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Nitric oxide ( nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula . It is one of the principal oxides of nitrogen. Nitric oxide is a : it has an unpaired electron, which is sometimes denoted by a dot in its (N=O or NO). Nitric oxide is also a diatomic molecule, a class of molecules whose study spawned early modern theories of chemical bonding.

An important intermediate in industrial chemistry, nitric oxide forms in combustion systems and can be generated by lightning in thunderstorms. In mammals, including humans, nitric oxide is a signaling molecule in many physiological and pathological processes. It was proclaimed the "Molecule of the Year" in 1992. The 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded for discovering nitric oxide's role as a cardiovascular signalling molecule.

Nitric oxide should not be confused with (NO2), a brown gas and major , or with (N2O), an anesthetic gas.


Physical properties

Electronic configuration
The ground state electronic configuration of NO is, in united atom notation:

(1\sigma)^2(2\sigma)^2(3\sigma)^2(4\sigma^*)^2(5\sigma)^2(1\pi)^4(2\pi^*)^1

The first two orbitals are actually pure atomic 1 sO and 1 sN from oxygen and nitrogen respectively and therefore are usually not noted in the united atom notation. Orbitals noted with an asterisk are antibonding. The ordering of 5σ and 1π according to their binding energies is subject to discussion. Removal of a 1π electron leads to 6 states whose energies span over a range starting at a lower level than a 5σ electron an extending to a higher level. This is due to the different orbital momentum couplings between a 1π and a 2π electron.

The lone electron in the 2π orbital makes NO a doublet (X ²Π) in its ground state whose degeneracy is split in the fine structure from spin-orbit coupling with a total momentum J= or J=.


Dipole
The dipole of NO has been measured experimentally to 0.15740 D and is oriented from O to N (⁻NO⁺) due to the transfer of negative electronic charge from oxygen to nitrogen.


Reactions

With di- and triatomic molecules
Upon condensing to a liquid, nitric oxide dimerizes to dinitrogen dioxide, but the association is weak and reversible. The N–N distance in crystalline NO is 218 pm, nearly twice the N–O distance.

Since the heat of formation of NO is , NO can be decomposed to the elements. Catalytic converters in cars exploit this reaction:

2 NO → O2 + N2

When exposed to , nitric oxide converts into :

2 NO + O2 → 2 NO2

This reaction is thought to occur via the intermediates ONOO and the red compound ONOONO.

In water, nitric oxide reacts with oxygen to form (HNO2). The reaction is thought to proceed via the following :

4 NO + O2 + 2 H2O → 4 HNO2

Nitric oxide reacts with , , and to form the nitrosyl halides, such as nitrosyl chloride:

2 NO + Cl2 → 2 NOCl

With NO2, also a radical, NO combines to form the intensely blue dinitrogen trioxide:

NO + NO2 ON−NO2


Organic chemistry
The addition of a nitric oxide moiety to another molecule is often referred to as . The Traube reaction is the addition of a two equivalents of nitric oxide onto an , giving a diazeniumdiolate (also called a nitrosohydroxylamine). The product can undergo a subsequent retro-, giving an overall process similar to the haloform reaction. For example, nitric oxide reacts with and an to form a diazeniumdiolate on each , with subsequent loss of as a :

This reaction, which was discovered around 1898, remains of interest in nitric oxide research. Nitric oxide can also react directly with , ultimately forming and by way of an N-methoxydiazeniumdiolate.


Coordination complexes
Nitric oxide reacts with to give complexes called . The most common bonding mode of nitric oxide is the terminal linear type (M−NO). Alternatively, nitric oxide can serve as a one-electron pseudohalide. In such complexes, the M−N−O group is characterized by an angle between 120° and 140°. The NO group can also bridge between metal centers through the nitrogen atom in a variety of geometries.


Production and preparation
In commercial settings, nitric oxide is produced by the of at 750–900 °C (normally at 850 °C) with as in the :

4 NH3 + 5 O2 → 4 NO + 6 H2O

The uncatalyzed reaction of (O2) and (N2), which is effected at high temperature (>2000 °C) by lightning has not been developed into a practical commercial synthesis (see Birkeland–Eyde process):

N2 + O2 → 2 NO


Laboratory methods
In the laboratory, nitric oxide is conveniently generated by reduction of dilute with :
8 HNO3 + 3 Cu → 3 Cu(NO3)2 + 4 H2O + 2 NO

An alternative route involves the reduction of nitrous acid in the form of or potassium nitrite:

2 NaNO2 + 2 NaI + 2 H2SO4 → I2 + 2 Na2SO4 + 2 H2O + 2 NO
2 NaNO2 + 2 FeSO4 + 3 H2SO4 → Fe2(SO4)3 + 2 NaHSO4 + 2 H2O + 2 NO
3 KNO2 + KNO3 + Cr2O3 → 2 K2CrO4 + 4 NO

The iron(II) sulfate route is simple and has been used in undergraduate laboratory experiments. So-called compounds are also used for nitric oxide generation.


