Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991.
Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages, one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages, and part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch. Written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century onward.
It is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages and the largest native language in Europe, with 144 million speakers in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Russian is the eighth most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers and the seventh by total number of speakers. The language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Russian is also the second most widespread language on the Internet after English language. Usage Statistics and Market Share of Content Languages for Websites, January 2018
Russian distinguishes between consonant with palatal secondary articulation and those without, the so-called soft and hard sounds. Almost every consonant has a hard or a soft counterpart, and the distinction is a prominent feature of the language. Another important aspect is the vowel reduction of unstressed . Stress, which is unpredictable, is not normally indicated Orthography though an optional acute accent (знак ударения]], znak udareniya) may be used to mark stress, such as to distinguish between words, for example замо́к (zamók, meaning a lock) and за́мок (zámok, meaning a castle), or to indicate the proper pronunciation of uncommon words or names.
The vocabulary (mainly abstract and literary words), principles of word formations, and, to some extent, inflections and literary style of Russian have been also influenced by Church Slavonic, a developed and partly russified form of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic language used by the Russian Orthodox Church. However, the East Slavic forms have tended to be used exclusively in the various dialects that are experiencing a rapid decline. In some cases, both the East Slavic and the Church Slavonic forms are in use, with many different meanings. For details, see Russian phonology and History of the Russian language.
Over the course of centuries, the vocabulary and literary style of Russian have also been influenced by Western and Central European languages such as Greek language, Latin, Polish language, Dutch language, German language, French language, Italian language and English language, and to a lesser extent the languages to the south and the east: Uralic languages, Turkic languages, Persian language, and Arabic language, as well as Hebrew language.Colin Baker, Sylvia Prys Jones Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education pp 219 Multilingual Matters, 1998
According to the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, California, Russian is classified as a level III language in terms of learning difficulty for native English language speakers, requiring approximately 1,100 hours of immersion instruction to achieve intermediate fluency. It is also regarded by the United States Intelligence Community as a "hard target" language, due to both its difficulty to master for English speakers and its critical role in U.S. world policy.
Mikhail Lomonosov first compiled a normalizing grammar book in 1755; in 1783 the Russian Academy's first explanatory Russian dictionary appeared. During the end of the 18th and 19th centuries, a period known as the "Golden Age", the grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation of the Russian language was stabilized and standardized, and it became the nationwide literary language; meanwhile, Russia's world-famous literature flourished.
Until the 20th century, the language's spoken form was the language of only the upper noble classes and urban population, as Russian peasants from the countryside continued to speak in their own dialects. By the mid-20th century, such dialects were forced out with the introduction of the compulsory education system that was established by the Soviet government. Despite the formalization of Standard Russian, some nonstandard dialectal features (such as fricative in Southern Russian dialects) are still observed in colloquial speech.
In 2010, there were 259.8 million speakers of Russian in the world: in Russia – 137.5 million, in the CIS and Baltic countries – 93.7 million, in Eastern Europe – 12.9 million, Western Europe – 7.3 million, Asia – 2.7 million, Middle East and North Africa – 1.3 million, Sub-Saharan Africa – 0.1 million, Latin America – 0.2 million, U.S., Canada, Australia and New Zealand – 4.1 million speakers. Therefore, the Russian language is the 7th largest in the world by number of speakers, after English, Mandarin, Hindi, Urdu, Spanish, and Arabic.
Russian is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Education in Russian is still a popular choice for both Russian as a second language (RSL) and native speakers in Russia as well as many of the former Soviet republics. Russian is still seen as an important language for children to learn in most of the former Soviet republics. Russia's Language Could Be Ticket in for Migrants Gallup Retrieved on May 26, 2010 Samuel P. Huntington wrote in the Clash of Civilizations, "During the heyday of the Soviet Union, Russian was the lingua franca from Prague to Hanoi."
In Estonia, Russian is officially considered a foreign language. Russian is spoken by 29.6% of the population according to a 2011 estimate from the World Factbook.
Despite large Russian-speaking minorities in Latvia (26.9% ethnic Russians, 2011) Russian is officially considered a foreign language. 55% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 26% used it as the main language with family, friends, or at work.
In Lithuania, Russian is not official, but it still retains the function of a lingua franca. In contrast to the other two Baltic states, Lithuania has a relatively small Russian-speaking minority (5.0% as of 2008).
