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Romanian (archaically Rumanian or Roumanian; autonym: limba română , "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an Eastern Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people Romanian language – native speakers 26 million | Effective Language Learning Romanian – 26.3 million native speakers | About World Languages (2015) as a native language, primarily in and , and by another 4 million people as a second language.The Latin Union reports 28 million speakers for Romanian, out of whom 24 million are native speakers of the language: Latin Union – The odyssey of languages: ro, es, fr, it, pt; see also Ethnologue report for Romanian It is an official and national language of and . In addition, it is also one of the official languages of the European Union.

Romanian is a part of the Eastern Romance sub-branch of Romance languages, a linguistic group that evolved from several dialects of , which was separated from the Western Romance during the 5th–8th centuries."Istoria limbii române" ("History of the Romanian Language"), II, Academia Română, Bucharest, 1969 To distinguish it within that group in comparative linguistics it is called as opposed to its closest relatives, , Megleno-Romanian, and .

Romanian is also known as Moldovan in Moldova, although the Constitutional Court of Moldova ruled in 2013 that "the official language of the republic is Romanian".The constitution of the Republic of Moldova refers to the country's language as Moldovan, whilst the 1991 Declaration of Independence names the official language Romanian. In December 2013, a decision of the Constitutional Court of Moldova ruled that the Declaration of Independence takes precedence over the Constitution and that the state language is therefore Romanian, not "Moldovan". "Moldovan court rules official language is 'Romanian,' replacing Soviet-flavored 'Moldovan'"

Furthermore, numerous immigrant Romanian speakers are also scattered across many other regions and countries worldwide, most notably , the Iberian peninsula (both in and ), the German-speaking countries (, , ), the (both in the as well as in ), (, , and ), (most notably in the but also in ), ( and ) and (mainly and ).


History

Prehistory
Romanian descended from the spoken in the of Southeastern Europe. Roman inscriptions show that Latin was primarily used to the north of the so-called Jireček Line (a hypothetical boundary between the predominantly Latin- and Greek-speaking territories of the in the Roman Empire), but the exact territory where Proto-Romanian (or Common Romanian) developed cannot certainly be determined. Most regions where Romanian is now widely spoken, , Crișana, Maramureș, , and significant parts of not incorporated in the Roman Empire. Other regions, western Muntenia, and the Roman province of for about 170 years. According to the "continuity" theory, modern Romanian is the direct descendant of the Latin dialect of Dacia Traiana and developed primarily in the lands now forming ; the concurring "immigrationist" theory maintains that Proto-Romanian was spoken in the lands to the south of the Danube and Romanian-speakers settled in most parts of modern Romania only centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire.

Most scholars agree that two major dialects developed from Common Romanian by the 10th century. Daco-Romanian (the official language of Romania and Moldova) and Istro-Romanian (a language spoken by no more than 2,000 people in ) descended from the northern dialect. Two other languages, Aromanian and Megleno-Romanian, developed from the southern version of Common Romanian. These two languages are now spoken in lands to the south of the Jireček Line.


Early history
The use of the denomination Romanian ( română) for the language and use of the demonym Romanians ( Români) for speakers of this language predates the foundation of the modern Romanian state. Although the followers of the former Romanian voievodships used to designate themselves as "Ardeleni" (or "Ungureni"), "Moldoveni" or "Munteni", the name of "rumână" or "rumâniască" for the Romanian language itself is attested earlier, during the 16th century, by various foreign travelers into the Carpathian Romance-speaking space,Ștefan Pascu, Documente străine despre români, ed. Arhivelor statului, București 1992, as well as in other historical documents written in Romanian at that time such as ( The Chronicles of the land of Moldova) by .

An attested reference to Romanian comes from a Latin title of an oath made in 1485 by the Moldavian Prince Stephen the Great to the Polish King Casimir, in which it is reported that "Haec Inscriptio ex Valachico in Latinam versa est sed Rex Ruthenica Lingua scriptam accepta" - This Inscription was translated from Valachian (Romanian) into Latin, but the King has received it written in the Ruthenian language (Slavic).

(2008). 9783110194128, Walter de Gruyter. .

In 1534, Tranquillo Andronico notes: "Valachi nunc se Romanos vocant" ( The Wallachians are now calling themselves Romans).Tranquillo Andronico în Endre Veress, Fontes rerum transylvanicarum: Erdélyi történelmi források, Történettudományi Intézet, Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, Budapest, 1914, S. 204 writes in 1532 that Romanians are calling themselves Romans in their own language, and he subsequently quotes the expression: "Știi Românește?" ( Do you know Romanian?). "...si dimandano in lingua loro Romei...se alcuno dimanda se sano parlare in la lingua valacca, dicono a questo in questo modo: Sti Rominest ? Che vol dire: Sai tu Romano ?..." în: Claudiu Isopescu, Notizie intorno ai romeni nella letteratura geografica italiana del Cinquecento, în Bulletin de la Section Historique, XVI, 1929, p. 1- 90

After travelling through Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania accounts in 1575 that the indigenous population of these regions call themselves "românești" ( "romanesci"). "Anzi essi si chiamano romanesci, e vogliono molti che erano mandati quì quei che erano dannati a cavar metalli..." în: Maria Holban, Călători străini despre Țările Române, București, Editura Stiințifică, 1970, vol. II, pp. 158–161

Pierre Lescalopier writes in 1574 that those who live in Moldavia, Wallachia and the vast part of Transylvania, "se consideră adevărați urmași ai romanilor și-și numesc limba "românește", adică romana" ( they consider themselves as the descendants of the Romans and they name their language Romanian). "Tout ce pays: la Wallachie, la Moldavie et la plus part de la Transylvanie, a esté peuplé des colonies romaines du temps de Trajan l'empereur… Ceux du pays se disent vrais successeurs des Romains et nomment leur parler romanechte, c'est-à-dire romain ... " în Voyage fait par moy, Pierre Lescalopier l’an 1574 de Venise a Constantinople, în: Paul Cernovodeanu, Studii și materiale de istorie medievală, IV, 1960, p. 444