Detection and assay
Nitric oxide concentration can be determined using a chemiluminescent reaction involving . A sample containing nitric oxide is mixed with a large quantity of ozone. The nitric oxide reacts with the ozone to produce and , accompanied with emission of (chemiluminescence):
NO + O3NO2 + O2 +
which can be measured with a . The amount of light produced is proportional to the amount of nitric oxide in the sample.

Other methods of testing include (amperometric approach), where ·NO reacts with an electrode to induce a current or voltage change. The detection of NO radicals in biological tissues is particularly difficult due to the short lifetime and concentration of these radicals in tissues. One of the few practical methods is of nitric oxide with iron- complexes and subsequent detection of the mono-nitrosyl-iron complex with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

(2024). 9780121822620

A group of indicators that are also available in form for intracellular measurements exist. The most common compound is 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2).


Environmental effects

Acid rain deposition
Nitric oxide reacts with the () to form nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which then can react with a (HO) to produce (HNO3):
NO + → NO2 + HO
NO2 + HO → HNO3
Nitric acid, along with , contributes to deposition.


Ozone depletion
NO participates in ozone layer depletion. Nitric oxide reacts with stratospheric to form O2 and nitrogen dioxide:
NO + O3NO2 + O2

This reaction is also utilized to measure concentrations of NO in control volumes.


Precursor to NO2
As seen in the acid deposition section, nitric oxide can transform into nitrogen dioxide (this can happen with the hydroperoxy radical, , or diatomic oxygen, O2). Symptoms of short-term nitrogen dioxide exposure include nausea, and headache. Long-term effects could include impaired immune and respiratory function.


Biological functions
NO is a gaseous signaling molecule. It is a key biological messenger, playing a role in a variety of biological processes.Weller, Richard, Could the sun be good for your heart? TedxGlasgow. Filmed March 2012, posted January 2013 It is a bioproduct in almost all types of organisms, including bacteria, plants, fungi, and animal cells.Roszer, T (2012) The Biology of Subcellular Nitric Oxide.

Nitric oxide, an endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), is biosynthesized endogenously from , , and by various nitric oxide synthase (NOS) . Reduction of inorganic nitrate may also make nitric oxide. One of the main enzymatic targets of nitric oxide is guanylyl cyclase.

(2024). 9780199232109, Oxford University Press.
The binding of nitric oxide to the region of the enzyme leads to activation, in the presence of iron. Nitric oxide is highly reactive (having a lifetime of a few seconds), yet diffuses freely across membranes. These attributes make nitric oxide ideal for a transient (between adjacent cells) and (within a single cell) signaling molecule.
(1995). 9780716720096, W.H. Freeman and Company.
Once nitric oxide is converted to nitrates and nitrites by oxygen and water, cell signaling is deactivated.

The (inner lining) of uses nitric oxide to signal the surrounding to relax, resulting in and increasing blood flow. (Viagra) is a drug that uses the nitric oxide pathway. Sildenafil does not produce nitric oxide, but enhances the signals that are downstream of the nitric oxide pathway by protecting cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) from degradation by cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) in the corpus cavernosum, allowing for the signal to be enhanced, and thus . Another endogenous gaseous transmitter, works with NO to induce vasodilation and angiogenesis in a cooperative manner.

Nasal breathing produces nitric oxide within the body, while does not.


Occupational safety and health
In the U.S., the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (permissible exposure limit) for nitric oxide exposure in the workplace as 25 ppm (30 mg/m3) over an 8-hour workday. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 25 ppm (30 mg/m3) over an 8-hour workday. At levels of 100 ppm, nitric oxide is .


Explosion hazard
Liquid nitrogen oxide is very sensitive to detonation even in the absence of fuel, and can be initiated as readily as nitroglycerin. Detonation of the endothermic liquid oxide close to its b.p. (-152°C) generated a 100 kbar pulse and fragmented the test equipment. It is the simplest molecule that is capable of detonation in all three phases. The liquid oxide is sensitive and may explode during distillation, and this has been the cause of industrial accidents.
(2017). 9780081009710, Elsevier Science. .
Gaseous nitric oxide detonates at about 2300 m/s, but as a solid it can reach a detonation velocity of 6100 m/s.

Notes

Further reading


External links

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