district, is one of the largest two-year in the country. It has an enrollment of about 100,000 students and offers an extensive continuing education program.

Founded in 1855, the , a private university located on , is the oldest institution of higher education in San Francisco and one of the oldest universities established west of the Mississippi River. is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational university formed in 1901 and located in the . It is primarily a post-graduate institution focused on professional training in law and business, with smaller undergraduate programs linked to its graduate and professional schools.

With an enrollment of 13,000 students, the is the largest institute of art and design in the nation. Founded in 1871, the is the oldest west of the Mississippi. ξ4 The , located north of , has programs in architecture, fine arts, design, and writing. The , the only independent on the West Coast, grants degrees in orchestral instruments, chamber music, composition, and conducting. The , associated with the program, offers programs in the culinary arts, baking and pastry arts, and hospitality and restaurant management. , founded in 1968, offers a variety of graduate programs in its Schools of Professional Psychology & Health, and Consciousness and Transformation. Known for combining spirituality and social change, the Institute also features a bachelor's degree completion program.


Primary and secondary schools
are run by the as well as the State Board of Education for some charter schools. , the oldest public high school in the U.S. west of the Mississippi, and the smaller are two of San Francisco's at the secondary level. Just under 30% of the city's school-age population attends one of San Francisco's more than 100 or , compared to a 10% rate nationwide. Nearly 40 of those schools are managed by the .


Transportation

Freeways and roads
Due to its unique geography, and the of the late 1950s, San Francisco is one of the few American cities with instead of having numerous highways within the city.

begins at the approach to the and is the only direct automobile link to the East Bay. connects to the western terminus of Interstate 80 and provides access to the south of the city along San Francisco Bay toward . Northbound, the routing for U.S. 101 uses arterial streets , , , , and Doyle Drive to connect to the , the only direct automobile link to and the North Bay.

also enters San Francisco from the north via the Golden Gate Bridge, but turns south away from the routing of U.S. 101, first onto Park Presidio Blvd through Golden Gate Park, and then bisecting the west side of the city as the arterial thoroughfare, joining with at the city's southern border. Interstate 280 continues this southerly routing along the central portion of the Peninsula south to . Interstate 280 also turns to the east along the southern edge of the city, terminating just south of the Bay Bridge in the neighborhood. After the 1989 , city leaders decided to demolish the as well, and voters approved demolition of a portion of the , converting them into street-level boulevards.

, which traverses the majority of the Peninsula along the ridge of the , enters the city from the south as , following city streets until it terminates at its intersection with Highway 1. enters San Francisco from the south as , following the path of the historic and terminating shortly thereafter at its junction with 280. Major east–west thoroughfares include , the / corridor, and /.

The Western Terminus of the historic transcontinental , the first road across America, is in San Francisco's .


Public transportation
32% of San Francisco residents use public transportation in daily commuting to work, ranking it first on the West Coast and third overall in the United States. The , known as Muni, is the primary public transit system of San Francisco. Muni is the seventh largest transit system in the United States, with 210,848,310 rides in 2006. The system operates both a combined light rail and subway system, the , and a large bus network. Additionally, it runs a , which runs on Market Street from to . It also operates the famous , which have been designated as a and are a major tourist attraction.

, a regional Commuter Rail system, connects San Francisco with the through the underwater . The line runs under Market Street to where it turns south to the Mission District, the southern part of the city, and through northern , to the , and . Another Commuter Rail system, , runs from San Francisco along the to . Historically, trains operated by ran from San Francisco to , via and .

The serves as the terminus for long-range bus service (such as ) and as a hub for regional bus systems ( & counties), , (), and (Marin and ).

runs a shuttle bus from San Francisco to its across the Bay in . Lines from include the , , , and . Thruway service also runs south to with connection to the .

recently relaunched intercity bus service in California and Nevada. San Francisco riders can chose from three routes (SF-San Jose-LA, SF-Oakland-LA, & SF-Sacramento-Reno). The San Francisco stop is located in front of the . began service between the Bay Area and Los Angeles in October 2013.

operates from the and to points in , , , , and north to in . The is the other ferry operator with service between San Francisco and . runs supplemental bus service between the Ferry Building and Vallejo.

Cycling is a popular mode of transportation in San Francisco. 75,000 residents commute by bicycle per day.