The Transylvanian Saxon writes in 1542 that "Vlachi" se numeau între ei "Romuini" "Ex Vlachi Valachi, Romanenses Italiani,/Quorum reliquae Romanensi lingua utuntur.../Solo Romanos nomine, sine re, repraesentantes./Ideirco vulgariter Romuini sunt appelanti", Ioannes Lebelius, De opido Thalmus, Carmen Istoricum, Cibinii, 1779, p. 11 – 12 and the chronicler Stanislaw Orzechowski (Orichovius) notes in 1554 that în limba lor "walachii" se numesc "romini" ( In their language the Wallachians call themselves Romini). "qui eorum lingua Romini ab Romanis, nostra Walachi, ab Italis appellantur" St. Orichovius, Annales polonici ab excessu Sigismundi, in I. Dlugossus, Historiae polonicae libri XII, col 1555

The prelate and diplomat Antun Vrančić recorded in 1570 that "Vlachs in Transylvania, Moldavia and Wallachia designate themselves as "Romans" "...Valacchi, qui se Romanos nominant..." "Gens quae ear terras (Transsylvaniam, Moldaviam et Transalpinam) nostra aetate incolit, Valacchi sunt, eaque a Romania ducit originem, tametsi nomine longe alieno..." De situ Transsylvaniae, Moldaviae et Transaplinae, in Monumenta Hungariae Historica, Scriptores; II, Pesta, 1857, p. 120 and the Martin Szentiványi in 1699 quotes the following: «Si noi sentem Rumeni» ("Și noi suntem români" – "We are Romans as well") and «Noi sentem di sange Rumena» ("Noi suntem de sânge român" – We are of Roman blood). "Valachos...dicunt enim communi modo loquendi: Sie noi sentem Rumeni: etiam nos sumus Romani. Item: Noi sentem di sange Rumena: Nos sumus de sanguine Romano" Martinus Szent-Ivany, Dissertatio Paralimpomenica rerum memorabilium Hungariae, Tyrnaviae, 1699, p. 39 Notably, Szentiványi used Italian-based spellings to try to write the Romanian words.

In (1582) stands written ".... că văzum cum toate limbile au și înfluresc întru cuvintele slăvite a lui Dumnezeu numai noi românii pre limbă nu avem. Pentru aceia cu mare muncă scoasem de limba jidovească si grecească si srâbească pre limba românească 5 cărți ale lui Moisi prorocul si patru cărți și le dăruim voo frați rumâni și le-au scris în cheltuială multă... și le-au dăruit voo fraților români,... și le-au scris voo fraților români"Palia de la Orăștie (1581–1582), Bucuresti, 1968 and in Letopisețul Țării Moldovei written by the Moldavian chronicler Grigore Ureche we can read: «În Țara Ardialului nu lăcuiesc numai unguri, ce și sași peste seamă de mulți și români peste tot locul...» ("In Transylvania there live not solely Hungarians or Saxons, but overwhelmingly many Romanians everywhere around.").Grigore Ureche, Letopisețul Țării Moldovei, pp. 133–134

Nevertheless, the oldest extant document written in Romanian remains Neacșu's letter (1521) and was written using Cyrillic letters (which remained in use up until the late 19th century). There are no records of any other documents written in Romanian from before 1521.

, in his De neamul moldovenilor (1687), while noting that Moldavians, , and the Romanians living in the Kingdom of Hungary have the same origin, says that although people of Moldavia call themselves Moldavians, they name their language Romanian ( românește) instead of Moldavian ( moldovenește).Constantiniu, Florin, O istorie sinceră a poporului român ( An honest history of the Romanian people), Univers Enciclopedic, București, 1997, , p. 175

Dimitrie Cantemir, in his (Berlin, 1714), points out that the inhabitants of Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania spoke the same language. He notes, however, some differences in accent and vocabulary. From : "Valachiae et Transylvaniae incolis eadem est cum Moldavis lingua, pronunciatio tamen rudior, ut dziur, Vlachus proferet zur, jur, per z polonicum sive j gallicum; Dumnedzeu, Deus, val. Dumnezeu: akmu, nunc, val. akuma, aczela hic, val: ahela." Cantemir's work provides one of the earliest histories of the language, in which he notes, like before him, the evolution from Latin and notices the Greek and Polish borrowings. Additionally, he introduces the idea that some words must have had roots. Cantemir also notes that while the idea of a Latin origin of the language was prevalent in his time, other scholars considered it to have derived from Italian.

The slow process of Romanian establishing itself as an official language, used in the public sphere, in literature and ecclesiastically, began in the late 15th century and ended in the early decades of the 18th century, by which time Romanian had begun to be regularly used by the Church. The oldest Romanian texts of a literary nature are religious manuscripts ( Codicele Voroneţean, Psaltirea Scheiană), translations of essential Christian texts. These are considered either propagandistic results of confessional rivalries, for instance between and , or as initiatives by Romanian monks stationed at Peri Monastery in Maramureş to distance themselves from the influence of the eparchy in Ukraine.Eugen Munteanu. Dinamica istorică a cultivării instituţionalizate a limbii române, în "Revista română" Https://www.academia.edu/12163793/Dinamica_istoric%C4%83_a_cultiv%C4%83rii_institu%C5%A3ionalizate_a_limbii_rom%C3%A2ne_%C3%AEn_Revista_rom%C3%A2n%C4%83_Ia%C5%9Fi_anul_IV_nr._4_34_decembrie_2003_p._6_I_nr._1_35_martie_2004_p._7_II_nr._2_iunie_2004_p._6_III_nr._3_octombrie_2004_p._6_IV_nr._4_38_decembrie_2004_p._6_V_ .

The language remains poorly attested during the Early Modern period.


Modern history
The first was published in Vienna in 1780. Following the annexation of Bessarabia by Russia (after 1812), Moldavian was established as an official language in the governmental institutions of , used along with Russian, Charter for the organization of the Bessarabian Oblast, 29 April 1818, in "Печатается по изданию: Полное собрание законов Российской империи. Собрание первое.", Vol 35. 1818, , 1830, pg. 222–227. Available online at hrono.info The publishing works established by Archbishop Gavril Bănulescu-Bodoni were able to produce books and liturgical works in Moldavian between 1815–1820.King, Charles, The Moldovans, , 2000, , pg. 21–22

The linguistic situation in Bessarabia from 1812 to 1918 was the gradual development of . Russian continued to develop as the official language of privilege, whereas Romanian remained the principal vernacular.

The period from 1905 to 1917 was one of increasing linguistic conflict, with the re-awakening of Romanian national consciousness. In 1905 and 1906, the Bessarabian asked for the re-introduction of Romanian in schools as a "compulsory language", and the "liberty to teach in the mother language (Romanian language)". At the same time, Romanian-language newspapers and journals began to appear, such as Basarabia (1906), Viața Basarabiei (1907), Moldovanul (1907), Luminătorul (1908), Cuvînt moldovenesc (1913), Glasul Basarabiei (1913). From 1913, the synod permitted that "the churches in use the Romanian language". Romanian finally became the official language with the Constitution of 1923.


