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   » » Wiki: Refined Grains
Tag Wiki 'Refined Grains'.
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Refined grains have been significantly modified from their natural composition, in contrast to . The modification process generally involves the mechanical removal of and , either through grinding or selective sifting.


Overview
A refined grain is defined as having undergone a process that removes the bran, germ and of the grain and leaves the , or starchy interior.Marcus, Jacqueline B. (2013). "Chapter 4 - Carbohydrate Basics: Sugars, Starches and Fibers in Foods and Health: Healthy Carbohydrate Choices, Roles and Applications in Nutrition, Food Science and the Culinary Arts". In Culinary Nutrition: The Science and Practice of Healthy Cooking. pp. 149-187. Examples of refined grains include , , corn and . "Grains". myplate.gov. Retrieved 16 November 2022. Refined grains are milled which gives a finer texture and improved shelf life. "Whole Grains, Refined Grains, and Dietary Fiber". heart.org. Retrieved 16 November 2022. Because the outer parts of the grain are removed and used for animal feed and non-food use, refined grains have been described as less than whole grains.

After refinement of grains became prevalent in the early 20th-century, nutritional deficiencies (, , and ) became more common in the United States.Sizer, Frances; Whitney, Ellie. (2013). Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies. Cengage Learning. pp. 125-126. Edelstein, Sari. (2019). Food Science: An Ecological Approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 480-482. To correct this, the Congress passed the U.S. Enrichment Act of 1942 which requires that iron, niacin, thiamin and riboflavin have to be added to all refined grain products before they are sold. (folic acid) was added in 1996.

Refining grain includes mixing, bleaching, and brominating; additionally, folate, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron are added back in to nutritionally the product. Enriched grains are refined grains that have been fortified with additional nutrients. Whole grains contain more than refined grains. After processing, fiber is not added back to enriched grains. Enriched grains are nutritionally comparable to whole grains but only in regard to their added nutrients. Whole grains contain higher amounts of minerals including , , , and and vitamins such as Vitamin B6 and . Whole grains also provide which enriched grains lack.

In the case of , the process of (a chemical form of refinement) yields a considerable improvement in the bioavailability of niacin, thereby preventing in diets consisting largely of maize products. Similar to whole grains, refined grains are a good source of starch, including .


Research
The dietary guidance of many countries is to replace refined grains with whole grains. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2020–2025) advises people to limit their intake of refined grains to be no more than half of total daily grain consumption. "Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2020–2025)". dietaryguidelines.gov. Retrieved 16 November 2022.


Cardiovascular disease
The American Medical Association have advised people to consume whole grains instead of refined grains to improve cardiovascular risk factors.

A 2020 review of controlled trials that used the found that although whole grains have been shown to improve low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol there is insufficient evidence to recommend "whole grains as opposed to refined grains for the prevention and treatment of CVD".


Obesity
There is no strong scientific evidence associating refined grains with .


Nutrition
+ Nutritional effects of refining or enriching wheat and rice USDA Standard Reference 17 Food Nutrient Database ! rowspan="2"! colspan="3" ! colspan="3"


See also
  • Ultra-processed food
  • Whole-wheat flour


External links

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