Pedestrian traffic is a major mode of transport. In 2011, ranked San Francisco the second most walkable city in the United States.

San Francisco was an early adopter of in America. The non profit opened in 2001. closely followed.

launched in August 2013 with 700 bikes in downtown San Francisco and selected cities south to San Jose. The and are responsible for the operation with management provided by . The system will be expanded in the future.


Airports
Though located south of downtown in unincorporated , (SFO) is under the jurisdiction of the City and County of San Francisco. SFO is a hub for and . SFO is a major international gateway to Asia and Europe, with the largest international terminal in North America. In 2011, SFO was the 8th busiest airport in the U.S. and 22nd busiest in the world, handling over 40.9 million passengers.

Located across the bay, is a popular, low-cost alternative to SFO. Geographically, Oakland Airport is approximately the same distance from downtown San Francisco as SFO, but due to its location across , it is greater driving distance from San Francisco.


Seaports

The Port of San Francisco was once the largest and busiest seaport on the West Coast. It featured rows of perpendicular to the shore, where cargo from the moored ships was handled by cranes and manual labor and transported to nearby warehouses. The port handled cargo to and from trans-Pacific and Atlantic destinations, and was the West Coast center of the . The , an important episode in the history of the , brought most ports to a standstill. The advent of made pier-based ports obsolete, and most commercial berths moved to the and . A few active berths specializing in remain alongside the Channel.

Many piers remained derelict for years until the demolition of the reopened the downtown waterfront, allowing for redevelopment. The centerpiece of the port, the , while still receiving commuter ferry traffic, has been restored and redeveloped as a gourmet marketplace. The port's other activities now focus on developing waterside assets to support recreation and tourism.

The port currently uses Pier 35 to handle the 60-80 calls and 200,000 passengers that come to San Francisco. Itineraries from San Francisco usually include round trip cruises to Alaska and Mexico. The new James R. Herman Cruise Terminal Project at Pier 27 is scheduled to open 2014 as a replacement. The existing primary terminal at Pier 35 has neither the sufficient capacity to allow for the increasing length and passenger capacity of new cruise ships nor the amenities needed for an international cruise terminal.

On March 16, 2013, became the first ship to home port in San Francisco year round. The ship offers cruises to Alaska, California Coasts, Hawaii, and Mexico. Grand Princess will be stationed in San Francisco until April 2014. Princess will also operate other ships during the summer of 2014, making it the only cruise line home porting year round in San Francisco.


Embassies, consulates and sister cities
San Francisco participates in the program. A total of 41 consulates general and 23 honorary consulates have offices in the San Francisco Bay Area.


See also


Notes

Bibliography


Further reading
  • ξ9
  • ξ10
  • ξ11
  • ξ9
  • ξ12
  • ξ13
  • ξ14
  • ξ15
  • Solnit, Rebecca. Infinite City: A San Francisco Atlas (University of California Press, 2010). 144 pp. ISBN 978-0-520-26250-8; online review
  • ξ16
  • Winfield, P.H., The Charter of San Francisco (The fortnightly review Vol. 157–58:2 (1945), p. 69–75)
  • San Francisco (article) (1870) The Overland Monthly, January, 1870 Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 9–23. San Francisco: A. Roman & Co., Publishers


External links


References
    ^ (2018). 9780471191209, John Wiley & Sons, Inc..
    ^ (1992). 9781879367005, Heritage House.
    ^ (2018). 9780738559803, Arcadia Publishing. .
    ^ (2018). 9780312361822, MacMillan. .
    ^ (2018). 9780891740476, Doubleday.
    ^ (1989). 9780930588397, .
    ^ (1995). 9780811808415, Chronicle Books.
    ^ (2018). 9780738530536, Arcadia Publishing.
    ^ (1989). 9780880294287, Dorset Press.
    ^ (2018). 9780811850476, Chronicle Books.
    ^ (1987). 9780916290368, Square Books.
    ^ (2018). 9780520086050, University of California Press.
    ^ (1997). 9780252066313, University of Illinois Press.
    ^ (1981). 9780930588014, Heydey Books.
    ^ (1978). 9780060964047, Harper Collins.
    ^ (1971). 9780812813609, Stein and Day.

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