Historical grammar
Romanian has preserved a part of the , but whereas Latin had six , from a morphological viewpoint, Romanian has only five: the , , , , and marginally the . Romanian nouns also preserve the neuter gender, although instead of functioning as a separate gender with its own forms in adjectives, the Romanian neuter became a mixture of masculine and feminine. The morphology of Romanian has shown the same move towards a compound perfect and as the other Romance languages. Compared with the other Romance languages, during its evolution, Romanian simplified the original Latin tense system in extreme ways,Yves D'hulst, Martine Coene, Larisa Avram, "Syncretic and analytic tenses in Romanian", in Balkan Syntax and Semantics, pag. 366: "In its evolution, Romanian simplified the original Latin tense system in extreme ways." in particular the absence of sequence of tenses.Yves D'hulst et al., "Syncretic and analytic tenses in Romanian", in Balkan Syntax and Semantics, p. 355: "general absence of consecutio temporum."


Geographic distribution
+ Geographic distribution of Romanian
World0.33%23,623,8907,035,000,000
official:
Romania90.65%17,263,561[12]19,043,767
Moldova 276.4%2,588,3553,388,071
Transnistria (Eastern Moldova) 331.9%177,050555,500
Vojvodina (Serbia)1.32%29,5121,931,809
minority regional co-official language:
Ukraine 50.8%327,70348,457,000
not official:
Hungary0.14%13,886 Hungarian Census 20119,937,628
Central Serbia0.4%35,3307,186,862
Bulgaria0.06%4,575Ethnologue.com7,364,570
Italy1.86%1,131,839 Bilancio demografico nazionale60,795,612
Spain1.7%798,104Instituto Nacional de Estadística – Population and Housing Censuses 2011.'' [15].46,661,950
Germany0.2%300,000Auslaend Bevoelkerung Destatis. [16].81,799,600
United Kingdom0.115%67,586Office for National Statistics 2011 Census. [17].58,789,194
Portugal0.50%52,898Portugal foreigners. 2011.10,561,614
France0.07%50,000Departamentul Romanilor de Pretutindeni – Franta. [19].65,350,000
Belgium0.45%45,877non-profit Data [20].10,296,350
Austria0.45%36,000Departamentul Romanilor de Pretutindeni – Austria [21].8,032,926
Greece0.36%35,295General Secretariat of National Statistical Service of Greece [22].9,903,268
Cyprus2.91%24,376Cyprus 2011 census [23].838,897
Ireland0.45%20,625Irish 2011 census [24].4,588,252
0.07%75,000 Departamentul Romanilor de Pretutindeni – Tarile Nordice114,050,000
not official:
Russia 10.12%159,601 2010 Russia Census Perepis 2010142,856,536
Kazakhstan 10.1%14,66614,953,126
Israel2.86%208,4007,412,200
UAE0.1%5,0004,106,427
Singapore0.02%1,4005,535,000
Japan0.002%2,185126,659,683
South Korea0.0006%30050,004,441
China0.0008%12,0001,376,049,000
not official:
United States0.10%340,000315,091,138
Canada0.34%110,00032,207,113
Argentina0.03%13,00040,117,096
Venezuela0.036%10,00027,150,095
Brazil0.002%4,000190,732,694
not official:
Australia0.09%10,897 Australian Census 200621,507,717
New Zealand0.08%3,1004,027,947
not official:
South Africa0.007%3,00044,819,778
Romanian is spoken mostly in and the of Southern Europe, although speakers of the language can be found all over the world, mostly due to emigration of Romanian nationals and the return of immigrants to Romania back to their original countries. Romanian speakers account for 0.5% of the world's population, and 4% of the Romance-speaking population of the world. MSN Encarta – Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People

Romanian is the single official and national language in Romania and Moldova, although it shares the official status at regional level with other languages in the Moldovan autonomies of and Transnistria. Romanian is also an official language of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina in Serbia along with five other languages. Romanian minorities are encountered in Serbia (), Ukraine (Chernivtsi and ), and Hungary (Gyula). Large immigrant communities are found in Italy, Spain, France, and Portugal.

In 1995, the largest Romanian-speaking community in the Middle East was found in Israel, where Romanian was spoken by 5% of the population.According to the 1993 Statistical Abstract of Israel there were 250,000 Romanian speakers in Israel, of a population of 5,548,523 in 1995 (census). Romanian is also spoken as a second language by people from Arabic-speaking countries who have studied in Romania. It is estimated that almost half a million Middle Eastern Arabs studied in Romania during the 1980s. Small Romanian-speaking communities are to be found in Kazakhstan and Russia. Romanian is also spoken within communities of Romanian and Moldovan immigrants in the United States, Canada and Australia, although they do not make up a large homogeneous community statewide.


Legal status

In Romania
According to the Constitution of Romania of 1991, as revised in 2003, Romanian is the official language of the Republic.

Romania mandates the use of Romanian in official government publications, public education and legal contracts. Advertisements as well as other public messages must bear a translation of foreign words,Legea "": 500/2004 – Law on the Protection of the Romanian Language while trade signs and logos shall be written predominantly in Romanian.Art. 27 (3), Legea nr. 26/1990 privind Registrul Comerțului

The Romanian Language Institute ( Institutul Limbii Române), established by the Ministry of Education of Romania, promotes Romanian and supports people willing to study the language, working together with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' Department for Romanians Abroad.


In Moldova
Romanian is the official language of the Republic of Moldova. The 1991 Declaration of Independence names the official language Romanian. The Constitution of Moldova names the state language of the country Moldovan. In December 2013, a decision of the Constitutional Court of Moldova ruled that the Declaration of Independence takes precedence over the Constitution and the state language should be called Romanian. Moldovan court rules official language is 'Romanian,' replacing Soviet-flavored 'Moldovan' at foxnews.com

Scholars agree that Moldovan and Romanian are the same language, with the "Moldovan" used in certain political contexts. It has been the sole official language since the adoption of the Law on State Language of the in 1989.