In Moldova, Russian is considered to be the language of inter-ethnic communication under a Soviet-era law. 50% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 19% used it as the main language with family, friends, or at work.
According to the 2010 census in Russia, Russian language skills were indicated by 138 million people (99.4% of the population), while according to the 2002 census – 142.6 million people (99.2% of the population).
In Ukraine, Russian is seen as a language of inter-ethnic communication, and a minority language, under the 1996 Constitution of Ukraine. According to estimates from Demoskop Weekly, in 2004 there were 14,400,000 native speakers of Russian in the country, and 29 million active speakers. 65% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 38% used it as the main language with family, friends, or at work.
In the 20th century, Russian was a mandatory language taught in the schools of the members of the old Warsaw Pact and in other Communist state that used to be satellites of the USSR. According to the Eurobarometer 2005 survey, fluency in Russian remains fairly high (20–40%) in some countries, in particular those where the people speak a Slavic language and thereby have an edge in learning Russian (namely, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Bulgaria).
Significant Russian-speaking groups also exist in Western Europe. These have been fed by several waves of immigrants since the beginning of the 20th century, each with its own flavor of language. The United Kingdom, Germany, Finland, Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Belgium, Greece, Norway, and Austria have significant Russian-speaking communities.
In Azerbaijan, Russian has no official status, but is a lingua franca of the country. 26% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 5% used it as the main language with family, friends, or at work.
In Georgia, Russian has no official status, but it is recognized as a minority language under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. Russian is the language of 9% of the population according to the World Factbook. Ethnologue cites Russian as the country's de facto working language.
In Kazakhstan, Russian is not a state language, but according to article 7 of the Constitution of Kazakhstan its usage enjoys equal status to that of the Kazakh language in state and local administration. The 2009 census reported that 10,309,500 people, or 84.8% of the population aged 15 and above, could read and write well in Russian, as well as understand the spoken language.
In Kyrgyzstan, Russian is an official language per article 5 of the Constitution of Kyrgyzstan. The 2009 census states that 482,200 people speak Russian as a native language, or 8.99% of the population. Additionally, 1,854,700 residents of Kyrgyzstan aged 15 and above fluently speak Russian as a second language, or 49.6% of the population in the age group.
In Tajikistan, Russian is the language of inter-ethnic communication under the Constitution of Tajikistan and is permitted in official documentation. 28% of the population was fluent in Russian in 2006, and 7% used it as the main language with family, friends or at work. The World Factbook notes that Russian is widely used in government and business.
In Turkmenistan, Russian lost its status as the official lingua franca in 1996. Russian is spoken by 12% of the population according to an undated estimate from the World Factbook.
In Uzbekistan, Russian has some official roles, being permitted in official documentation and is the lingua franca of the country and the language of the élite. Russian is spoken by 14.2% of the population according to an undated estimate from the World Factbook.
In 2005, Russian was the most widely taught foreign language in Mongolia, and was compulsory in Year 7 onward as a second foreign language in 2006.
Russian is also spoken in Israel. The number of native Russian-speaking Israelis numbers around 1.5 million Israelis. К визиту Нетаньяху: что Россия может получить от экономики Израиля Алексей Голубович, Forbes Russia, 9 March 2017 The Israeli Mass media and regularly publish material in Russian.. With Israel Plus, there is an Israeli TV channel mainly broadcasting in Russian. See also Russian language in Israel.
Russian is also spoken as a second language by a small number of people in Afghanistan.Awde and Sarwan, 2003
The Russian language is also one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station – NASA astronauts who serve alongside Russian cosmonauts usually take Russian language courses. This practice goes back to the Apollo-Soyuz mission, which first flew in 1975.
In March 2013 it was announced that Russian is now the second-most used language on the Internet after English. People use the Russian language on 5.9% of all websites, slightly ahead of German and far behind English (54.7%). Russian is used not only on 89.8% of .ru sites, but also on 88.7% of sites with the former Soviet Union domain .su. The websites of former Soviet Union nations also use high levels of Russian: 79.0% in Ukraine, 86.9% in Belarus, 84.0% in Kazakhstan, 79.6% in Uzbekistan, 75.9% in Kyrgyzstan and 81.8% in Tajikistan. However, Russian is the sixth-most used language on the top 1,000 sites, behind English language, Chinese language, French language, German language and Japanese.
