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Nitronium ion

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The nitronium ion, , is a . It is an because its nitrogen atom has +1 charge, similar to ion . It is created by the removal of an electron from the , or the of (with removal of ).

It is stable enough to exist in normal conditions, but it is generally reactive and used extensively as an in the of other substances. The is generated for this purpose by mixing concentrated and concentrated according to the equilibrium:

The nitronium ion is with and , and has the same linear structure and bond angle of 180°. For this reason it has a similar vibrational spectrum to carbon dioxide. Historically, the nitronium ion was detected by Raman spectroscopy, because its symmetric stretch is Raman-active but infrared-inactive. The Raman-active symmetrical stretch was first used to identify the ion in nitrating mixtures.

A few stable nitronium salts with anions of weak can be isolated. These include nitronium perchlorate , nitronium tetrafluoroborate , nitronium hexafluorophosphate , nitronium hexafluoroarsenate , and nitronium hexafluoroantimonate . These are all very compounds.
(1980). 9780521233620, CUP Archive.

The solid form of dinitrogen pentoxide, , actually consists of nitronium and ions, so it is an , nitronium nitrate , not a . However, dinitrogen pentoxide in or state is and does not contain nitronium ions.

Related species
The compounds , , and , , are not nitronium salts but molecular compounds, as shown by their low boiling points (−72 °C and −6 °C respectively) and short nitrogen–halogen bond lengths (N–F 135 pm, N–Cl 184 pm).F. A. Cotton and G.Wilkinson, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 5th edition (1988), Wiley, p.333

Addition of one electron forms the neutral radical, ; in fact, this is fairly stable and known as the compound .

The related negatively charged species is , the ion.

See also

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