(1998). 074753117X, Bloomsbury Publishing. 074753117X
This law mandates the use of Moldovan in all the political, economical, cultural and social spheres, as well as asserting the existence of a "linguistic Moldo-Romanian identity". Legea cu privire la functionarea limbilor vorbite pe teritoriul RSS Moldovenesti Nr.3465-XI din 01.09.89 Vestile nr.9/217, 1989 (Law regarding the usage of languages spoken on the territory of the Republic of Moldova): "Moldavian RSS supports the desire of the Moldavian that live across the borders of the Republic, and – considering the existing Moldo-Romanian linguistic identity – of the Romanians that live on the territory of the USSR, of doing their studies and satisfying their cultural needs in their maternal language." It is also used in schools, mass media, education and in the colloquial speech and writing. Outside the political arena the language is most often called "Romanian". In the breakaway territory of Transnistria, it is co-official with Ukrainian and Russian.

In the 2014 census, out of the 2,804,801 people living in Moldova, 24% (652,394) stated Romanian as their most common language, whereas 56% stated Moldovan. While in the urban centers speakers are split evenly between the two names (with the capital Chișinău showing a strong preference for the name "Romanian", i.e. 3:2), in the countryside hardly a quarter of Romanian/Moldovan speakers indicated Romanian as their native language.National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova: Census 2014 Unofficial results of this census first showed a stronger preference for the name Romanian, however the initial reports were later dismissed by the Institute for Statistics, which led to speculations in the media regarding the forgery of the census results. Biroul Național de Statistică, acuzat că a falsificat rezultatele recensământului, Independent, 29 March 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2017.


In Vojvodina, Serbia
)'', census 2002

| valign=top

]] The Constitution of the Republic of Serbia determines that in the regions of the Republic of Serbia inhabited by national minorities, their own languages and scripts shall be officially used as well, in the manner established by law.Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia, No.1/90

The Statute of the Autonomous Province of determines that, together with the and the Cyrillic script, and the Latin script as stipulated by the law, the Croat, Hungarian, , Romanian and and their scripts, as well as languages and scripts of other nationalities, shall simultaneously be officially used in the work of the bodies of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, in the manner established by the law.Article 24, The Statute Of The Autonomous Province Of Vojvodina, published in the Official Gazette of AP Vojvodina No.20/2014 The bodies of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina are: the Assembly, the Executive Council and the Provincial administrative bodies. "Official use of languages and scripts in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina" published by the Provincial Secretariat for Regulations, Administration and National Minorities

The Romanian language and script are officially used in eight municipalities: , Bela Crkva (Biserica Albă), Žitište (Zitiște), (Zrenianin), Kovačica (Kovăcița), (Cuvin), Plandište (Plandiște) and Sečanj. In the municipality of Vršac (Vârșeț), Romanian is official only in the villages of (Voivodinț), Markovac (Marcovăț), Straža (Straja), Mali Žam (Jamu Mic), Malo Središte (Srediștea Mică), Mesić (Mesici), , Sočica (Sălcița), Ritiševo (Râtișor), Orešac (Oreșaț) and Kuštilj (Coștei).Provincial Secretariat for Regulations, Administration and National Minorities: "Official use of the Romanian language in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (APV)"

In the 2002 Census, the last carried out in Serbia, 1.5% of Vojvodinians stated Romanian as their native language.


Regional language status in Ukraine
In parts of Ukraine where Romanians constitute a significant share of the local population (districts in Chernivtsi, and Zakarpattia ) Romanian is taught in schools as a primary language and there are Romanian-language newspapers, TV, and radio broadcasting.Ukrainian Center for Independent Political Research: , Slovak Academy of Sciences in Kosice The University of Chernivtsi in western Ukraine trains teachers for Romanian schools in the fields of Romanian philology, mathematics and physics.

In of Ukraine as well as in other villages of Chernivtsi Oblast and Zakarpattia Oblast, Romanian has been declared a "regional language" alongside Ukrainian as per the 2012 legislation on languages in Ukraine.


In other countries and organizations
Romanian is an official or administrative language in various communities and organisations, such as the and the . Romanian is also one of the five languages in which religious services are performed in the autonomous monastic state of , spoken in the monk communities of Prodromos and Lacu. In the unrecognised state of , Moldovan is one of the official languages. However, unlike all other dialects of Romanian, this variety of Moldovan is written in Cyrillic Script.


As a second and foreign language
Romanian is taught in some areas that have Romanian minority communities, such as in Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine and Hungary. The Romanian Cultural Institute (ICR) has since 1992 organised summer courses in Romanian for language teachers. "Cursuri de perfecționare" , , 19 August 2005 There are also non-Romanians who study Romanian as a foreign language, for example the Nicolae Bălcescu High-school in Gyula, Hungary.

Romanian is taught as a in tertiary institutions, mostly in European countries such as Germany, France and Italy, and the Netherlands, as well as in the United States. Overall, it is taught as a foreign language in 43 countries around the world. "Data concerning the teaching of the Romanian language abroad" , Romanian Language Institute.

[[File:Knowledge Romanian Eastern EU.png|thumb|upright=1.35|Romanian as second and/or foreign language in Central/Eastern Europe

nativeabove 3%between 1–3%under 1%n/a
]]


Popular culture
Romanian has become popular in other countries through movies and songs performed in the Romanian language. Examples of Romanian acts that had a great success in non-Romanophone countries are the bands (with their No. 1 single Dragostea Din Tei/Numa Numa across the world in 2003–2004), (popular in the Netherlands, Poland and other European countries), Activ (successful in some Eastern European countries), (popular as clubbing music) SunStroke Project (known by viral video "Epic sax guy") and (worldwide no.1 hit with "Mr. Saxobeat)" and Inna as well as high-rated movies like 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days, The Death of Mr. Lazarescu, ' or ''California Dreamin (all of them with awards at the Cannes Film Festival).

Also some artists wrote songs dedicated to the Romanian language. The multiplatinum pop trio (originally from Moldova) released a song called " Nu mă las de limba noastră" ("I won't forsake our language"). The final verse of this song, Eu nu mă las de limba noastră, de limba noastră cea română is translated in English as "I won't forsake our language, our Romanian language". Also, the Moldovan musicians Doina and Ion Aldea Teodorovici performed a song called "The Romanian language".