Russian is a rather homogeneous language, in terms of dialectal variation, due to the early political centralization under Moscow's rule, compulsory education, mass migration from rural to urban areas in the 20th century, as well as other factors. The standard language is used in written and spoken form almost everywhere in the country, from Kaliningrad and Saint Petersburg in the West to Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in the East, notwithstanding the enormous distance in between.
Despite leveling after 1900, especially in matters of vocabulary and phonetics, a number of dialects still exist in Russia. Some linguists divide the dialects of Russian into two primary regional groupings, "Northern" and "Southern", with Moscow lying on the zone of transition between the two. Others divide the language into three groupings, Northern, Central (or Middle) and Southern, with Moscow lying in the Central region.David Dalby. 1999–2000. The Linguasphere Register of the World's Languages and Speech Communities. Linguasphere Press. Pg. 442. All dialects also divided in two main chronological categories: the dialects of primary formation (the territory of the Eastern Rus' or Muscovy, roughly consists of the modern Central and Northwestern Federal districts); and secondary formation (other territory). Dialectology within Russia recognizes dozens of smaller-scale variants. The dialects often show distinct and non-standard features of pronunciation and intonation, vocabulary and grammar. Some of these are relics of ancient usage now completely discarded by the standard language.
The Northern Russian dialects and those spoken along the Volga River typically pronounce unstressed clearly, a phenomenon called okanye (оканье). Besides the absence of vowel reduction, some dialects have high vowel or in the place of and in stressed closed syllables (as in Ukrainian) instead of Standard Russian and . An interesting morphological feature is a post-posed definite article -to, -ta, -te similarly to that existing in Bulgarian and Macedonian.
In the Southern Russian dialects, instances of unstressed and following palatalized consonants and preceding a stressed syllable are not reduced to (as occurs in the Moscow dialect), being instead pronounced in such positions (e.g. is pronounced , not ) – this is called yakanye (яканье). Consonants include a fricative , a semivowel and , whereas the Standard and Northern dialects have the consonants , , and final and , respectively. The morphology features a palatalized final in 3rd person forms of verbs (this is unpalatalized in the Standard and Northern dialects). Some of these features such as akanye and yakanye, a debuccalized or lenited , a semivowel and palatalized final in 3rd person forms of verbs are also present in modern Belarusian and some dialects of Ukrainian (Eastern ), indicating a linguistic continuum.
The city of Veliky Novgorod has historically displayed a feature called chokanye or tsokanye (чоканье or цоканье), in which and were switched or merged. So, ('heron') has been recorded as чапля. Also, the second palatalization of Velar consonant did not occur there, so the so-called ě² (from the Proto-Slavic diphthong *ai) did not cause to shift to ; therefore, where Standard Russian has ('chain'), the form кепь is attested in earlier texts.
Among the first to study Russian dialects was Lomonosov in the 18th century. In the 19th, Vladimir Dal compiled the first dictionary that included dialectal vocabulary. Detailed mapping of Russian dialects began at the turn of the 20th century. In modern times, the monumental Dialectological Atlas of the Russian Language (Диалектологический атлас русского языка ), was published in three folio volumes 1986–1989, after four decades of preparatory work.
All the obsolete 8-bit encodings are rarely used in the communication protocols and text-exchange data formats, having been mostly replaced with UTF-8. A number of encoding conversion applications were developed. "iconv" is an example that is supported by most versions of Linux, Macintosh and some other ; but converters are rarely needed unless accessing texts created more than a few years ago.
In addition to the modern Russian alphabet, Unicode (and thus UTF-8) encodes the Early Cyrillic alphabet (which is very similar to the Greek alphabet), as well as all other Slavic and non-Slavic but Cyrillic-based alphabets.
The current spelling follows the major reform of 1918, and the final codification of 1956. An update proposed in the late 1990s has met a hostile reception, and has not been formally adopted. The punctuation, originally based on Byzantine Greek, was in the 17th and 18th centuries reformulated on the French and German models.
According to the Institute of Russian Language of the Russian Academy of Sciences, an optional acute accent (знак ударения) may, and sometimes should, be used to mark stress. For example, it is used to distinguish between otherwise identical words, especially when context does not make it obvious: замо́к – за́мок ("lock" – "castle"), сто́ящий – стоя́щий ("worthwhile" – "standing"), чудно́ – чу́дно ("this is odd" – "this is marvelous"), молоде́ц – мо́лодец ("attaboy" – "fine young man"), узна́ю – узнаю́ ("I shall learn it" – "I recognize it"), отреза́ть – отре́зать ("to be cutting" – "to have cut"); to indicate the proper pronunciation of uncommon words, especially personal and family names (афе́ра, гу́ру, Гарси́я, Оле́ша, Фе́рми), and to show which is the stressed word in a sentence (Ты́ съел печенье? – Ты съе́л печенье? – Ты съел пече́нье? "Was it you who ate the cookie? – Did you eat the cookie? – Was it the cookie that you ate?"). Stress marks are mandatory in lexical dictionaries and books for children or Russian learners.