Dialects
The term "Romanian" is sometimes "Romanian language", in Encyclopædia Britannica used also in a more general sense, encompassing four varieties: (Daco-)Romanian, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian. When the term "Romanian" is used in this larger sense, the term "" is used for Romanian proper. The origin of the term "Daco-Romanian" can be traced back to the first printed book of Romanian grammar in 1780,Samuil Micu, Gheorghe Șincai, Elementa linguae daco-romanae sive valachicae, Vienna, 1780. by and Gheorghe Șincai. There, the Romanian dialect spoken north of the is called lingua Daco-Romana to emphasize its origin and its area of use, which includes the former province of , although it is spoken also south of the Danube, in , Central Serbia and northern Bulgaria.

This article deals with the Romanian (i.e. Daco-Romanian) language, and thus only its dialectal variations are discussed here. The differences between the regional varieties are small, limited to regular phonetic changes, few grammar aspects, and lexical particularities. There is a single written standard (literary) Romanian language used by all speakers, regardless of region. Like most natural languages, Romanian dialects are part of a dialect continuum. The dialects of Romanian are also referred to as subdialects (see reasons for this terminology) and are distinguished primarily by phonetic differences. Romanians themselves speak of the differences as accents or speeches (in Romanian: accent or grai).

Depending on the criteria used for classifying these dialects, fewer or more are found, ranging from 2 to 20, although the most widespread approaches give a number of five dialects. These are grouped into two main types, southern and northern, further divided as follows:

  • The southern type has only one member:
  • The northern type consists of several dialects:
    • the Moldavian dialect, spoken in the historical region of , now split among Romania, the Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine ( and ), as well as northern part of ;
    • the Banat dialect, spoken in the historical region of , including parts of Serbia;
    • a group of finely divided and transition-like Transylvanian varieties, among which two are most often distinguished, those of Crișana and Maramureș.

Over the last century, however, regional accents have been weakened due to mass communication and greater mobility.


Classification

Romance language
Romanian is a Romance language, belonging to the of the Indo-European language family, having much in common with languages such as French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese.

However, the languages closest to Romanian are the other Eastern Romance languages, spoken south of the Danube: Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian and Istro-Romanian. An alternative name for Romanian used by linguists to disambiguate with the other Eastern Romance languages is "Daco-Romanian", referring to the area where it is spoken (which corresponds roughly to the onetime province of ).

Compared with the other Romance languages, the closest relative of Romanian is Italian; the two languages show a limited degree of asymmetrical mutual intelligibility, especially in their cultivated forms: speakers of Romanian seem to understand Italian more easily than the other way around. Romanian has obvious grammatical and lexical similarities with French, , Spanish and Portuguese, with a high phonological similarity with Portuguese in particular; however, it is not mutually intelligible with them to any practical extent. Romanian speakers will usually need some formal study of basic grammar and vocabulary before being able to understand more than individual words and simple sentences in other Romance languages. The same is true for speakers of these languages trying to understand Romanian. Because of its separation from the other Romance languages, it has diverged from them and is an outlier in various ways, somewhat like English in regards to the other Germanic languages.

Romanian has had a greater share of foreign influence than some other Romance languages such as Italian in terms of vocabulary and other aspects. A study conducted by in 1949 which analyzed the degree of differentiation of languages from their parental language (in the case of Romance languages to comparing , , , , , and intonation) produced the following percentages (the higher the percentage, the greater the distance from Latin):

(2019). 9780397004003

  • Sardinian: 8%
  • Italian: 12%
  • Spanish: 20%
  • Romanian: 23.5%
  • : 25%
  • Portuguese: 31%
  • French: 44%

The lexical similarity of Romanian with Italian has been estimated at 77%, followed by French at 75%, Sardinian 74%, Catalan 73%, Portuguese and 72%, Spanish 71%.Ethnologue, Romanian

The Romanian vocabulary became predominantly influenced by French and, to a lesser extent, Italian in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.


Balkan language area
The was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient Dacians, mostly north of the Danube river but also in and other regions south of the Danube. It may have been the first language to influence the Latin spoken in Dacia, but little is known about it. Dacian is usually considered to have been a northern branch of the Thracian language, and, like Thracian, Dacian was a .

About 300 words found only in Romanian or with a cognate in the Albanian language may be inherited from Dacian (for example: barză "", balaur "dragon", mal "shore", brânză "cheese"). Some of these possibly Dacian words are related to pastoral life (for example, brânză "cheese"). Some linguists and historians have asserted that Albanians are Dacians who were not Romanized and migrated southward.Vladimir Georgiev (Gheorghiev), Raporturile dintre limbile dacă, tracă și frigiană, "Studii Clasice" Journal, II, 1960, 39–58

A different view is that these non-Latin words with Albanian are not necessarily Dacian, but rather were brought into the territory that is modern Romania by Romance-speaking shepherds migrating north from Albania, Serbia, and northern Greece who became the Romanian people.

While most of Romanian grammar and morphology are based on Latin, there are some features that are shared only with other languages of the Balkans and not found in other Romance languages. The shared features of Romanian and the other languages of the Balkan language area (Bulgarian, Macedonian, Albanian, Greek, and ) include a suffixed definite article, the syncretism of genitive and dative case and the formation of the future and the alternation of infinitive with subjunctive constructions.

(2019). 9781402044878, Springer.
(2019). 9783110218435, De Gruyter Mouton.
According to a well-established scholarly theory, most Balkanisms could be traced back to the development of the Balkan Romance languages; these features were adopted by other languages due to .
(2019). 9789042013223, Rodopi.


Slavic influence
Slavic influence on Romanian is especially noticeable in its vocabulary, at about 10–15% of modern Romanian words,, published in
(2009). 9783110218442, Walter de Gruyter. .
with further influences in its phonetics, morphology and syntax. The greater part of its Slavic vocabulary comes from Old Church Slavonic, which was the official language of and from the 14th to the 18th century (although not understood by most people), as well as the of the Romanian Orthodox Church.
(2019). 9780198736509, Oxford University Press. .
As a result, much Romanian vocabulary dealing with religion, ritual, and hierarchy is Slavic.
(2009). 9781134261567, Routledge. .
(2014). 9780521872386, Cambridge University Press. .
The number of high-frequency Slavic-derived words is also believed to indicate contact or cohabitation with tribes from around the 6th century, though it is disputed where this took place (see Origin of the Romanians). Words borrowed in this way tend to be more vernacular (compare , "to end", with , "to commit"). The extent of this borrowing is such that some scholars once mistakenly viewed Romanian as a Slavic language.
(2019). 9781317541776, Routledge. .
(2019). 9781861891037, Reaktion Books. .
It has also been argued that Slavic borrowing was a key factor in the development of ( î and â) as a separate .
(2014). 9783110362770, De Gruyter. .


Other influences
Even before the 19th century, Romanian came in contact with several other languages. Some notable examples include:
  • : cartof < Kartoffel "potato", bere < Bier "beer", șurub < Schraube "screw", turn < Turm "tower", ramă < Rahmen "frame", muștiuc < Mundstück "mouth piece", bormașină < Bohrmaschine "drilling machine", cremșnit < Kremschnitte "cream slice", șvaițer < Schweizer "Swiss cheese", șlep < Schleppkahn "barge", șpriț < Spritzer "wine with soda water", abțibild < Abziehbild "decal picture", șnițel < (Wiener) Schnitzel "a battered cutlet", șmecher "time-waster/scammer" < Schmecker "taster (not interested in buying)", șuncă < dialectal Schunke ( Schinken) "ham", punct < Punkt "point", maistru < Meister "master", rundă < Runde "round".
Furthermore, during the Habsburg and, later on, rule of , , and , a large number of words were borrowed from , in particular in fields such as the military, administration, social welfare, economy, etc.Hans Dama, "Lexikale Einflüsse im Rumänischen aus dem österreichischen Deutsch" ("Lexical influences of 'Austrian'-German on the Romanian Language") Subsequently, German terms have been taken out of science and technics, like: șină < Schiene "rail", știft < Stift "peg", liță < Litze "braid", șindrilă < Schindel "shingle", ștanță < Stanze "punch", șaibă < Scheibe "washer", ștangă < Stange "crossbar", țiglă < Ziegel "tile", șmirghel < Schmirgelpapier "emery paper";
  • : folos < ófelos "use", buzunar < buzunára "pocket", proaspăt < prósfatos "fresh", cutie < cution "box", portocale < portokalia "oranges". While Latin borrowed words of Greek origin, Romanian obtained Greek loanwords on its own. Greek entered Romanian through the (colonies) and emporia (trade stations) founded in and around , through the presence of in north of the , through Bulgarian during Bulgarian Empires that converted Romanians to Orthodox Christianity, and after the Greek Civil War, when thousands of Greeks fled Greece.
  • Hungarian: a cheltui < költeni "to spend", a făgădui < fogadni "to promise", a mântui < menteni "to save", oraș < város "city";
  • : papuc < pabuç "slipper", ciorbă < çorba "wholemeal soup, sour soup", bacșiș < bahşiş "tip" (ultimately from Persian );
  • Additionally, the has provided a series of slang words to Romanian such as: mișto "good, beautiful, cool" < mišto, gagică "girlie, girlfriend" < gadji, a hali "to devour" < halo, mandea "yours truly" < mande, a mangli "to pilfer" < manglo.


French, Italian, and English loanwords
Since the 19th century, many literary or learned words were borrowed from the other Romance languages, especially from French and Italian (for example: birou "desk, office", avion "airplane", exploata "exploit"). It was estimated that about 38% of words in Romanian are of French and/or Italian origin (in many cases both languages); and adding this to Romanian's native stock, about 75%–85% of Romanian words can be traced to Latin. The use of these Romanianized French and Italian learned loans has tended to increase at the expense of Slavic loanwords, many of which have become rare or fallen out of use. As second or third languages, French and Italian themselves are better known in Romania than in Romania's neighbors. Along with the switch to the Latin alphabet in Moldova, the re-latinization of the vocabulary has tended to reinforce the Latin character of the language.

In the process of lexical modernization, much of the native Latin stock have acquired doublets from other Romance languages, thus forming a further and more modern and literary lexical layer. Typically, the native word is a noun and the learned loan is an adjective. Some examples of doublets:

'quick’'astute’'agile' (< French, Italian agile)
'water’'aquatic' (< Fr aquatique)
,'tooth’'dentist' (< Fr dentiste, It dentista)
'straight; right’'direct' (< Fr direct)
'cold' (adj.)'cold' (noun)'frigid' (< Fr frigide)
'quick’'quick' (< Fr rapide, It rapido)

In the 20th century, an increasing number of English words have been borrowed (such as: gem < jam; interviu < interview; meci < match; manager < manager; fotbal < football; sandviș < sandwich; bișniță < business; chec < cake; veceu < WC; tramvai < tramway). These words are assigned grammatical gender in Romanian and handled according to Romanian rules; thus "the manager" is managerul. Some borrowings, for example in the computer field, appear to have awkward (perhaps contrived and ludicrous) 'Romanisation,' such as cookie-uri which is the plural of the Internet term cookie.


Lexis
A statistical analysis sorting Romanian words by etymological source carried out by Macrea (1961) based on the DLRM (49,649 words) showed the following makeup:
(2019). 9780199644926, Oxford University Press.

  • 43% recent Romance loans (mainly French: 38.42%, Latin: 2.39%, Italian: 1.72%)
  • 20% inherited Latin
  • 11.5% Slavic (Old Church Slavonic: 7.98%, Bulgarian: 1.78%, Bulgarian-Serbian: 1.51%)
  • 8.31% Unknown/unclear origin
  • 3.62% Turkish
  • 2.40% Modern Greek
  • 2.17% Hungarian
  • 1.77% German (including )
  • 2.24% Onomatopoeic

If the analysis is restricted to a core vocabulary of 2,500 frequent, semantically rich and productive words, then the Latin inheritance comes first, followed by Romance and classical Latin neologisms, whereas the Slavic borrowings come third.

Romanian has a lexical similarity of 77% with Italian, 75% with French, 74% with Sardinian, 73% with , 72% with Portuguese and , 71% with Spanish.


Grammar
Overall, Romanian grammar is more conservative in its preservation of Latin grammatical constructs than other Romance languages. (Scholars disagree on the reasons for this.)

Romanian nouns are characterized by gender (feminine, masculine, and neuter), and by number (singular and plural) and case (/, / and ). The articles, as well as most adjectives and pronouns, agree in gender, number and case with the noun they modify.

Romanian is the only Romance language where definite articles are : that is, attached to the end of the noun (as in Scandinavian, Bulgarian and Albanian), instead of in front (). They were formed, as in other Romance languages, from the Latin demonstrative pronouns.

As in all Romance languages, Romanian verbs are highly inflected for person, number, tense, mood, and voice. The usual word order in sentences is subject–verb–object (SVO). Romanian has four verbal conjugations which further split into ten conjugation patterns. Verbs can be put in five moods that are inflected for the person (, /, , , and ) and four impersonal moods (, , , and ).