The language possesses five vowels (or six, under the St.Petersburg Phonological School), which are written with different letters depending on whether the preceding consonant is palatalized. The consonants typically come in plain vs. palatalized pairs, which are traditionally called hard and soft. (The hard consonants are often velarization, especially before front vowels, as in Irish language). The standard language, based on the Moscow dialect, possesses heavy stress and moderate variation in pitch. Stressed vowels are somewhat lengthened, while unstressed vowels tend to be reduced to near-close vowels or an unclear schwa. (See also: vowel reduction in Russian.)
The Russian syllable structure can be quite complex, with both initial and final consonant clusters of up to four consecutive sounds. Using a formula with V standing for the nucleus (vowel) and C for each consonant, the structure can be described as follows:
Clusters of four consonants are not very common, however, especially within a morpheme. Some examples are: (, 'glance'), (, 'of the states'), (, 'of the constructions').
|+ Consonant phonemes ! rowspan="2"||! colspan="2" Labial consonant ! colspan="2"||Alveolar|
/Dental consonant ! colspan="2"
alveolar ! rowspan="2"
|Palatal ! colspan="2"||Velar consonant|
Russian is notable for its distinction based on palatalization of most of the consonants. While do have palatalized , only might be considered a phoneme, though it is marginal and generally not considered distinctive. The only native minimal pair that argues for being a separate phoneme is это (, 'it weaves')этот (, 'this cat'). Palatalization means that the center of the tongue is raised during and after the articulation of the consonant. In the case of and , the tongue is raised enough to produce slight frication (affricate sounds; cf. Belarusian ць, дзь, or Polish ć, dź). The sounds are dental consonant, that is, pronounced with the tip of the tongue against the teeth rather than against the alveolar ridge.
The spoken language has been influenced by the literary one but continues to preserve characteristic forms. The dialects show various non-standard grammatical features, some of which are archaisms or descendants of old forms since discarded by the literary language.
The Church Slavonic language was introduced to Moskovy in the late 15th century and was adopted as official language for correspondence for convenience. Firstly with the newly conquered south-western regions of former Kyivan Rus and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, later, when Moskovy cut its ties with the Golden Horde, for communication between all newly consolidated regions of Moskovy.
In terms of actual grammar, there are three tenses in Russian - past, present and future - and each verb has two aspects (perfective and imperfective). Russian nouns each have a gender - either feminine, masculine or neutral, indicated by spelling at the end of the word. Words change depending on both their gender and function in the sentence. Russian has six Grammatical case: Nominative (for the subject of the sentence), Accusative (for direct objects), Dative (for indirect objects), Genitive (to indicate possession), Instrumental (to indicate 'with' or 'by means of') and Prepositional (used after a preposition). Verbs of motion in Russian - such as 'go', 'walk', 'run', 'swim' and 'fly' - use the imperfective or perfective form to indicate a single or return trip, and also use a multitude of to add more meaning to the verb.
See History of the Russian language for an account of the successive foreign influences on Russian.
The number of listed words or entries in some of the major dictionaries published during the past two centuries, and the total vocabulary of Alexander Pushkin (who is credited with greatly augmenting and codifying literary Russian), are as follows: What types of dictionaries exist? from www.gramota.ru A catalogue of Russian explanatory dictionaries
|Russian and Church Slavonic with some Old Russian vocabulary.|
|Russian and Church Slavonic with some Old Russian vocabulary.|
|1810–1837||>21,000|The dictionary of virtually all words from his works was published in 1956–1961. Some consider his works to contain 101,105.|
|Russian and Church Slavonic with Old Russian vocabulary.|
|44,000 entries lexically grouped; attempt to catalogue the full vernacular language. Contains many dialectal, local and obsolete words.|
|Current language with some archaisms.|
1991 (2nd ed.)