Phonology
Romanian has seven : , , , , , and . Additionally, and may appear in some . Arguably, the diphthongs and are also part of the phoneme set. There are twenty-two consonants. The two approximants and can appear before or after any vowel, creating a large number of glide-vowel sequences which are, strictly speaking, not .

In final positions after consonants, a short can be deleted, surfacing only as the palatalization of the preceding consonant (e.g., ). Similarly, a deleted may prompt of a preceding consonant, though this has ceased to carry any morphological meaning.


Phonetic changes
Owing to its isolation from the other Romance languages, the phonetic evolution of Romanian was quite different, but the language does share a few changes with Italian, such as → (Lat. clarus → Rom. chiar, Ital. chiaro, Lat. clamare → Rom. chemare, Ital. chiamare) and → (Lat. * glacia ( glacies) → Rom. gheață, Ital. ghiaccia, ghiaccio, Lat. *un gla (ungula) → Rom. un ghie, Ital. un ghia), although this did not go as far as it did in Italian with other similar clusters (Rom. place, Ital. piace); another similarity with Italian is the change from or to or (Lat. pax, pa cem → Rom. and Ital. pa ce, Lat. dul cem → Rom. dul ce, Ital. dol ce, Lat. circus → Rom. cerc, Ital. circo) and or to or (Lat. gelu → Rom. ger, Ital. gelo, Lat. mar ginem → Rom. and Ital. mar gine, Lat. gemere → Rom. geme ( gemere), Ital. gemere). There are also a few changes shared with Dalmatian, such as (probably phonetically ) → (Lat. co gnatus → Rom. cu mnat, Dalm. co mnut) and → in some situations (Lat. coxa → Rom. coa psă, Dalm. co psa).

Among the notable phonetic changes are:

  • diphthongization of e and o → ea and oa, before ă (or e as well, in the case of o) in the next syllable:
* Lat. c era → Rom. c eară (wax)
* Lat. s ole → Rom. s oare (sun)
  • → in the beginning of the word
* Lat. h erba → Rom. iarbă (grass, herb)
  • velar → labial before alveolar consonants and (e.g. ngumb):
* Lat. o cto → Rom. o pt (eight)
* Lat. li ngua → Rom. li mbă (tongue, language)
* Lat. si gnum → Rom. se mn (sign)
* Lat. co xa → Rom. coa psă (thigh)
  • rhotacism → between vowels
* Lat. cae lum → Rom. ce r (sky)
  • Alveolars palatalized to when before short or long
* Lat. deus → Rom. zeu (god)
* Lat. tenem → Rom. ține (hold)

Romanian has entirely lost Latin ( qu), turning it either into (Lat. quattuor → Rom. patru, "four"; cf. It. quattro) or (Lat. quando → Rom. când, "when"; Lat. quale → Rom. care, "which"). In fact, in modern re-borrowings, it sometimes takes the German-like form /kv/, as in acvatic, "aquatic". Notably, it also failed to develop the palatalised sounds and , which exist at least historically in all other major Romance languages, and even in neighbouring non-Romance languages such as and Hungarian.


Writing system
The first written record about a spoken in the Middle Ages in the Balkans is from 587. A Vlach muleteer accompanying the Byzantine army noticed that the load was falling from one of the animals and shouted to a companion Torna, torna frate (meaning "Return, return brother!"), and, "sculca" (out of bed) . Theophanes Confessor recorded it as part of a 6th-century military expedition by and against the Avars and Slovenes.

"Libri III de moribus et actis primorum Normanniae ducum" by Dudo of Saint-Quentin states that Richard I of Normandy was sent by his father William I Longsword to learn the with because the inhabitants of spoke more Dacian than page 221

The oldest surviving written text in Romanian is a letter from late June 1521,

(2019). 9789522868985, Books on Demand. .
in which Neacșu of Câmpulung wrote to the mayor of Brașov about an imminent attack of the Turks. It was written using the Cyrillic alphabet, like most early Romanian writings. The earliest surviving writing in Latin script was a late 16th-century text which was written with the Hungarian alphabet conventions.

In the 18th century, scholars noted the Latin origin of Romanian and adapted the to the Romanian language, using some orthographic rules from , recognized as Romanian's closest relative. The Cyrillic alphabet remained in (gradually decreasing) use until 1860, when Romanian writing was first officially regulated.

In the , a special version of the Cyrillic alphabet derived from the Russian version was used until 1989, when Romanian language spoken there officially returned to the Romanian Latin alphabet, although in the breakaway territory of Transnistria the Cyrillic alphabet is used to this day.


Romanian alphabet
The Romanian alphabet is as follows:

>
AĂÂBCDEFGHIÎJKLMNOPQRSȘTȚUVWXYZ
aăâbcdefghiîjklmnopqrsștțuvwxyz
Phonemes
,
,
,
,
,
mute
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

K, Q, W and Y, not part of the native alphabet, were officially introduced in the Romanian alphabet in 1982 and are mostly used to write loanwords like kilogram, quasar, watt, and yoga.

The Romanian alphabet is based on the with five additional letters Ă, Â, Î, Ș, Ț. Formerly, there were as many as 12 additional letters, but some of them were abolished in subsequent reforms. Also, until the early 20th century, a short vowel marker was used, which survives only in ă.

Today the Romanian alphabet is largely phonemic. However, the letters â and î both represent the same close central unrounded vowel . Â is used only inside words; î is used at the beginning or the end of non-compound words and in the middle of compound words. Another exception from a completely phonetic writing system is the fact that and their respective are not distinguished in writing. In dictionaries the distinction is marked by separating the entry word into for words containing a hiatus.

Stressed vowels also are not marked in writing, except very rarely in cases where by misplacing the stress a word might change its meaning and if the meaning is not obvious from the context. For example, trei copíi means "three children" while trei cópii means "three copies".