|120,480|"Full" 17-volumed dictionary of the contemporary language. The second 20-volumed edition was begun in 1991, but not all volumes have been finished.|
|Orthographic, current language, several editions|
|Current language, the dictionary has many subsequent editions from the first one of 1998.|
Judging by the historical records, by approximately 1000 AD the predominant ethnic group over much of modern European Russia, Ukraine and Belarus was the Eastern branch of the Slavic peoples, speaking a closely related group of dialects. The political unification of this region into Kievan Rus' in about 880, from which modern Russia, Ukraine and Belarus trace their origins, established Old East Slavic as a literary and commercial language. It was soon followed by the adoption of Christianity in 988 and the introduction of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic as the liturgical and official language. Borrowings and from Byzantine Greek began to enter the Old East Slavic and spoken dialects at this time, which in their turn modified the Old Church Slavonic as well.
The official language in Moscow and Novgorod, and later, in the growing Muscovy, was Church Slavonic, which evolved from Old Church Slavonic and remained Diglossia for centuries, until the Petrine age, when its usage became limited to biblical and liturgical texts. Russian developed under a strong influence of Church Slavonic until the close of the 17th century; afterward the influence reversed, leading to corruption of liturgical texts.
The political reforms of Peter the Great (Пётр Вели́кий, Pyótr Velíkiy) were accompanied by a reform of the alphabet, and achieved their goal of secularization and Westernization. Blocks of specialized vocabulary were adopted from the languages of Western Europe. By 1800, a significant portion of the gentry spoke French language daily, and German language sometimes. Many Russian novels of the 19th century, e.g. Leo Tolstoy's (Лев Толсто́й) War and Peace, contain entire paragraphs and even pages in French with no translation given, with an assumption that educated readers would not need one.
The modern literary language is usually considered to date from the time of Alexander Pushkin (Алекса́ндр Пу́шкин) in the first third of the 19th century. Pushkin revolutionized Russian literature by rejecting archaic grammar and vocabulary (so-called высо́кий стиль — "high style") in favor of grammar and vocabulary found in the spoken language of the time. Even modern readers of younger age may only experience slight difficulties understanding some words in Pushkin's texts, since relatively few words used by Pushkin have become archaic or changed meaning. In fact, many expressions used by Russian writers of the early 19th century, in particular Pushkin, Mikhail Lermontov (Михаи́л Ле́рмонтов), Nikolai Gogol (Никола́й Го́голь), Aleksander Griboyedov (Алекса́ндр Грибое́дов), became proverbs or sayings which can be frequently found even in modern Russian colloquial speech.
The political upheavals of the early 20th century and the wholesale changes of political ideology gave written Russian its modern appearance after the spelling reform of 1918. Political circumstances and Soviet accomplishments in military, scientific and technological matters (especially ), gave Russian a worldwide prestige, especially during the mid-20th century.
During the Soviet Union period, the policy toward the languages of the various other ethnic groups fluctuated in practice. Though each of the constituent republics had its own official language, the unifying role and superior status was reserved for Russian, although it was declared the official language only in 1990. "Закон СССР от 24 April 1990 О языках народов СССР" (The 1990 USSR Law about the Languages of the USSR) Following the break-up of the USSR in 1991, several of the newly independent states have encouraged their native languages, which has partly reversed the privileged status of Russian, though its role as the language of post-Soviet national discourse throughout the region has continued.
The Russian language in the world declined after 1991 due to the collapse of the Soviet Union and decrease in the number of Russians in the world and diminution of the total population in Russia (where Russian is an official language), however this has since been reversed.
|+ Recent estimates of the total number of speakers of Russian ! Source||Total rank|
|5–6 (tied with Arabic language)|
According to figures published in 2006 in the journal "Demoskop Weekly" research deputy director of Research Center for Sociological Research of the Ministry of Education and Science (Russia) Arefyev A. L., the Russian language is gradually losing its position in the world in general, and in Russia in particular. In 2012, A. L. Arefyev published a new study "Russian language at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries", in which he confirmed his conclusion about the trend of weakening of the Russian language after the Soviet Union's collapse in various regions of the world (findings published in 2013 in the journal "Demoskop Weekly"). Русский язык на рубеже XX-XXI веков — М.: Центр социального прогнозирования и маркетинга, 2012. — 482 стр. In the countries of the former Soviet Union the Russian language was being replaced or used in conjunction with local languages. Currently the number speakers of Russian language in the world depends on the number of Russians in the world and total population in Russia.
|+The changing proportion of Russian speakers in the world (assessment Aref'eva 2012) ! Year||share in world population, %|