Pronunciation
  • h is not silent like in other Romance languages such as Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Catalan and French, but represents the phoneme , except in the digraphs ch /k/ and gh /g/ (see below)
  • j represents , as in French, Catalan or Portuguese (the sound spelled with s in the English words "vision, pleasure, treasure").
  • There are two letters with a comma below, Ș and Ț, which represent the sounds and . However, the allographs with a cedilla instead of a comma, Ş and Ţ, became widespread when pre- and early Unicode did not include the standard form.
  • A final orthographical i after a consonant often represents the palatalization of the consonant (e.g., lup "wolf" vs. lupi "wolves") – it is not pronounced like Italian lupi (which also means "wolves"), and is an example of the influence on Romanian.
  • ă represents the , .
  • î and â both represent the sound . In rapid speech (for example in the name of the country) the â sound may sound similar to a casual listener to the short sound ă (in fact, Aromanian does merge the two, writing them ã) but careful speakers will distinguish the sound. The nearest equivalent is the vowel in the last syllable of the word roses for some English speakers. It is also roughly equivalent to European Portuguese , the Polish y or the Russian ы.
  • The letter e generally represents the vowel , somewhat like in the English word s et. However, the letter e is pronounced as (j sounds like 'y' in 'you') when it is the first letter of any form of the verb a fi "to be", or of a personal pronoun, for instance este "is" and el "he". Several Romanian dictionaries specify the pronunciation je for word-initial letter e in some personal pronouns: el, ei, etc. and in some forms of the verb a fi ( to be): este, eram, etc. Mioara Avram, Ortografie pentru toți, Editura Litera, Chișinău, 1997, p. 29 This addition of the semivowel does not occur in more recent loans and their derivatives, such as eră "era", electric "electric" etc. Some words (such as iepure "hare", formerly spelled epure) are now written with the initial i to indicate the semivowel.
  • x represents either the phoneme sequence as in expresie = expression, or as in exemplu = example, as in English.
  • As in Italian, the letters c and g represent the affricates and before i and e, and and elsewhere. When and are followed by vowels and (or their corresponding or the final ) the digraphs ch and gh are used instead of c and g, as shown in the table below. Unlike Italian, however, Romanian uses ce- and ge- to write and before a back vowel instead of ci- and gi-.

ce, ci ch in chest, cheekcerc (circle), ceașcă (cup), cercel (earring), cină (dinner), ciocan (hammer)
che, chi k in kettle, kisscheie (key), chelner (waiter), chioșc (kiosk), chitară (guitar), ureche (ear)
ge, gi j in jelly, jigsawger (frost), gimnast (gymnast), gem (jam), girafă (giraffe), geantă (bag)
ghe, ghi g in get, giveghețar (glacier), ghid (guide), ghindă (acorn), ghidon (handle bar), stingher (lonely)


Punctuation and capitalization
Uses of punctuation peculiar to Romanian are:
  • The quotation marks use the Polish format in the format „quote «inside» quote“, that is, „. . .“ for a normal quotation, and double angle symbols for a quotation inside a quotation.
  • Proper quotations which span multiple paragraphs do not start each paragraph with the quotation marks; one single pair of quotation marks is always used, regardless of how many paragraphs are quoted.
  • Dialogues are identified with quotation dashes.
  • The before "and" is considered incorrect ("red, yellow and blue" is the proper format).
  • Punctuation signs which follow a text in parentheses always follow the final bracket.
  • In titles, only the first letter of the first word is capitalized, the rest of the title using sentence capitalization (with all its rules: proper names are capitalized as usual, etc.).
  • Names of months and days are not capitalized ( ianuarie "January", joi "Thursday").
  • Adjectives derived from proper names are not capitalized ( Germania "Germany", but german "German").


Academy spelling recommendations
In 1993, new spelling rules were proposed by the . In 2000, the Moldovan Academy recommended adopting the same spelling rules,The new edition of "Dicționarul ortografic al limbii române (ortoepic, morfologic, cu norme de punctuație)" – introduced by the Academy of Sciences of Moldova and recommended for publishing following a conference on 15 November 2000 – applies the decision of the General Meeting of the from 17 February 1993, regarding the reintroduction to "â" and "sunt" in the orthography of the Romanian language. () and in 2010 the Academy launched a schedule for the transition to the new rules that was intended to be completed by publications in 2011.

On 17 October 2016, Minister of Education Corina Fusu signed Order No. 872, adopting the revised spelling rules as recommended by the Moldovan Academy of Sciences, coming into force on the day of signing (due to be completed within two school years). From this day, the spelling as used by institutions subordinated to the ministry of education is in line with the Romanian Academy's 1993 recommendation. This order, however, has no application to other government institutions and neither has Law 3462 of 1989 (which provided for the means of transliterating of Cyrillic to Latin) been amended to reflect these changes; thus, these institutions, along with most Moldovans, prefer to use the spelling adopted in 1989 (when the language with Latin script became official).


Examples of Romanian Text
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
: (Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Romanian – highlighted words were inherited directly from Latin:

Toate ființele umane se nasc libere și egale în demnitate și în drepturi. Ele sunt înzestrate cu rațiune și conștiință și trebuie se comporte unele față de altele în spiritul fraternității.

Contemporary Romanian – highlighted words are French or Italian :

Toate ființele umane se nasc libere și egale în demnitate și în drepturi. Ele sunt înzestrate cu rațiune și conștiință și trebuie să se comporte unele față de altele în spiritul fraternității.

Romanian, excluding French and Italian loanwords – highlighted words are Slavic loanwords:

Toate ființele omenești se nasc slobode și deopotrivă în destoinicie și în drepturi. Ele sunt înzestrate cu înțelegere și cuget și trebuie să se poarte unele față de altele în duh de frățietate.

Romanian, excluding loanwords and having almost the same meaning:

Toate ființele omenești se nasc nesupuse și asemenea în prețuire și în drepturi. Ele sunt înzestrate cu înțelegere și cuget și se cuvine să se poarte unele față de altele după firea frăției.


See also
  • Proto-Romanian language
  • Albanian-Romanian linguistic relationship
  • Legacy of the Roman Empire
  • Moldovan language
  • BABEL Speech Corpus
  • Moldova–Romania relations


Notes


Bibliography
  • (2019). 9780521800730, Cambridge University Press.
  • Giurescu, Constantin, The Making of the Romanian People and Language, Bucharest, 1972.
  • Kahl, Thede (ed.), Das Rumänische und seine Nachbarn, Berlin, 2009.
  • Paliga, Sorin, The Earliest Slavic Borrowings in Romanian, Romanoslavica vol. XLVI, nr. 4, Editura Universității din București, Bucharest, 2010.
  • (1999). 9783895865992, LINCOM EUROPA.
  • Rosetti, Alexandru, Istoria limbii române, 2 vols., Bucharest, 1965–1969.
  • Uwe, Hinrichs (ed.), Handbuch der Südosteuropa-Linguistik, Wiesbaden, 1999.


External links

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